Attitudes Towards Mental Patients
A study of attitudes towards mental patients was made using a questionnaire developed by Lehtinen and Väisänen. Five hundred and fourteen persons from different parts of Finland filled in the questionnaire. The attitudes were generally positive, although, as in other studies, the attitudes of those older and less educated were more negative compared with the other groups. This result was interpreted as a generational effect, which will vanish as the educational level of the population increases. The questionnaire also included questions about the attitudes and behaviour of 'other people'. The attitudes of 'other people' were thought to be very negative compared with one's own attitudes.
Available from: Adrian Furnham
- "Mots-clés: théories profanes; psychothérapie; exposition graduelle; troubles anxieux; affect Introduction There is a growing body of research into lay theories of mental disorders, their causes and consequences (Angermeyer & Matschinger, 1996; Angermeyer, Matschinger, & Holzinger, 1998; Dammann, 1997; Furnham, 1988; Furnham, Wardley, & Lillie, 1992; Furnham, Pereira, & Rawles, 2001; Ojanen, 1992; Oyefeso, 1994; Pistrang & Barker, 1992; Shapiro, 1995). This study is concerned with lay people's beliefs (as potential clients) about the efficacy and psychological pain/discomfort resulting from using a variety of psychotherapy interventions in the treatment of four relatively common anxiety disorders. "
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This paper concerned the perceived suffering/side effects caused by various well-known treatments for personal problems. It looked at whether people understood whether potentially painful treatments that confront negative aversive affect were effective or not.
In total, 106 participants completed a long questionnaire assessing the 'psychological pain' ratings of 30 psychotherapy treatments, varying in fear exposure, for four relatively common anxiety disorders: social phobia, agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder.
Factor analytic results revealed four clear factors underlying lay efficacy beliefs of psychotherapy interventions, varying in fear exposure: talking therapies, fear confrontation, fear avoidance, and alternative therapies. Talking therapies were rated the most effective across all disorders, but also the most painful. Fear avoidance therapies were rated the least effective and, along with alternative medicine, the least painful. Treatments involving fear exposure were rated the most painful. Regression analysis revealed talking therapies to be rated more efficacious by younger subjects than older subjects.
Most people seem able to differentiate between the efficacies of interventions for different anxiety disorders and hold consensually held optimistic conceptions about the usefulness of psychotherapy treatments and counseling that involve fear exposure, despite knowledge of the psychophysical side effects that these therapies often entail. They favored talking cures over others, but that may have been due to misleading items in the questionnaire.
Available from: John Read
- "Neither Hill & Bale (1981) nor the current study found gender differences in causal beliefs. While a US study found a significant correlation between age and positive attitudes (Wilmouth et al., 1987), the reverse has been found in Finland (Ojanen, 1992) and Hong Kong (Chou & Mak, 1998). In both the previous New Zealand study (Read & Law, 1999) and the current study those aged 25 or over were less prejudiced than the younger participants. "
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ABSTRACT: Negative attitudes toward mental illness among medical professionals can influence the quality of medical care they provide. The authors examined the impact of causal explanations and diagnostic labeling on medical students' views of schizophrenia.
Medical students in their fifth and sixth years at the Second University of Naples (Italy) who attended lectures from April through June 2010 completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their beliefs about the mental disorder described (but not named) in a case vignette depicting a person who meets the International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for schizophrenia.
Of the 232 students invited, 194 (84%) completed the questionnaire. Students most frequently cited heredity as the cause (81%), followed by stress (69%), psychological traumas (45%), and misuse of street drugs (44%). Most students (82%) labeled the case "schizophrenia"; a minority (24%) believed that persons with the case vignette disorder could be well again. Both labeling the case as "schizophrenia" and naming heredity as the cause were independently associated with pessimism about the possibility of recovery and with the perception that "others" keep their distance from persons with this diagnosis. Heredity was more frequently cited by respondents who labeled the case schizophrenia and was significantly associated with students' perception that people with this diagnosis are unpredictable.
These findings confirm that, in a sample of medical students, biogenetic causal explanations and diagnostic labeling have negative effects on beliefs about schizophrenia. They highlight the need to educate medical students about recovery from and stigma related to schizophrenia.
Available from: myweb.polyu.edu.hk
- "Pushing force from community care to family care Facing societal and cultural constraints, there is a strong pushing force from community members to shift the care responsibilities to the families of mental-health consumers. The rejecting community Stigmatization has long been a problem in the treatment and rehabilitation of mental patients (Goffman, 1963; Ojanen, 1992; Repper and Brooker, 1996). In Hong Kong, a severe psychiatric violent incident happened in 1982, which stirred up the hidden fear of residents of mental-health consumers (Mak et al., 1996; Yip, 2003).This fear provoked a large-scale antipsychiatric halfway house movement in Hong Kong for more than a Yip: A suggested push model 809 Constraints in societal and cultural context: Congested population, family orientation, and scarcity of resources in health and mental-health services Strong PCF 2 Notes: 1 Strong PIF: Strong pushing force from institutional care to family care. 2 Strong PCF: Strong pushing force from community care to family care. "
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ABSTRACT: This article suggests a push model for analyzing dilemmas between institutional care, community care and family care of mental-health consumers. In the USA community care is overloaded by inappropriate de-institutionalization. In Hong Kong, family caregivers are severely burdened by poor community care and highly institutionalized services.
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