Seasonal trends of PM10, PM5.0, PM2.5 & PM1.0 in indoor and outdoor environments of residential homes located in North-Central India

Building and Environment, Elsevier, Impact Factor : 2.699 01/2012; 47:223e231.


This study presents data on the size characterization concentration of PM10, PM5.0, PM2.5 and PM1.0. These
particulate concentrations were monitored from October-07 to March-09 indoors and outdoors of five
roadside and five urban homes using Grimm aerosol spectrometer in Agra, India. Annual average
concentrations of coarse particles (PM10) indoor and outdoor were 247 mgm�3 and 255 mgm�3 at roadside
houses and 181 mgm�3 and 195 mgm�3 at urban houses. PM5.0 concentrations at roadside houses were
211 mgm�3 and 230 mgm�3 and at urban houses were 145 mgm�3 and 159 mgm�3. For fine particles (PM2.5)
the annual mean concentrations were 161 mgm�3 and 160 mgm�3 at roadside houses and 109 mgm�3 and
123 mgm�3 at urban houses. PM1.0 concentrations at roadside houses were 111 mgm�3 and 112 mgm�3
while at urban houses they were 99 mgm�3 and 104 mgm�3.Monthly and seasonal variations of coarse and
fine particulate matter have been studied at both the monitoring sites. Significant seasonal variations of
particulate pollutants were obtained using the daily average particulate concentrations along with the inter
particulate ratios. Particulate indoor/outdoor ratios and concentrations were also linked with meteorological
conditions and indoor activities using occupant’s diary entries. The concentration of all sizes of
particulate matter was found to be highest in winter season due to increase human activities and more
space heating in indoors and due to low windspeed and high humidity in outdoors in comparison with
other seasons. There was a strong correlation between indoor and outdoor particulate at both the sites.
Health problems in occupants of the houses with higher concentrations of the fine particulate matter were
more prominent. Household activities like cooking on stoves, indoor smoking and outdoor vehicular traffic,
and garbage burning were found to be the major sources of particulate emissions indoor as well as

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    ABSTRACT: Diurnal samples of PM(1) (submicrometer particles, having aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm) were collected at an urban background site in Zabrze (from 01.08. to 31.12.2009) and a rural background site in Racibórz (from 01.08. to 31.12.2010). The samples were analyzed for carbon (organic and elemental), water soluble ions (Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3) (-), SO(4) (2-)) and concentrations of 21 elements by using, respectively, a Sunset Laboratory carbon analyzer, a Herisau Metrohm AG ion chromatograph, a PANalitycal Epsilon 5 spectrometer. To perform the monthly mass closure calculations for PM(1), the chemical components were categorized into organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), crustal matter (CM), marine components (MC), other elements (OE) and unidentified matter (UM). The mass contributions of secondary (SOM) and primary (POM) organic matter to PM(1) were also estimated. In average, 50 % of PM(1) in Zabrze and 40 % in Racibórz were secondary aerosol coming from the transformations of its gaseous precursors. High concentrations and mass contributions of EC and OM to PM, and probable PM acidic nature in Zabrze, indicate particularly high hazard from the ambient submicrometer particles to the inhabitants of southern Poland.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology