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Young coconut water for home rehydration in children with mild gastroenteritis

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Abstract

Coconut water was evaluated as a home glucose electrolyte solution for well-nourished children with mild diarrhoea. We describe the chemical composition of coconut water by type and age of coconut (Cocos nucifera). Our results suggest that young coconut water can be used, together with early refeeding, as a home glucose electrolyte oral rehydration solution in the early stages of mild diarrhoeal disease, despite not having a balanced electrolyte composition. However, it should not be used in patients with severe cholera, or in patients who are dehydrated and/or in whom renal function is impaired.
... As the coconut matures, the water is replaced by coconut meat [1]. Coconut water is rich in carbohydrates, low fats and minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in their chloride, sulfate, and phosphate salts; which makes coconut water as an excellent refreshing drink [2][3]. ...
... The water of the green coconut consists of a mixture of many organic compounds as well as the inorganic cations and anions [2][3]. The chloride, sulfate, and phosphate are the main inorganic anions found in the coconut water [16]. ...
... Coconut water is enriched in minerals such as potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium etc. in the form of their sulfate, phosphate and chloride salts. The taste of the coconut water is largely governed by the concentration of these minerals and their co-ions [2][3]. Therefore, the proposed procedure was applied for quantitative determination of chloride in the coconut water. ...
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Objective: A selective mercurimetric titration procedure is proposed for the assay of chloride concentration in the water of green coconut using mercury(II) nitrate [(Hg(NO3)2] reagent and iron(III) nitrate [Fe(NO3)3] with synthetically prepared mercury(II) thiocyanate [Hg(SCN)2] indicator system.Methods: An indicator solution was prepared by titrating Hg(NO3)2 against potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) till a red color end point using Fe(NO3)3. Then a known amount of Hg(NO3)2 was added to indicator solution and titrated against the water of green coconut till the original red color reappeared.Results: The concentration of chloride present in the volume of coconut water utilized in between these two end points was found to be reacting in the 2:1 stoichiometric ratio with the Hg(NO3)2 taken in the second step of the titration. The statistical treatment of the experimental data obtained by using standard solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) indicates that the procedure is precise and accurate. The phosphate, sulfate, organic compounds and inorganic minerals present in the coconut water did not interfere with the measurement of chloride by this procedure. Both the cationic mineral value (was also determined by complexometric titration) and chloride concentration in the coconut water were found to be decreased with the development of the coconuts.Conclusion: The proposed procedure of determination of chloride concentration in the water of green coconut is simple, reliable and inexpensive. This procedure is excellent for determination of chloride in the acidic solution without precise adjustment of the pH for detection of the end point. Owing to the homogenous reaction condition no titration errors those are commonly encountered by co-precipitation in the argentometric assay of chloride.
... Tender coconut water (TCW) is the nutrient rich liquid endosperm of young (6-8 months) coconuts (Cocos nucifera L) that contains bioactive compounds including vitamins, minerals, sugars, amino acids, peptides, proteins, plant metabolites, and phytohormones (Supplementary Table 1) and is commonly consumed in tropical countries (Adams & Bratt, 1992;DebMandal & Mandal, 2011;Yong, Ge, Ng, & Tan, 2009). Its composition makes it a useful rehydrating fluid and it has been used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, fever and body aches (Adams & Bratt, 1992;DebMandal & Mandal, 2011;Yong, Ge, Ng, & Tan, 2009). ...
... Tender coconut water (TCW) is the nutrient rich liquid endosperm of young (6-8 months) coconuts (Cocos nucifera L) that contains bioactive compounds including vitamins, minerals, sugars, amino acids, peptides, proteins, plant metabolites, and phytohormones (Supplementary Table 1) and is commonly consumed in tropical countries (Adams & Bratt, 1992;DebMandal & Mandal, 2011;Yong, Ge, Ng, & Tan, 2009). Its composition makes it a useful rehydrating fluid and it has been used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, fever and body aches (Adams & Bratt, 1992;DebMandal & Mandal, 2011;Yong, Ge, Ng, & Tan, 2009). TCW has anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, antibacterial, wound healing and anti-cancer activities (Bhagya, Prema, & Rajamohan, 2012;Loki & Rajamohan, 2003;Prabhu et al., 2014;Preetha, Devi, & Rajamohan, 2015;Rao & Najam, 2016). ...
