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Spiritual well-being: a predictor of hardiness in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

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Abstract

This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and hardiness in a group of 100 subjects who either tested positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+) or who had diagnoses of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related complex (ARC) or AIDS. Each subject completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Personal Views Survey (to measure hardiness), and a Demographic Data Survey. Analysis of data included Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients and multiple regression techniques. The results demonstrated that there was a significant relationship between spiritual well-being and hardiness (multiple R = .4165; P less than .001) as well as between the existential component of spiritual well-being and hardiness (multiple R = .5047; P less than .001). The conclusions of the study are that in this sample those individuals who were spiritually well and who were able to find meaning and purpose in their lives were also hardier. This finding has significance for the care that is provided to persons who are HIV+ or who have diagnoses of ARC or AIDS.

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... Reed y Peri están de acuerdo en que existe una conexión entre una espiritualidad fuerte y una mejoría en la salud mental, con la habilidad para afrontar el estrés de una enfermedad y el duelo (5,6). Carson y Green encontraron que la espiritualidad estaba positivamente unida con la fortaleza en víctimas de VIH (7). ...
... Este autor considera la habilidad para encontrar un significado existencial y espiritual a la vida a pesar de los factores importantes que desencadenan el estrés, como un indicador de la habilidad para permanecer mental y físicamente sano a pesar de las situaciones de conflicto. Carson y Green estudiaron esta relación en individuos con VIH y SIDA, y encontraron también una relación importante (7). Si esta relación entre la espiritualidad y una reacción positiva a los factores desencadenantes del estrés fuera encontrada entre la gente de edad avanzada, entonces estimular el bienestar espiritual sería un medio viable para hacer de la fortaleza la habilidad que conserve la salud a pesar de la presencia de factores desencadenantes del estrés. ...
... Carson y Green estudiaron la relación entre la espiritualidad y la fortaleza en un grupo de 100 personas VIH positivas o que tenían diagnóstico de sida (7). Se les aplicó la escala del bienestar espiritual (47) y la encuesta de los puntos de vista personales, desarrollada por Kobasa y colaboradores en el Instituto de Fortaleza (48). ...
Article
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Este estudio investigó la relación entre niveles de bienestar espiritual y fortaleza relacionada con la salud en una población mexicana de adultos mayores de 65 años. El proyecto se basó en el Modelo de Adaptación de Roy, el Modelo de Pollock (fortaleza relacionada con la salud) y el de Reed (bienestar espiritual). El diseño fue descriptivo correlacional, la muestra fue probabilística y se hizo al azar. La muestra (n=160) tuvo un nivel de significancia de 0,05 para una diferencia media de 1,6, un efecto de tamaño y potencia de 80. Los instrumentos fueron la Escala de Fortaleza Relacionada con la Salud, y la de Bienestar Espiritual, y presentaron un Alfa de 0,801 y 0,973 respectivamente. Se utilizó la Regresi ón Lineal Múltiple para investigar el efecto de las variables demográficas sobre el bienestar espiritual. La edad media de los sujetos fue de 73,9 (DE=4,3), el 62,5% fueron mujeres. El coeficiente de correlación entre el bienestar espiritual y la fortaleza relacionada con la salud fue significativo, los niveles más altos de bienestar espiritual tienen niveles igualmente elevados de fortaleza relacionada con la salud. El sexo, la edad, la educación y el estado civil mostraron una relación positiva con los niveles de bienestar espiritual
... There is additional evidence emerging that describes the effect of spirituality on psychological well-being and physical health (Carson & Green, 1992;Carson, Soeken, Shanty, & Terry, 1990;Kaczorowski, 1989;Mickley & Soeken, 1993;Reed, 1986Reed, , 1987. These studies reported that individuals who participated in spiritual activities were able to cope more effectively with their illnesses. ...
... These findings support other studies that have documented a positive relationship between spirituality and psychological well-being and health (Boyle et al., 1997;Carson & Green, 1992;Kaczorowski, 1989;Mickley & Soeken, 1993;Sowell et al., 1997). Existential well-being, which assesses life satisfaction and purpose, and HIV symptoms were significant predictors of psychological well-being. ...
... Regardless of how discrimination occurs, nurses must be ready to assist individuals with maintaining their participation in those activities that bring meaning, purpose, and hope to their lives. In spite of all the many different situations individuals with HIV/AIDS face, spirituality remains an important component to their survival (Carson & Green, 1992;Folkman et al., 1994;Richards & Folkman, 1997;Sowell et al., 1997). These authors further underscored the positive impact that spirituality has on individuals coping with HIV/AIDS and the necessity for nurses to continue exploring this important resource that assists in promoting psychological well-being. ...
Article
The purpose of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to explore the contribution of spiritual well-being and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) symptoms to psychological well-being measured by depression, hope, and state-trait anxiety in a sample of 117 African-American men and women with a mean age of 38 years living with HIV disease. Of the respondents, 26% had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 74% were HIV seropositive. Each participant completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Sign and Symptom Checklist for Persons With HIV Disease, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Nowotny Hope Scale, State-Trait Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The findings suggest that existential well-being, a spiritual indicator of meaning and purpose, more than religious well-being, was significantly related to the participants' psychological well-being. In addition, HIV symptoms were found to be significant predictors of psychological well-being. These findings support the need for nurses to continue exploring ways to integrate and support spirituality within the domains of clinical practice.
... Various studies have been reported relationship between personality, stressor and immunity (Cohen & Herbert, 1996;Keller, Schleifer, Bartlett, Shifleft & Rameshwar, 2000;Kiekolt-Glaser et al., 2000;Luks, 2000;Pennebaker, 1995;Solomon, 2001), link between mind and immune system (Hanson, 1992), the personality construct has been reported to be important factor contributed in resistance towards effect of stress (Maddy, 1991). Carson and green (1992) reported that individuals who were spiritually well and were able to find meaning and purpose in lives were also hardier. (Bem, 1972;Tuttel & Tuttel, 2004;Wolffe, 2000). ...
