Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats

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Abstract
The antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers ethanolic extract was investigated in triton (400 mg/kg b.w.) induced and atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats in comparison of a known antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg body wt.). Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50 mg to 5000 mg/kg body weight) as per OECD guidelines. Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body wt. of the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers exhibited a significant reduction (p<0.01) in serum lipid parameters total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats in comparison with hyperlipidemic control in both models. The drug has the potential to act as antihyperlipidemic drug
RGUHS Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats
Sikarwar Mukesh S* and Patil M.B.
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, K.L.E'S College of Pharmacy, Ankola-581314, Uttar Kannada, Karnataka, India,
Original Research Article
INTRODUCTION
Hyperlipidemia with increased concentration of cholesterol,
triglycerides carrying lipoproteins is considered to be the
cause of arteriosclerosis with its dual squeal of thrombosis and
myocardial infarction. Lipoproteins are divided into six major
classes: chylomicrons, chylomicron remnants, VLDL (very
low density lipoprotein), IDL (intermediate density
lipoprotein), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL (high
density lipoprotein). HDL promotes the removal of
cholesterol from peripheral cells and facilitates its delivery
back to the liver. Therefore increased levels of HDL are
desirable. On the contrary high levels of VLDL and LDL
promote arteriosclerosis. LDL especially in the oxidized form
is taken up by macrophages via scavenger mechanism
therefore anti-atherosclerotic drugs should reduce VLDL and
1
elevate HDL . Epidemiological studies have demonstrated
the strong causal relations in the levels of lipid parameters and
hyperlipidemia. The LDL transfers cholesterol towards extra
hepatic organs as major carrier, and HDL transports
cholesterol from the periphery tissues to the liver for
catabolism. HDL plays a pivotal role in the reverse cholesterol
2
transport (RCT) .
Hyperlipidemia is deeply involved in the etiology of
arteriosclerosis. Moreover, results of various studies have
revealed that hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor of
coronary disease hence much attention is being given to
primary and secondary prevention of hyperlipidemia. As a
result, antihyperlipidemic agents having various
pharmacological actions are being tested clinically. Because
hyperlipidemia in many cases is caused by over-ingestion of
alcohol or foods, attention is also being paid to treatment of
patients with hyperlipidemia using strict dietary management
3
and appropriate exercise . Elevated lipid levels results from
increased absorption through the gut or enhanced
endogenous synthesis therefore two ways are feasible to
reduce hyperlipidemia; to block endogenous synthesis or to
decrease absorption. Both factors can be evaluated in normal
animals without artificial diets.
Hibiscus rosa sinensis is an erect, much-branched, glabrous
shrub, 1 to 4 m high. Leaves are ovate, acuminate, coarsely
toothed, 7 to 12 cm long, alternate, stipulate. Flowers are
pedicillate, actinomorphic, pentamerous and complete;
Corolla consists of 5 petals, red in color, obovate, entire,
rounded tip, imbricate and about 3 inches in diameter.
Inflorescence is solitary, axillary and very large. Outermost
series of bracteoles - 6, lanceolate, green, and 8 mm long or
less. Calyx is green, 2 cm long, lobes ovate. Stamens are
forming a long staminal tube enclosing the entire style of the
pistil and protruding out of the corolla. Ovary 5-celled, styles
4-5
5, fused below .
Some of the chemical constituents isolated from this plant are
cyanidin, quercetin, hentriacontane, calcium oxalate,
thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid. Flavonoids are
6
also present . Its flowers contain apigenidin, citric acid,
cyanidin diglucoside, cyanin, fructose, gentisic acid, glucose,
pelargonidin, quercetin, sucrose and tartaric acid.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis petal infusion is widely used in ayurvedic
medicine in India as a demulcent refrigerant drink in fever
and decoction is given in bronchial catarrh. Previous studies
showed that the plant possesses anti-complementary, anti-
diarrhetic, anti-phologistic activity. It has been reported that
RGUHS Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Received: 31/1/2011 Modified: 15/3/2011, Accepted: 20/3/2011
RJPS, Jul - Sep, 2011/ Vol 1/ Issue 2117
A B S T R A C T
The antihyperlipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers ethanolic extract was investigated in triton (400 mg/kg b.w.) induced and
atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats in comparison of a known antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg body wt.). Dose
selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50 mg to 5000 mg/kg body weight) as per OECD guidelines. Oral
administration of 500 mg/kg body wt. of the ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers exhibited a significant reduction (p<0.01)
in serum lipid parameters total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipopreotein (VLDL) and increase
in high density lipoprotein (HDL) in hyperlipidemic rats in comparison with hyperlipidemic control in both models. The drug has the
potential to act as antihyperlipidemic drug.