Article
Tender coconut water (TCW) is a natural plant product rich in phytochemicals and protects against toxic liver injury. However, the mechanism by which TCW inhibits inflammation and tissue damage is unknown. We examined the effect of TCW on primary rat hepatocyte viability, cytokine-induced gene expression and proinflammatory signaling in an in vitro model of sepsis. We observed that TCW improved hepatocyte viability and protected hepatocytes against cytokine-mediated cell death. TCW suppressed IL-1β-mediated increases in Nos2, Tnf, and Il6 mRNA and increased heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) protein. TCW inhibited iNOS expression through activation of AKT and JNK pathways since inhibition of PI3K and JNK signaling reduced TCW’s effect on iNOS protein expression and activity. These results demonstrate that TCW reduces proinflammatory gene expression and hepatocyte injury produced by elevated inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide production.
... Apart from electrolytes, many important nutrients are present in coconut water, such as antioxidants, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, growth factors as well as other nutrients (Adams et al., 1992). Clinically, it has been proven that coconut water even has various medical benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antipyretic, antihypertensive, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycemic, renal regenerative actions, and aidin wound healing (Shubhashree et al., 2014). ...
... The high concentration of Na and K made it a good electrolyte and can be used in protection against dehydration and maintenance of osmotic pressure in the body. The use of coconut water in dehydration as a sport drink and in the treatment of a number of diseases such as congestive cardiac diseases, diabetes and infectious diseases has been reported (Bruce, 2005;Adam and Bratt, 1992). Na also plays a role in the normal irritability of muscles and cell permeability (Grim et al., 1987) while K is a major cation of intracellular fluid involved in protein synthesis, calcium on the other hand is an indispensable component of the bone and teeth. ...
Article
The phytochemicals and anti-microbial activity of coconut water on Candida albicans and Lactobacillus acidophilus and also its mineral composition were investigated for its medicinal potential. The study revealed the presence of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg and Mn. The concentration of the elements in ppm were as follows Pb (0.058), Cu (0.012), Zn (0.202), Cd (0.028), Fe (0.109), Ca (0.368), Na (1.300), K (1.740), Mg (0.947), Mn (0.229). Saponins, alkaloids, steroids, cardiac glycosides and carbohydrates were the phytochemicals detected. The coconut water was tested against Candida albicans and Lactobacillus acidophilus using Agar well diffusion method. Inhibitory zone diameter ranges from 13-25 mm. The results showed a concentration-dependent antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. Inhibitory activity exhibited by coconut water against these micro-organisms is an indication of the presence of bioactive compounds which can be identified, isolated and incorporated into modern oral care systems for controlling dental caries. Keywords: Coconut water, phytochemicals, Candida albican, Lactobacillus acidophilus
... Apart from electrolytes, many important nutrients are present in coconut water, such as antioxidants, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, growth factors as well as other nutrients (Adams et al., 1992). Clinically, it has been proven that coconut water even has various medical benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antipyretic, antihypertensive, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycemic, renal regenerative actions, and aidin wound healing (Shubhashree et al., 2014). ...
... Apart from electrolytes, many important nutrients are present in coconut water, such as antioxidants, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, minerals, growth factors as well as other nutrients (Adams et al., 1992). Clinically, it has been proven that coconut water even has various medical benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antipyretic, antihypertensive, diuretic, hepatoprotective, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycemic, renal regenerative actions, and aidin wound healing (Shubhashree et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the potential application of Cocus nucifera (Coconut) in bioremediation to sustainably improve soil health. Environmental pollution over the years has adversely affected agricultural soils leading to low yield and food insecurity. Conventional and physical methods have proven expensive and ineffective. The potential use of coconut in remediation of waste water pollution and agricultural soils have been discussed in this chapter as well as strategies to achieve optimum bioremediation. The environmental impact of cultivating coconut has shown potential in different parts such as leaves, stems, fibers and shell or the whole plant in bioremediation. The strategy of incorporating coconut cultivation, as a means of alleviation of soil pollutions, and improving productivity should provide a new avenue to the agricultural practices.