... ion models.Pangilly and Dowd (2000) examined the moderating role of social support, hardiness on the link between depression and stress. 105 undergraduate students mean age group 20 and 21 years were considered. Hierarchical regression model reveals that low hardiness and less social support were significantly associated with depression and stress.Carson and Green (1992) attempted to investigate whether the spiritual well-being predicts hardiness in a 100 sample of PLWHA. The result of multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a significant relationship between spiritual well-being and hardiness, existing component, of spiritual wellbeing emerged as strong predictors of hardiness. Concluded that wh ...
Book
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Outline This book explores the relationship among social support, hardiness, self perception and immune response in HIV positive participants. Further check the direct effect between social support and immune response, hardiness and immune response, self perception and immune response, and gender and immune response of the participants. In addition, also look at moderating effect of hardiness, self perception, and gender and social support on immune response. A sample consisting of 200 (100 men & 100 women) HIV diagnosed participants, mean age 33.35 year, enrolled in ART centers at Bilaspur, Raipur and Durg districts of Chhattisgarh state were selected on the basis of purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria for the participants in sample were literate (those who could read and write), PLWHA on ART were included. PLWHA suffering from other infections and having CD4 count below 100 and above 1000 cell/ mm3 were excluded. Correlational design was employed; in the research Social support was measured by ‘Social Support Scale’ (Pandey & Shrivastava, 2014; 2016), Hardiness was measured by ‘Psychological Hardiness Scale’ (Singh, 2008), and Self perception measured by ‘Scale Measuring Self Perception’ (Agarwal, 1991) was used. CD4 count was assessed on the basis of records at ART centers. Consent of the participants was obtained before administering the scales used in the research. Prior permission from Chhattisgarh State Aids Control Society (CGSACS) and Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) for human research, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, has been obtained to conduct the research. The data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The main results of the study are self perception, hardiness, and social support significantly positive correlation between immune response of the participants individually. Moreover, self perception dimensions i.e. self acceptance and self regard; hardiness component i.e. commitment and control, and social support dimension i.e. emotional support and informational support was also found significant positive correlation with immune response. Furthermore moderating effect of hardiness, self perception and gender, and social support was found insignificant correlation with immune response (CD4 count) of the participants. It is concluded that composite scores of self perception, social support, and hardiness has been found to have positive association with CD4+ count in HIV positive participants. It means that for better immune function the HIV positives should have positive sense of acceptance and regard of themselves, their social activity, relationship with family and colleagues need to be improved. It also suggests that the positive people should be encouraged to increase hardiness attribute in their personality, especially commitment and control.
... A growing number of researchers recognize the importance of including spirituality in health research; however, few studies have explored spirituality and meaning in life among AA women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southeastern United States. Studies have identified the importance and/or benefits of spirituality and meaning or purpose in life in PLWHA (Bosworth, 2006;Carson & Green, 1992;Coward, 1995;Dalmida, 2006;Dalmida, Holstad, DiIorio, & Laderman, 2009;Dalmida, Holstad, DiIorio, & Laderman, 2010;Dunbar, Mueller, Medina, & Wolf, 1998;Fryback & Reinert, 1999;Guillory, Sowell, Moneyham, & Seales, 1997;Hall, 1998;Litwinczuk & Groh, 2007;Lorenz et al., 2005;O'Connell & Skevington, 2005;Polzer Casarez & Miles, 2008;Ridge, Williams, Anderson, & Elford, 2008;Scarinci, Griffin, Grogoriu, & Fitzpatrick, 2009;Somlai, Heckman, Hackl, Morgan, & Welsh, 1998;Tarakeshwar, Khan & Sikkema, 2006;Tuck & Thinganjana, 2007). Only a portion of these studies was conducted among women living with HIV/AIDS to explore the meaning or role of spirituality in their lives (Coward, 1995;Dalmida, 2006;Dalmida et al. 2009;Dalmida et al., 2010;Dunbar et al., 1998;Guillory et al., 1997;Polzer Casarez & Miles, 2008;Scarinci et al., 2009;Somlai et al., 1998), and only one was with AA HIV-positive women (Polzer Casarez & Miles, 2008). ...
... Several qualitative studies have focused on the examination of different aspects of spirituality among PLWHA. One study, based on the work of Viktor Frankl (Carson & Green, 1992) among 100 persons with HIV, found that people with higher spiritual well-being (SWB) and who found meaning and purpose in their lives were also psychologically hardier. Among persons with 740 Western Journal of Nursing Research 34 (6) advanced HIV disease, Hall (1998) found that for most participants, organized religion acted as a barrier to attaining spirituality until their anger was ameliorated. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS.
... Various studies have been reported relationship between personality, stressor and immunity (Cohen & Herbert, 1996;Keller, Schleifer, Bartlett, Shifleft & Rameshwar, 2000;Kiekolt-Glaser et al., 2000;Luks, 2000;Pennebaker, 1995;Solomon, 2001), link between mind and immune system (Hanson, 1992), the personality construct has been reported to be important factor contributed in resistance towards effect of stress (Maddy, 1991). Carson and green (1992) reported that individuals who were spiritually well and were able to find meaning and purpose in lives were also hardier. ...
... ssion models.Pangilly & Dowd (2000) examined the moderating role of social support, hardiness on the link between depression and stress. 105 undergraduate students mean age group 20 and 21 years were considered. Hierarchical regression model reveals that low hardiness and less social support were significantly associated with depression and stress.Carson & Green (1992) attempted to investigate whether the spiritual wellbeing predicts hardiness in a 100 sample of PLWHA. The result of multiple regression analysis demonstrated that a significant relationship between spiritual wellbeing and hardiness, existing component, of spiritual well-being emerged as strong predictors of hardiness. Concluded that who ...