KEYWORDS: Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Hyperlipidemia, Triton, Simvastatin
A B S T R A C T
the plant flower possesses anti-spermatogenic and
7
androgenic, anti-tumour and anticonvulsant activities . It
helps in inducing abortion, provide treatment for headache.
Young leaves are sometimes used as a spinach substitute. It
also showed anti implantation, anti-inflammatory, anti-
pyretic, anti-spasmodic, anti-spermatogenic and anti-viral
activities. The decoction of the roots is used for coughs and
colds. The infusion of the petals of the flowers soothes and
protects the alimentary tract, relieves inflammation and
lowers body heat. In fevers, an infusion of the flowers helps to
reduce body temperature. The application of crushed flowers
soothes external wounds and sores. Flowers can also be made
into a kind of pickle or used as a purple dye for coloring foods
such as preserved fruits and cooked vegetables. The leaves
make a gentle laxative and soften inflamed parts. Root is
8
edible but very fibrous. It's also good for hair treatment .
To the best of our knowledge no scientific data regarding the
antihyperlipidemic effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers are
available except in the treatise of Ayurvedic medicine. Thus,
the present study was undertaken to evaluate the
antihyperlipidemic effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers.
Several studies showed that systemic administration of triton
WR1339 (ionic surfactant) in fasted rats causes elevation in
plasma lipid level. Initially, there is a sharp increase in lipid
level reaching a peak two to three times the control value by 24
hours after the administration of triton injection phase I
(synthetic phase),this hyperlipidemia falls within next 24 hr
i.e. 48 hrs after triton administration, phase II (Excretion
phase). This increase in plasma lipid by triton is thought to be
due to increased hepatic synthesis of cholesterol or removal of
very low density protein (VLDL) from the blood due to their
physical alteration by triton. Antihyperlipidemic drugs
interfering with cholesterol synthesis were shown to be active
in phase I while drug interfering with cholesterol excretion
and metabolism were active in phase II. Triton-induced
hyperlipidemia is rather simple and rapid method for
evaluation of test substance and can be considered as the
u s e f u l m e t h o d fo r p r e l i m i n a r y s c r e e n i n g o f
2
antihyperlipidemic drugs .
The search for new drug with the ability to reduce or regulate
serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations has gained
momentum over the years, resulting in a plethora of
publications reporting significant activity of a variety of
natural and synthetic agents. Molecular modification of
naturally occurring compounds has also given rise to potent
agents like pravastatin and simvastatin; the former prepared
by replacement of the methyl group of naturally occurring
lovastatin by a hydroxyl group and the latter a methylated
derivative of compaction. In continuation of our search for
plant derived antihypercholesterolemic and hypolipidemic
agents, we direct our attention to some Indian medicinal
plants of which antihyperlipidemic activity has not been
scientifically validated.
MATERIALS
Plant material
Flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis were collected in and around
local forest area of Ankola in Western Ghats, Karnataka and
authenticated by the Botanist Prof. G. S. Naik, Department of
Botany, G. C. Science and Art College, Ankola. A voucher
herbarium specimen number GCSAC/HRS/01 was also
preserved in the same college. The collected flowers were
dried and powdered to coarse consistency in cutter mill. The
powder was passed through 40 # mesh particle size and stored
in an airtight container at room temperature.
Atherogenic diet and chemicals
Experimental diet consists of well pulverized mixture of
Cholesterol (2%), Cholic acid (1%), peanut oil (10%), sucrose
(40%) and normal laboratory diet (47%).