... The authors concluded that coconut oil is potentially effective for treating obesity as it encourages a loss of excess weight around the abdomen and an improvement in glycemic parameters without any undesirable alterations in the lipid pro le (Oliveira-de-Lira et al., 2018). Adams and Bratt (1992) demonstrated that young coconut water can be used for preventing dehydration in well-nourished children with mild acute diarrhea who showed no clinical or laboratory signs of dehydration, when used in combination with age-appropriate foods. The trial was undertaken with 40 children, aged 6 weeks to 3 years, in Trinidad in 1991. ...
Chapter
Common names in Jamaica: Coconut , dreadnut
... Increasing scientific evidence supports its role in medicinal and health fields (Johnkennedy et al. 2014;Satheesh and Prasad 2013;Prades et al. 2012;Alleyne et al. 2005). Coconut water, in its natural form is a refreshing and nutritious beverage and is a part of daily intake of people at large (Alfred 2013;Vigliar et al. 2006;Adams and Bratt 1992). The water has multiple beneficial effects on human health (Prado et al. 2015;DeFarias et al. 2014;Mitchell 2011;Yong et al. 2009;Janick and Paul 2008;Sandhya and Rajamohan 2008;Vigliar et al. 2006). ...
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In the current era, plants are frequently tested for its antidepressant potential. Therefore young coconut water, a commonly used plant based beverage, was selected to explore its antidepressant potential. Rodents were selected for this study and forced swim test was conducted to explore antidepressant activity. Analysis of brain biogenic amines using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and potentiation of noradrenaline toxicity model were also incorporated in this study to demonstrate probable antidepressant mechanism of action. Coconut water was administered orally at the dose of 4 ml/100 g. Young coconut water showed highly significant increase in struggling time (p < 0.001) in forced swim test. This suggests antidepressant effect of young coconut water. In noradrenaline toxicity model, it was observed that young coconut water is not a good adrenergic component as its lethality percentage in this test was observed 0 % unlike imipramine which showed lethality of 100 %. High performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection of rodent’s brain revealed decline in 5-hydroxytryptamine, noradrenaline and dopamine, with concomitant decline in metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio. Findings from the exploration of monoamines suggest antidepressant effect of young coconut water via homeostasis of monoamines synthesis.
Chapter
Coconut is a traditional resource with many uses. It is experiencing a revival in interest due to the health benefits from numerous consumable products that can be derived from it. Processing of the fruit provides coconut milk, which is a basic ingredient for many traditional diets worldwide. Coconut milk is also a nutritious lactose-free substitute for cow milk. Further processing of the milk produces coconut flour and virgin coconut oil (VCO). Coconut flour is a gluten-free cooking and baking ingredient, while VCO is a nutritional and energy-rich supplement with medicinal properties. The fruit also yields coconut water, which provides a nutritious and refreshing drink with therapeutic applications. The coconut water can also be converted into nata de coco and coconut vinegar through fermentation. Nata de coco is not only a popular dessert but has also been developed for various biomaterial applications. Furthermore, coconut elite varieties, such as Makapuno and Aromatics, have been gaining popularity. Makapuno nuts are filled with galactomannan that has also been developed as a natural biocompatible material. Recently, coconut sugar extracted from the inflorescence sap has been gaining popularity due to its high nutritional value and low Glycemic Index. Biotechnology can be used to further enhance the utilization of each of these valuable products as food, nutraceutical, and novel materials. The coconut is truly a bountiful resource with numerous existing and potential applications.
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