Thesis
This study examines the relationship among social support, personality traits and immune response in HIV positive participants. Further examine the direct effect between social support and immune response, hardiness and immune response, self perception and immune response, and gender and immune response of the participants. In addition this study, also examines moderating effect of hardiness, self perception, and gender and social support on immune response. A sample consisting of 200 (100 men & 100 women) HIV diagnosed participants, mean age 33.35 year, enrolled in ART centers at Bilaspur, Raipur and Durg districts of Chhattisgarh state were selected on the basis of purposive sampling technique. The inclusion criteria for the participants in sample were literate (those who could read and write), PLWHA on ART were included. PLWHA suffering from other infections and having CD4 count below 100 and above 1000 cell/ mm3 were excluded. Correlational design was employed; in the research Social support was measured by ‘Social Support Scale’ (Pandey & Shrivastava, 2014), Hardiness was measured by ‘Psychological Hardiness Scale’ (Singh, 2008), and Self perception was measured by ‘Scale Measuring Self Perception’ (Agarwal, 1991) was used. CD4 count was assessed on the basis of records at ART centers. Consent of the participants was obtained before administering the scales used in the research. Prior permission from Chhattisgarh State Aids Control Society (CGSACS) and Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC) for human research, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, has been obtained by the researcher to conduct the research. The data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The main results of the study are self perception, hardiness, and social support significantly positive correlation between immune response of the participants individually. Moreover, self perception dimensions i.e. self acceptance and self regard; hardiness component i.e. commitment and control, and social support dimension i.e. emotional support and informational support was also found significant positive correlation with immune response. Furthermore moderating effect of hardiness, self perception and gender, and social support was found insignificant correlation with immune response (CD4 count) of the participants. It is concluded that composite scores of self perception, social support, and hardiness has been found to have positive association with CD4+ count in HIV positive participants. It means that for better immune function the HIV positives should have positive sense of acceptance and regard of themselves, their social activity, relationship with family and colleagues need to be improved. It also suggest that the positive people should be encouraged to increase hardiness attribute in their personality, especially commitment and control. Keywords: social support, hardiness, self perception, Psychoneuroimmunology, gender, HIV/AIDS.
... Although research on the relationships between general health and measures of spirituality and religiousness has often yielded mixed results, people with physical and life-threatening disabilities often find spirituality and religiousness to be valuable in coping with their conditions (Idler & Kasl, 1997; Kilpatrick & McCullough, 1999; Tix & Frazier, 1998). Spiritual and religious coping has been linked to higher levels of well-being in those with spinal cord injury (Decker & Schulz, 1985), less psychosocial distress after recovery from cardiac surgery (Ai, Dunkle, Peterson, & Bolling, 1997 ), greater overall mental health and positive wellbeing in individuals diagnosed with various forms of cancer (Ell, Mantell, Hamovitch, & Nishimoto, 1989), higher quality of life in women with breast and gynecological cancers (Colton, Levine, Fitzpatrick, Dodd, & Targ, 1999; Gioiella, Berkman, & Robinson, 1998), fewer depressive symptoms among medically hospitalized elderly patients (Koenig et al., 1992), and hardiness in individuals diagnosed with AIDS (Carson & Green, 1992). Religious beliefs and modes of coping, however, are not necessarily blueprints to successful adaptation to chronic illnesses and disabilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To examine the role of spiritual well-being as a mediator and moderator between perceived uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation to multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants and Design: Fifty individuals (40 women, 10 men) diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. Main Outcome Measures: Self-report measures on illness uncertainty, spiritual (religious and existential) well-being, and psychosocial adjustment to illness were analyzed by a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Results: Both uncertainty and spiritual well-being independently predicted psychosocial adjustment to MS after the influence of demographic and disability-related variables were considered. Spiritual well-being demon-strated a mediator effect but, mostly, failed to show a moderator effect. Conclusion: Spiritual well-being exerts an appreciable influence on adaptation to MS and also acts to mitigate the impact of uncertainty on adaptation. Rehabilitation psychologists may wish to consider its beneficial role as part of their clinical work. Multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common disabling diseases of young adults, is an inflammatory demyelinating disor-der of the central nervous system with an estimated prevalence of about 250,000 –350,000 individuals in the United States (Devins & Shnek, 2000; Kalb, 1996; Schapiro, 1998). First symptoms usually appear at the young adult age, but the disease may also become evident later in life. The course of MS is highly variable and makes studies of etiology and possible mechanisms of treatment chal-lenging. Because of MS's highly variable clinical course, individ-ual outcomes cannot be reliably predicted. For many individuals, MS starts with a relapsing–remitting pattern with episodic exac-erbations of neurological dysfunction, which remit completely or partially. Over the years, for most individuals, the disease develops into the secondary progressive form with accumulated disability (Lublin & Reingold, 1996).
... A d d i t i o n a l l y, a growing body of re s e a rch links spiritual health to other dimensions of well-being. Res e a rchers have found positive relationships between spiritual health and the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of the elderly (Reed, 1991b), of people in chro n i c pain (Culver & Kell, 1992), and of those with life-thre a tening illnesses (Carson & Green, 1992;Fehring, Miller, & S h a w, 1997;Highfield, 1992;Kaczorowski, 1989;Reed, 1986). Others have documented that the seriously ill (Belcher et al., 1989;Derrickson, 1996;Reed, 1986; Wa r n e r Robbins & Christiana, 1989) and elders with dec reasing functional status (McGill & Paul, 1993) tend to sharpen their focus on spiritual issues as a re s o u rce. ...