A suspension of Triton –WR 1339 (S D Fine chemicals) in
0.15 M NaCl was used for inducing hyperlipidemia in
experimental rats. Simvastatin (Dr. Reddy's Laboratories,
Hyderabad), Diagnostic kits for estimation of were purchased
from Merck Diagnostics India Ltd. Anesthetic Ether (Ozone
International, Mumbai), Distilled Water and All other
chemicals were of Analytical grade.
Animals
Adult Albino rats of wistar strain (150-200 g) of either sex were
procured and housed in the animal house of K L E S College
of Pharmacy, Ankola with 12 h light and 12 h dark cycles.
Standard pellets obtained from Goldmohar rat feed, Mumbai
India, were used as a basal diet during the experimental
period. The control and experimental animals were provided
food and drinking water ad libitum. Ethical clearance was
granted by institutional ethical committee in resolution no.
1/18/2007 held on 23rd November 2007 at J N Medical
college, Belgaum (Ethical committee IAEC reg. no.:
627/02/a/CPCSEA). All the animal experiments were
conducted according to the ethical norms approved by
CPCSEA, Ministry of social justice and empowerment,
Government of India.
METHODS
Extraction of plant material
Powdered crude drug (2.5 kg of the fresh air-dried) of Hibiscus
rosa sinensis flowers were extracted with 95% ethanol by
adopting simple maceration procedure at room temperature
RJPS, Jul - Sep, 2011/ Vol 1/ Issue 2118
Sikarwar Mukesh S et al./ Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats
for seven days in conical flask with occasional shaking and
stirring. The extract was filtered and concentrated to dryness
at room temperature to avoid the decomposition of the
9
natural metabolites . Extract was preserved in a refrigerator
till further use. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was
carried out by different methods of phytochemical
10
analysis .A known volume of extract was suspended in
distilled water and was orally administered to the animals by
gastric intubation using a force feeding needle during the
experimental period.
Preparation of dose for dried extract and standard
drugs
Ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg b.w) of the selected plant were
formulated as suspension in distilled water using Tween-80 as
suspending agent. The strength of the suspension was
according to the dose administered and was expressed as
11
weight of dried extract .
Simvastatin 10 mg/kg was used as the reference standard
drug for evaluating the antihyperlipidemic activity which was
made into suspension in distilled water using Tween-80 as a
suspending agent.
Acute oral toxicity studies
The acute oral toxicity studies of extract were carried out as
per the OECD guidelines from CPCSEA. Administration of
the stepwise doses of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
from 50 mg/kg b.w. up to the dose 5000 mg/kg b.w. caused no
considerable signs of toxicity in the tested animals. One tenth
of upper limit dose were selected as the levels for examination
12
of antihyperlipidemic activity .
Diet-induced hyperlipidemic model:
The animals were selected, weighed then marked for
individual identification. Rats were made hyperlipidemic by
the oral administration of atherogenic diet for 20 days. The
rats were then given plant extract suspended in 0.2% tween 80
at the dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. once daily in the morning
through gastric intubation for 14 consecutive days. During
these days, all the groups also received atherogenic diet in the
same dose as given earlier. The control animals received the
hyperlipidemic diet and the vehicle. At the end of treatment
period, the animals were used for various biochemical
13
parameters .
Triton-induced hyperlipidemic model
Animals kept for fasting for 24 h, were injected a saline
solution of Triton at the dose of 400 mg/kg b.w. intra-
peritoneally. The plant extract, at the dose of 500 mg/kg b.w.,
were administered orally through gastric intubation. The first
RJPS, Jul - Sep, 2011/ Vol 1/ Issue 2
dose being given immediately after triton injection and second
dose 20 h later. After 4 h of second dose the animals were used
13
for various biochemical parameters .
Experimental design
Animals were divided into four different groups with six
animals in each group. Group I served as normal control,
Group II was positive control which was given standard
antihyperlipidemic drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day p.o.).
Group III was hyperlipidemic control and this group did not
receive any treatment except standard pellet diet. Group IV
received ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers (500
mg/kg/day, p.o.). Treatment periods for all these groups were
14 days in atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemia and 48
hours in case of triton-induced hyperlipidemia.
Collection of blood
Blood was collected by retro-orbital sinus puncture, under
mild ether anesthesia. The collected samples were centrifuged
at 4000 rpm for 10 minutes.
Biochemical and HPTLC analysis
The serum was assayed for total cholesterol, triglycerides,
phospholipids and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) using
standard protocol method. By using Friedwald formula the
concentration of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low
density lipoprotein (LDL) in serum were calculated.
An HPTLC chromatogram of active extract was also done by
using CAMAG TLC SCANNER IV, densitometric
evaluation system with CAT software instrument was used for
scanning of thin layer chromatogram objects in reflectance or
transmission mode by absorbance or by fluorescence at 254 or
366 nm respectively.
Statistical Analysis
The results of the study were expressed as mean± S.E.M.
Data was analyzed by using one way analysis of variance test
(ANOVA) followed by Dunnett's t-test for multiple
comparisons. Values with (P<0.05) were considered
14
significant .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers various extract were
studied on serum lipids and lipoproteins level of triton (400
mg/kg b.w.) induced hyperlipidemic rats and results are
expressed as change in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels.
As expected, administration of triton WR1339 led to
elevation of serum lipid and lipoprotein levels, which were
maintained over a period of study in hyperlipidemic control
group and these rats, were given treatment with ethanolic
119
Sikarwar Mukesh S et al./ Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats
RJPS, Jul - Sep, 2011/ Vol 1/ Issue 2
Hyperlipidemic control. Decrease in the triglyceride level may
be due to the increase in activity of the endothelium bound
lipoprotein lipase which hydrolyses the triglyceride into fatty
acid or due to inhibition of lipolysis so that fatty acids do not
get converted to triglyceride.
There was significant increase in the HDL as compared to
control. This effect may be due to the increased activity of
lecithin: cholesterol acetyl transferase which incorporates free
cholesterol, free LDL into HDL and transferred back to
VLDL and intermediate density lipoprotein.
CONCLUSION
In the present study, ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
flower extract showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity.
The anti-hyperlipidemic activity was evaluated by using
atherogenic diet induced and triton induced hyperlipidemia
model. It was found that ethanolic extract significantly
reduced serum elevated lipid level as compared to
hyperlipidemic control group and proved to be an anti-
extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers. The results were
comparable with reference standard simvastatin. There was a
significant elevation in serum lipids and lipoproteins in triton-
induced hyperlipidemic control (p<0.01) rats when compared
with normal control.
In triton-induced hyperlipidemic model, Hibiscus rosa sinensis
flowers Ethanolic extract showed significant serum lipid
lowering effects in hyperlipidemic rats which brought down
total cholesterol level, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL,
VLDL and elevated HDL level in comparison of similar
th
parameters of hyperlipidemic control at 48 hr of study after
the treatment (Table 1-2).
In diet-induced hyperlipidemic model, results showed serum
lipid lowering potential of ethanolic extract of selected plant
for study. In figure, tested drug results are presented for 14
days study. These results are comparable to standard drug
simvastatin. Ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
demonstrated significant serum lipid lowering effects (P<0.01)
after giving two doses of 500 mg/ kg.b.w. for 14 days
treatment. It reduced total cholesterol 73±2.608, triglycerides
69.66±1.542, phospholipids 78±3.173, LDL 49±2.683,
VLDL 25.5±1.335 and increased level of HDL 28.16±2.167
in comparison of diet induced hyperlipidemic control total
cholesterol 101.16±2.613, triglycerides 86±2.280,
phospholipids 107.62.642, LDL 81±2.556, VLDL
th
35±1.141 and HDL 21.08±1.172 at 14 day which was closer
to the standard drug total cholesterol 68±2.864, triglycerides
65.33±1.801, phospholipids 75±1.528, LDL 43.83±2.182,
VLDL 24±1.461 and increased level of HDL 28±1.571
antihyperlipidemic results. Standard antihyperlipidemic
agent Simvastatin 10 mg/kg body weight also able to reduce
the elevated serum lipid level towards the normal (Fig. 1).
HPTLC profile of ethanolic extract also reveals the presence
of polyphenolic compound which may be involved in its
antihyperlipidemic activity (Fig. 2) .