Article
PURPOSE. To identify the formal and experiential spiritual care preparation of oncology and hospice nurses. METHODS. Descriptive and content analyses were used to examine Spiritual Care Perspectives Scale (SCPS) data from Oncology Nursing Society clinician members (n = 181) and Hospice Nursing Association members (n = 645). FINDINGS: More hospice than oncology nurses received spiritual care education and perceived their education as adequate. Patient encounters enhanced nurse spirituality and were positively related to caregiving. CONCLUSIONS/IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE. While findings raise many questions for educators and researchers about both current and future spiritual education and caregiving, the influence of patients on these nurses also brings to light the significant rewards that come from working with the seriously ill. (C) 2000 The Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association
... Subscale scores are derived for religious well-being and existential well-being. The scale has been found to be psychometrically sound with persons with HIV infection (Carson & Green, 1992;Carson, Soeken, & Belcher, 1991;Tuck, McCain, & Elswick, 2001). The SWBS mean (standard deviation) was 88.94 (21.34) for this sample. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research in psychoneuroimmunology suggests that immunosuppression associated with perceived stress may contribute to disease progression in persons with HIV infection. While stress management interventions may enhance immune function, few alternative approaches have yet been tested. This random-ized clinical trial was conducted to test effects of three 10-week stress management approaches— cognitive– behavioral relaxation training (RLXN), focused tai chi training (TCHI), and spiritual growth groups (SPRT)—in comparison to a wait-listed control group (CTRL) among 252 individuals with HIV infection. Using repeated measures mixed modeling, the authors found that in comparison to the CTRL group, (a) both the RLXN and TCHI groups used less emotion-focused coping, and (b) all treatment groups had augmented lymphocyte proliferative function. Despite modest effects of the interventions on psychosocial functioning, robust findings of improved immune function have important clinical implications , particularly for persons with immune-mediated illnesses.
... Five items were reverse coded and all 10 item scores were then summed to create a total existential well-being score, ranging from 10 to 60, with higher scores indicating greater existential wellbeing. This scale has been used with persons living with HIV as a predictor of hardiness (Carson & Green, 1992), as well as has been shown to be positively associated with quality of life and negatively associated with psychological distress among HIV-positive individuals (Tuck, McCain, & Elswick, 2001). ...
Article
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The religious and spiritual experiences of HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are severely understudied, especially among those over 50. However, literature supports that religious/spiritual experiences are related to both physical and mental health among older adults. In this exploratory analysis we assessed the relations that exist among a sample of HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM over 50 in regard to sociodemographic factors and two established measures of religiosity/spirituality. Differences emerged in relation to both race/ethnicity and age for the Ironson-Woods Spirituality/Religiousness (SR) Index, while, for the Existential Well-being subscale, differences emerged in relation to race/ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status.
... Por ejemplo, en casos de violencia doméstica contra la mujer Jaramillo, Ospina, Cabarcas y Humphreys (2005) encontraron una correlación positiva entre la espiritualidad y la resiliencia, así como de la espiritualidad y el distrés; es decir, la espiritualidad llevó a mujeres maltratadas a afrontar y salir de su situación vulnerable. Por su parte, hubo correlación positiva entre espiritualidad y fortaleza en pacientes que deben vivir bajo condiciones de salud estresantes, por ejemplo, personas que vivían con VIH/sida (Carson y Green 1992). ...
... Spirituality further acts as a cognitive resource by helping people cope with illness and distress (Larson and Larson, 2003). Previous work suggests that spirituality can be a means to reducing negative psychological outcomes of diseases like HIV (Carson and Green, 1992), cancer (Ell et al., 1989), and spinal cord Decker and Schulz, 1985). Our work extends this literature to HCV and suggests that spirituality can buffer people from the negative effects of internalized stigma on self-esteem. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to examine the impact of workplace bullying on self-esteem, including the mediating effect of internalized stigma and the moderating effect of spirituality, among hepatitis C virus patients. Data were collected from 228 employed hepatitis C virus patients who had been admitted to Gastroenterology and Hepatology wards in Pakistani hospitals. We found support for the hypothesis that workplace bullying is associated with low self-esteem via internalized stigma. In addition, spirituality moderated the association such that participants with greater spirituality were buffered from the impact of stigma on self-esteem. © The Author(s) 2015.
... Luthans 等(2004)基于积极心理学(positive psychology)和积极组织行为学(positive organizational behavior)视域下提出积极心理资本(Positive Psychological Capital, PPC)的概念(简称心理资 本),定义为"个体在成长和发展过程中表现出来的一种积极心理状态"Subjective Well-being, 简称 SWB)是指个体根据自定的标准对其生活质量进行整体性评 价,具有主观性、稳定性和整体性三个特点(Diener, 1984)。主观幸福感是一个广泛的、多层面的领域。 Bradburn(1969)研究主观幸福感维度时,提出了积极情感(Positive Affect, PA)与消极情感(Negative Affect, NA)两个维度,认为这两个维度是相互独立的,要提高主观幸福感的水平,就需要增加积极情感或减少 消极情感;Andrews 和 Withey (1976)又提出了主观幸福感的第三个维度:生活满意度(life satisfaction), 是个体依据自定的标准对生活的各个方面进行评估的结果,自此主观幸福感的定义确立,即主观幸福感 包括认知和情感成分,其中认知成分包括生活满意度,情感成分包含积极情感和消极情感(Andrews et al., 1976)。Lucas,Diener 和 Suh (1996)采用多质多法(MTMM)探究主观幸福感三个维度之间的独立性,研究 结果发现,生活满意度、积极情感和消极情感之间时相互独立的,积极情感的得分并不必然预测消极情 感的得分。因此,Pavot 和 Diener (1993)建议, 对主观幸福感的测量应该从两个成分分别进行测量。 1.3. 积极心理资本与主观幸福感的关系 国外已有研究发现,积极心理资本对主观幸福感具有很好的预测作用(Avey, Luthans, Smith, & Palmer, 2010; Avey et al., 2011; Avey, Wernsing, & Mhatre, 2011; Culbertson, Fullagar, & Mills, 2010; Li, Ma, Guo, Xu, Yu, & Zhou, 2014),积极心理资本水平越高,主观幸福感水平越高。且关于积极心理资本所包含 的四种积极心理状态与主观幸福感的研究也发现:自我效能与主观幸福感之间存在正相关(Caprara & Steca, 2005; Lent et al., 2005);乐观与主观幸福感之间存在正相关(Bowman, Ferguson, & Luine, 2002;Zhu, 2003);希望与主观幸福感之间存在正相关(Davidson, Wingate, Rasmussen, & Slish, 2009;Bailey, & Snyder, 2007);坚韧性与职业幸福感之间存在正相关(Carson & Green, 1992),自我效能、希望、乐观和坚韧性水 平越高,主观幸福感的水平也就越高。 国内关于积极心理资本与主观幸福感的关系也越来越多的受到研究者的关注,在中国知网资源总库 搜索主观幸福感与心理资本, 结果显示从 1990 年至 2000 年没有关于积极心理资本与主观幸福感的研究, 在 2001 年至 2010 年,共有 1823 篇相关文献,而在 2011 年至 2016 年,共有 6863 Diagram of the study selection process ...
Article
本研究拟运用元分析技术整合国内已有的关于积极心理资本与主观幸福感关系的研究,定量探讨积极心理资本与主观幸福感的关系,以及可能影响积极心理资本与主观幸福感关系的调节变量。通过文献检索和筛查,共纳入33篇研究,样本量为16,101人。研究结果表明:1) 积极心理资本与主观幸福感总分之间存在显著的正相关;2) 积极心理资本不同结构与生活满意度和积极情感之间存在显著的正相关关系,与消极情感之间存在显著的负相关关系;3) 地域分类影响积极心理资本与主观幸福感的关系。最后,对研究结果进行讨论和展望未来关于积极心理资本的研究方向。 A meta-analysis was performed to explore the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and positive psychological capital, as well as potential moderating effects of research characteristics on these associations. In sum, 33 samples (N = 16,101) fulfilled selection criteria for analysis. We found the following results: 1) Positive psychological capital had positive correlation with subjective well-being, although considerable heterogeneity was observed for effect sizes. 2) Positive psychological capital also had correlations with the different subjective well-being constructs. In details, positive psychological capital had positive correlations with life satisfaction and positive affect and had negative correlations with negative affect. 3) The relations between positive psychological capital and subjective well-being were moderated by regional classification. Finally, the results and direction of further research were discussed.
... One factor to be considered in hardiness was spiritual well-being. Carson and Green (1992) reported that there was a significant relationship between spiritual well-being and hardiness. People in Saudi Arabia have strong relationships to their religion which could be explained for the high levels of hardiness in our study during the COVID-19 pandemic. ...
Article
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The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak around the world has caused public health concerns and changes in peoples’ behaviors and psychological distress. The pandemic impacts on human behavior, emotions, and cognition, leading to diverse reactions in relation to awareness of the disease. However, there is little understanding around the psychological impacts of the pandemic and strategies to overcome this impact. This study aimed to examine individuals’ reactions toward the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to their psychological hardiness, their degree of awareness toward the pandemic, and precautionary measures taken. Individuals living in Saudi Arabia were invited to complete an online questionnaire which included demographic items, psychological responses to the pandemic, awareness of COVID-19, and measures of psychological hardiness. A total of 1272 individuals were recruited into the study, with the majority being female (85%). Results indicated that the average psychological responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in the study sample were 75.85%. This indicates that the sample generally has a high level of positive psychological responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. The awareness of COVID-19 among Saudi was 91.50%. This indicates a high level of awareness among the study sample.
... According to Maugans, spirituality is "a belief system which focuses on intangible elements that transmit vitality and events that give meaning to life [11]. Furthermore, Carson and Green support that the process of spiritual growth is the same regardless of whether someone believes or not [12]. ...
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Aim: the present study aims to evaluate spiritual wellbeing in end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis and its relation to sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods: A convenience sample of 183 individuals undergoing hemodialysis was recruited. Measurements were conducted with the following instruments: (a) a sheet containing demographic data and clinical information such as duration of dialysis e.t.c (b) Facit Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (Facit-Sp12). Statistical analysis was contacted with SPSS v.22. Descriptive statistics were initially generated for sample characteristics. Parametric and no-parametric statistics were used for searching the relations between the variables. P values <0.05 were defined as reflecting the acceptable level of statistical significance. Results: From the total of the 183 participants of the study the 69.9% were male and 30.1% female. The age range was from 26 to 88 years old, with mean 61.39 ± 14.11. The subscale "peace" is associated to gender (t = 2.150, p = 0.033), educational level (F = 2.698, p = 0.047) and duration of dialysis (F = 2.969, p = 0.033) and religious beliefs (t = -2.059, p = 0.041). The subscale "faith" is associated to gender (t = -3.428, p = 0.001), age (p = 0.006), number of children (F = 4.347, p = 0.014). Moreover, the subscale "meaning" is associated to age (p = 0.001). Finally its worth to be mentioned that comorbidity is associated to subscales "meaning" (t = -2.071, p = 0.040), "peace" (t = -2.377, p = 0.018) and the overall spiritual wellbeing (t = -1.988, p = 0.048). Conclusions: Social, demographic factors as well as clinical variables such duration of dialysis and comorbidities are affecting spiritual wellbeing in end stage renal disease.