There is a close relationship between atherosclerosis and an
increase or decrease of serum lipids, in particular very low-
density lipoprotein and LDL may be risk factors and HDL
may be a protective factor. There was marked increase in the
level of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids,
LDL, VLDL and decrease in the level of good cholesterol
carrier HDL in the animals treated with triton and
atherogenic diet. Elevated level of blood cholesterol especially
LDL was the major risk factor for the coronary heart disease
and HDL as cardio protective protein. The data presented in
this report show that repeated administration of Hibiscus rosa
sinensis flowers ethanolic extract (500 mg/kg b.w.) for 14 days
induced a significant reduction of serum cholesterol,
triglycerides, phospholipids, VLDL and LDL as compared to
Fig. 1: Effect of Hibiscus rosa sciensis ethanolic extract on
serum lipids parameters in Diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats
Fig. 2: HPTLC Chromatogram of Hibiscus rosa sinensis
ethanolic extract at 254 nm
120
Sikarwar Mukesh S et al./ Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats
a
Gro Treatment Values are expressed as mg/dl, Mean±SEM
up Cholesterol Triglycerides Phospholipids
6 hr 24 hr 48 hr 6 hr 24 hr 48 hr 6 hr 24 hr 48 hr
I Normal control 60.83±1.327 68.17 ±1.701 64.66±1.54 2 65.33±2.140 67.16±2.023 64.83±1.701 75.5±3.304 78.33±0.918 74±1.366
(vehicle only)
II Hyperlipidemic 106.5±4.089 260.33±5.925 178.5±3.649 101 ±3.000 208.66±5.469 107.83±3.208 106.5±2.3 20 185.83±2. 600 100.83±2. 482
control
III Simvastatin 83.67±1.838 ** 176.17±7.56 9** 73.83±2.82 2** 81.5±1.746 ** 172.5±3.631** 79.66±3.981** 91.66±1.7 26** 139.66±1. 333** 80.33±1.4 06**
10mg/kg
IV Ethanolic extract 87.33±3.333 ** 186.16±3.20 8** 81±1.932** 85.16±1.956** 175±3.088 83.33±2.186 ** 92.33±1.9 26* 135.83±3. 816** 86±2.769* *
500mg (EEHRS)
Table 1: Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis ethanolic extract on serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids level in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats
a * **
mg/kg/day for 48 hrs. Values are means±SEM; N=6. Values are statistically significantat P<0.05 and more significant at P<0.01.
**
ns= not significant, P<0.01vs Hyperlipidemic control.(ANOVA)
a
Gro Treatment Values are expressed as mg/dl, Mean±SEM
up LDL VLDL HDL
6 hr 24 hr 48 hr 6 hr 24 hr 48 hr 6 hr 24 hr 48 hr
I Normal control 55.5±1.232 57.33 ±0.55 60.16±1.701 21.5±0.428 18.5±0.562 15.16±0.7 49 38.83±1.833 39.66±1.476 44.5±1.945
(vehicle only)
II Hyperlipidemic 105.66±2.319 194.66±3.116 97.66±2.974 29.16±1.138 34.83±2.056 32.83±2.136 18.66±1.687 16.33±2.246 20.33±1.520
control
III Simvastatin 64.83±2.272 140.66±3.313 66±2.113** 24.33±1.054 27.83±1.49 19±0.730** 31.66±3.509** 25±2.033** 42±2.805**
10mg/kg
IV Ethanolic extract 77±2.266* * 152.16±2.072 72.16±2.16 7** 24.33±2.578 27±0.856* 21.33±1.6 26** 26.66±1.585 24.16±1.641** 37±2.366**
500mg (EEHRS)
Table 2: Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis ethanolic extract on LDL, VLDL and HDL level in triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats
a * **
mg/kg/day for 48 hrs. Values are means±SEM; N=6. Values are statistically significantat P<0.05 and more significant at P<0.01.
**
ns= not significant, P<0.01vs Hyperlipidemic control.(ANOVA)
121
Sikarwar Mukesh S et al./ Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats
8. Khemani, L.D. Sachdewa, A., Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn.
ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in
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10. Khandewal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy. 14 ed. Pune (India): Nirali
prakashan; 2005. p.146-57.
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4.
,
hyperlipidemic agent in above mentioned hyperlipidemic
models. In comparison to standard drug simvastatin effect of
ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract was less
but comparable notably. Present studies reveal that ethanolic
extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers can be used as effective
antihyperlipidemic agent and can be exploited as
antihyperlipidemic therapeutic agent or adjuvant in existing
therapy for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Further
experiments are required to prove the mechanism and
advantage of this drug over other drugs.
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Address for Correspondence
Sikarwar Mukesh. S, Ph.D. , K L E University, K.L.E.S College of Pharmacy,
Ankola, Karnataka, India
E-mail: mukeshsikarwar@gmail.com
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Sikarwar Mukesh S et al./ Antihyperlipidemic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Flowers in Hyperlipidemic Rats
    • "rosa-sinensis) belongs to the family Malvaceae. Traditionally the flowers can be used as anti asthmatic agents [2] [3] . Many chemical constituents such as cyanidin, quercetin, hentriacontane, calcium oxalate, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acids have been isolated from this plant. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To access the in vitro antibacterial activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (H. rosa- sinensis) flower extract against human pathogens. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by using disc and agar diffusion methods. The protein was run through poly acrylmide gel electrophoresis to view their protein profile. The results showed that the cold extraction illustrates a maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtillis (B. subtillis), Escherichia coli (E. coli) viz., (17.00 ± 2.91), (14.50 ± 1.71) mm, followed by hot extraction against, E. coli, Salmonella sp. as (11.66 ± 3.14), (10.60 ± 3.09) mm. In methanol extraction showed a highest zone of inhibition recorded against B. subtillis, E. coli as (18.86 ± 0.18), (18.00 ± 1.63) mm pursued by ethanol extraction showed utmost zone of inhibition recorded against Salmonella sp. at (20.40 ± 1.54) mm. The crude protein from flower showed a maximum inhibitory zone observed against Salmonella sp., E. coli viz., (16.55 ± 1.16), (14.30 ± 2.86) mm. The flower material can be taken as an alternative source of antibacterial agent against the human pathogens. The extracts of the H. rosa-sinensis are proved to have potential antibacterial activity, further studies are highly need for the drug development.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., distributed throughout tropics and subtropics, is useful for various purposes like ornamental, religious and therapeutic. Flowers are believed to possess haematinic and hair growth enhancing properties. At times a single plant may exhibit flowers of two different colours, may be a result of chimiral hybridization. It has dazzling cultivar of forms and colours, however the red coloured flowers are said to be best for medicinal use. The plant is reported to possess antioxidant activity. An attempt has been made to study the comparative antioxidant activity, using HPLC-DPPH method, and total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents of four cultivars i.e. plants with red, pink, white and yellow coloured flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.Methods: The methanolic extract of the defatted samples was used for the study. The Total Phenolic content was determined by spectrophotometric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent whereas the total flavonoid content was estimated by colorimetric method using aluminium chloride. DPPH free radicals scavenging activity was assessed by HPLC-DPPH method. Results: All the cultivars showed presence of considerable amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and significant antioxidant activity. A noteworthy variation in phytochemical concentration was observed. The red cultivar revealed highest antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid content. Conclusion: The result of present study indicated the potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers as a natural antioxidant. The data revealed significant variations in phytochemical content among its different cultivars and these variations contribute to their studied bioactivity, i.e. in vitro antioxidant activity.
    Article · Oct 2012
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The present study was undertaken to study and compare the adaptogenic and immunomodulatory activity of H. rosa sinensis Linn by Forced Swim Test in rats. Methods: Separate groups of rats were administered either one dose level of Ethyl Acetate Extract (EAE) of H. rosa sinensis petals (100 mg/kg) or two dose levels of Standardized Extract of H. rosa sinensis in terms of Cyanidin chloride (SEC4 and SEC8) i.e. 4mg/kg and 8mg/kg respectively. Results: The treatment with EAE and SEC significantly increased mean swim time (MST) and restored back to near normal the levels of enzymes like Alanine aminotranferase (ALT) and other indicators of physical stress like Cholesterol and Triglycerides. Only SEC8 treated group showed significant restoration in the levels of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) whereas both SEC4 and SEC8 groups showed significant restoration of Glucose levels as compared to toxicant group. Conclusion: Thus it can be proved that these extracts can increase tolerance to stress and in turn have an immune potentiating action in such situations of severe physical stress.
    Article · Jan 2013
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