... Sedighehi, Bita & Mahdi (2017) found that hope levels were higher in patients with higher commitment levels than the sub-dimensions of spiritual well-being and psychological hardiness. In a study conducted by Carson and Green (1992) on 100 participants with (HIV+) virus, there was a significant relationship between existential well-being and psychological hardiness, which is the sub-dimension of spiritual well-being; people who can find meaning and purpose in their lives and who have high spiritual well-being are more hardy. Marsh, et al. (1999) found that spiritual well-being has a direct mediator effect on psychological hardiness and burnout. ...
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The purpose of the research is to reveal the role of spiritual well-being in relationship between psychological hardiness and mindfulness in university students. The sample of the research consisted of a total of 561 university students with convenience sampling strategy who were between 17-49 years of age and were studying in Konya 2017 and 2018. The research is done in accord with relational scanning which is a subgenre of general survey model. In this research structural equation modeling analysis has been applied to test the relationships among psychological hardiness, mindfulness and spiritual well-being variables of university students. Structural equation modeling analysis has been carried out using AMOS 19 software. In the study, 'Demographic Information Form', 'The Psychological Hardiness Scale', 'Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire' and 'Spiritual Well-Being Scale' were used. According to the findings obtained from the research, the major independent variable which affects the psychological hardiness of university students was mindfulness. A significant positive correlation was found between mindfulness levels and psychological hardiness levels. It is also observed that there is a positive linear correlation between spiritual well-being and psychological hardiness and mindfulness.
... [21] Individuals who were spirituality oriented, and having meaning and purpose in lives were also hardier. [22] Aim ...
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Aim: The purpose of the present research work was to examine the relationship among hardiness and immune response (cluster of differentiation 4 [CD4+] cell count) of injection drug users (IDUs) in Bilaspur district of Chhattisgarh state, India. Method: Total of 160 male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive IDUs, enrolled in anti-retroviral therapy (ART) centre of Bilaspur were taken for study. To assess hardiness of the participants, Psychological Hardiness Scale (PHS-SA) was used. Result: The hierarchical multiple regression analysis model as controlling for socio-demographic factors, i.e. age, education, and locale was employed to analyse the obtained data. Results revealed overall contribution of hardiness variance predicted 39.8% for criterion variable CD4+ count; whereas the contribution of hardiness components, i.e. commitment, control, and challenge predicted 20.7%, 9.8%, and 9.3% respectively. All these findings showed significant positive association among criterion variable CD4+ count. Conclusion: Hardiness (personality trait) shows a vital role for enhancing the immunity level (CD4+ count) of HIV infected IDUs.
... Various studies have been reported in link between personality traits and CD4 cell count (Cohen & Herbert, 1996;Kiekolt-Glaser, 2002), link between psyche and immune system (Hanson, 1992). Carson and Green (1992) reported that individuals who were spiritually well and were able to find meaning and purpose in lives were also hardier, this finding has on importance for the care provided to the persons who is HIV positive. ...
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Preface The present research work is an attempt to study influence of cognitive behaviour therapy on depression and immune response through mediational factors among people living with HIV/AIDS in the state of Chhattisgarh. The entire work has been presented in five chapters, as under: Chapter-I is an introductory chapter divided into three subsections. The first section presents background of the study. The attempt is to make the readers familiar with context of the study. It presents various dimensions and variables in details, which have been used in the study. Variables CD4 Cell Count, Depression, Social Support, Hardiness, Hope, Self-Perception and Socio-demographic factors are clearly and broadly presented to have in-depth understanding. The second part of the chapter explains about Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and its use in the study. The third and final part of the study presents the Objectives and hypothesis used in the study. Chapter-II deals with research methodology adopted in the current study. It essentially states the nature of participants in the study followed by measurement and operational definition of variables including socio-demographic details, social support, self-perception, hardiness, hope, depression, immune response and CBT intervention. The chapter also elucidates the ethical consideration of the study. The last part of the chapter describes the design and analysis used in the study along with the details of the procedure. Chapter-III deals with results and their interpretation. It presents the demographic information of the participants along with test of all the eight hypotheses of the study. Path modeling and descriptive statistics is used for analysis of data. Chapter-IV presents the discussion of the results based on all the variables and past studies. It combines the outcomes of the present study with the relevance it draws with the past studies. Chapter-V offers a summary and presents the conclusion of the present study. It presents the final inference drawn from the study along with its implication. It highlights the strength, limitations, and suggestion for future research.
... Religiöses Coping war bei unseren Probanden etwas häufiger mit einem aktiven Bewältigungsstil und den Coping-Mechanismen Hilfesuchen und Optimismus verbunden, was mit den Befunden anderer Autoren übereinstimmt (Jenkins & Pargament 1995b, Baider et al. 1999, Whrite et al. 1985, Prado et al. 2004, Woods et al. 1999b. In diese Richtung weisen auch Bewältigungsstile wie "hardiness", das Carson & Green (1992) mit religiösem Coping in Verbindung bringt oder "fighting spirit", der nach Cotton et al. (1999) mit der weiter gefassten Spiritualität positiv korreliert ist. Einen solchen aktiven Bewältigungsstil zeigen aber auch nicht-religiöse Probanden mit entsprechenden Mechanismen wie Problemanalyse, Zupacken, Konstruktive Aktivität, Dissimulieren und Kompensation. ...
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Zusammenfassung Spiritualität und religiöses Coping bei lebensbedrohlichen Krankheiten finden zunehmendes wissenschaftliches und praktisches Interesse im Sinne des Spiritual Care. Widersprüchlich sind allerdings die Aussagen über die Effekte dieser Bewältigungsform. Am Modell der HIV-Infektion als einer lebensbedrohlichen Krankheit in der Zeit vor Einführung der antiretroviralen Kombinationstherapie wurden die Häufigkeit und der Erfolg des religiösen Copings untersucht. 105 HIV-infizierte Männer und Frauen (55 Homosexuelle, 30 Hämophile und 20 Drogenkonsumenten) wurden in einem sozialpsychologisch-tiefenpsychologischen Interview über ihre Krankheitsbewältigung befragt. Die Auswertung hinsichtlich des religiösen Copings neben anderen Bewältigungsmechanismen erfolgte im Fremdrating mittels der Berner Bewältigungsformen nach Heim et al. (1990). Das Bewältigungsergebnis wurde mittels des Beeinträchtigungs-Schwere-Scores nach Schepank (1995) bestimmt. 25 % der Probanden, darunter fast nur Homosexuelle, hatten ein intensives und der Rest überwiegend kein religiöses Coping. Religiöses Coping führte zu keinem besseren Ergebnis als andere Mechanismen und wurde nicht vom Krankheitsstadium beeinflusst. Religiöses Coping war eng verknüpft mit einem internalen locus of control . Kein Zusammenhang fand sich mit Alter, Religionszugehörigkeit, Sozialschicht und Schuldphantasien. Religiöses Coping scheint eine relativ unabhängige stabile Verhaltensdisposition zu sein, die mit dem Gefühl der Eigenverantwortlichkeit verknüpft ist. Religiöse bzw. spirituelle Bedürfnisse sollten, falls vorhanden, bei der psychosozialen Betreuung der Patienten unterstützend berücksichtigt werden.
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Although there is a growing interest in the topic of spirituality, there are few reports of spiritual interventions and limited empirical data to support their effectiveness. As health care practices become increasingly evidence based, the reliance on empirical data is critical. This article describes the spiritual intervention developed by the author and documents the testing of its effectiveness with clinical and nonclinical populations. The findings from a series of studies have been mixed. Preliminary studies reported that the intervention positively influenced patients' outcomes, including overall quality of life and reduced selected stress responses. Significant positive trends were found that supported the potential effectiveness of the intervention for a variety of populations and clinical settings. However, subsequent testing in clinical trials indicated limited effect of the intervention although there were several noteworthy findings. The author discusses the implications of these findings for future investigations.
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Spirituality and psychosocial factors in persons living with HIV Aim of the study. This pilot study was designed to examine the relationships among spirituality and psychosocial factors in a sample of 52 adult males living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and to determine the most reliable spirituality measure for a proposed longitudinal study. Background. HIV disease is among the most devastating of illnesses, having multiple and profound effects upon all aspects of the biopsychosocial and spiritual being. Although research has suggested relationships among various psychosocial and spiritual factors, symptomatology and physical health, much more research is needed to document their potential influences on immune function, as well as health status, disease progression, and quality of life among persons with HIV disease. Methods. This descriptive correlational study explored the relationships of spirituality and psychosocial measures. Spirituality was measured in terms of spiritual perspective, well-being and health using three tools: the Spiritual Perspective Scale, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, and the Spiritual Health Inventory. Five psychosocial instruments were used to measure aspects of stress and coping: the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, Dealing with Illness Scale, Social Provisions Scale, Impact of Events Scale, and Functional Assessment of HIV Infection Scale. The sample was recruited as part of an ongoing funded study. The procedures from the larger study were well-defined and followed in this pilot study. Correlational analyses were done to determine the relationship between spirituality and the psychosocial measures. Findings. The findings indicate that spirituality as measured by the existential well-being (EWB) subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale was positively related to quality of life, social support, effective coping strategies and negatively related to perceived stress, uncertainty, psychological distress and emotional-focused coping. The other spirituality measures had less significant or non significant relationships with the psychological measures. Conclusions. The study findings support the inclusion of spirituality as a variable for consideration when examining the psychosocial factors and the quality of life of persons living with HIV disease. The spiritual measure that best captures these relationships is the EWB subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale.
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We examined the relationship between religious behavior and HIV antibody testing, serostatus, and receiving medical care among a sample of inner-city former and current injection-drug users. Recency of church attendance, guidance from religion, and religious denomination were used as indicators for religious behavior. More recent church attendance was significantly associated with HIV testing, HIV-positive serostatus, and receiving medical care for HIV in multivariate regression models, even after adjusting for possible confounders. The findings suggest that the church may be an important source of support and social regulation among HIV-infected inner-city African-American drug users. Further studies examining how the church serves as a mechanism for HIV testing and medical care are warranted.
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Spirituality appears with increasing frequency in the research literature, and a paradigm involving mind-body-spirit interaction is emerging. The relationship of spirituality to disability and illness is at the center of a growing body of knowledge. A comprehensive literature review supported spirituality as coping method among individuals experiencing a variety of illnesses including hypertension, pulmonary disease, diabetes, chronic renal failure, surgery, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, HIV/AIDS, polio and addictive illnesses. Additionally, spirituality is a resource when dealing with critical illness as well as terminal illness and end of life issues, and it is utilized by both patients, and family members. Discussion of research findings, implications for health care practice and future research is also presented.
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Resilience is the capacity of individuals to maintain, or regain, their mental health in the face of significant adversity, including physical illness. We conducted a systematic review of resilience and related concepts in the physically ill to determine factors associated with predicting or promoting resilience. An electronic search of PsychInfo, Medline, and CINAHL databases between 1950 and May 2009 was performed using the terms resilience, and various types of physical illnesses. Inclusion criteria were broad and exclusion criteria were not published in English or not focused on resilience in physical illness. A total of 475 articles were retrieved and 52 articles met inclusion/exclusion criteria. Psychological factors associated with resilience were self-efficacy, self-esteem, internal locus of control, optimism, mastery, hardiness, hope, self-empowerment, acceptance of illness, and determination. Social support was highly predictive of, and associated with, resilience. Coping strategies such as positive cognitive appraisal, spirituality, active coping, and mastery were also associated with resilience. Resilience factors directly salient to physical illness such as self-care, adherence to treatment, health related quality of life, illness perception, pain perception, exercise adherence, and physical outcomes were also found. These findings need to be considered and when appropriate incorporated into the psychological and psychiatric care of physically ill individuals.
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This study was conducted to explicate the role of spirituality in dealing with the many struggles of advanced HIV disease. The research question that guided the study was: How is spiritual meaning structured in advanced stages of HIV disease? Published articles have lacked sound conceptions of spirituality that would allow it to be described apart from religion as a concept within humanistic science. Qualitative methodological assumptions were derived from interpretive interactionism. The spiritual experiences of 10 men and women in advanced-stage (symptomatic) HIV disease who self-identified that they had either spiritual or religious experiences that had helped them cope with HIV disease were interpreted. Data were collapsed, over three iterations, into three major themes to build the meaning of spirituality in HIV. Extracted themes were: purpose in life emerges from stigmatization; opportunities for meaning arise from a disease without a cure; and after suffering, spirituality frames the life.
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As a part of human spirituality, religion has been theorized to influence the health of the individual, both positively and negatively. Although the nursing literature has focused recently on broad aspects of spirituality, the specifics of religious influences on health have been examined cursorily or have been ignored. This article reviews the major empirical data on religion and mental health that are pertinent to nursing. Three areas covered are mental health impact, coping, and aging. Suggestions for future research on the subject are presented.
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1. The current approach to spiritual assessment often makes the older client uncomfortable discussing his or her spiritual and religious orientation. 2. To provide therapeutic interventions, nurses must first become aware of themselves and their clients as spiritual beings. 3. A spiritual journey perspective views the nurse as one who can enhance the unique journey and growth of the individual client.
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This study examined the association of spirituality and health-related quality of life among 226 HIV-positive men. Two measures of spirituality were used: the Spiritual Growth subscale from the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (S. N. Walker, K. R. Sechrist, & N. J. Pender, 1987) and the Spirituality subscale of the HIV Coping Instrument (L. Moneyham, A. Demi, Y. Mizuno, R. Sowell, & J. Guillory, 1998). Health related quality of life was measured with the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (R. D. Hays et al., 1998). Spiritual coping (i.e., relying on religion-based coping techniques) was not associated with health-related quality of life at baseline or 12-month follow-up. Spiritual growth (i.e., existential feelings of connection with a force greater than oneself) improved some aspects of mental and emotional well-being but did not affect physical functioning or pain management. (Contains 3 tables.)
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This qualitative study was conducted to evaluate the importance of manifestation of forgiveness, subjective well-being and quality of life. On the basis of the pilot study, a semi-structured questionnaire was constructed for taking in-depth interviews. Twenty participants (Men = 10 and Women = 10) from five professions were selected through convenient sampling. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The results indicated that majority of the participants knew the importance of forgiveness and that practice of forgiveness in daily life had resulted in several significant positive effects on their personality which contributed to their subjective wellbeing and this had enhanced their quality of life. The beneficial effects were divided into nine categories. The three common effects noted among participants were: happiness, positive feelings, relaxation, and positive social interaction. However, few gender differences were also noted. Men reported that practicing forgiveness had resulted in more contentment and spiritual development in them. Whereas, women reported that practicing forgiveness had resulted in more tolerance and reduction in negative thoughts. It is concluded that practice of forgiveness in daily life results in satisfaction, subjective wellbeing that leads to better quality of life. Theoretical and practical implications and directions for future research are discussed. Keywords: Forgiveness, subjective well being, quality of life The concept and importance of forgiveness has been discussed in several disciplines such as theology, philosophy, and psychology. In everyday life forgiveness is considered as an act of taking no revenge
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The number of Americans currently afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) will reach crisis proportions in the future. The current number of approximately 5.4 million Americans is predicted to quadruple by the year 2047. One in eight people over age 65 have the disease, and nearly half have it by age 85. Someone new is diagnosed with the disease every 69 s (Alzheimer’s Association, 2011). Caregivers face stressful challenges in providing care for relatives with dementia, as average length of caregiving exceeds 8–10 years.
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The religious and spiritual experiences of HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are severely understudied, especially among those over 50. However, literature supports that religious/spiritual experiences are related to both physical and mental health among older adults. In this exploratory analysis we assessed the relations that exist among a sample of HIV-positive gay, bisexual, and other MSM over 50 in regard to sociodemographic factors and two established measures of religiosity/spirituality. Differences emerged in relation to both race/ethnicity and age for the Ironson-Woods Spirituality/Religiousness (SR) Index, while, for the Existential Well-being subscale, differences emerged in relation to race/ethnicity and perceived socioeconomic status.
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Nursing is one of the stressful jobs that affect nurse's well-being. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between spiritual intelligence, hardiness and well-being among Iranian nurses. Samples of this cross- sectional study selected by Randomized stratified sampling, 125 nurses who have been working in different wards of Bushehr university hospitals. Data were collected using spiritual intelligence, hardiness, well-being and demographic characteristics questionnaires. Correlation, t-test, ANOVA, Tukey and regression analysis were applied. The results revealed a significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and hardiness, spiritual intelligence and well-being, Hardiness and well-being. It also showed that among the demographic characteristics (age, gender, working ward, marital status, job experiences, and education) working ward significantly correlated with spiritual intelligence. Improvement of spiritual intelligence and reinforcement of hardiness could help increase the well-being of nurses.
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This feature encapsulates a week in the practice of a nurse. Whatever the practice setting, stories of pain and fear, recovery and contentment are reflected through the eyes of a nurse.
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With the advent of effective medications prolonging life in adults with HIV, aging with this disease is now possible. Now facing the possibility of a longer life span than expected, a person with HIV may express differential growth in their spiritual development due to coping with such a stigmatizing disease. Using qualitative data from interviews and field notes, this study examined challenges and spiritual resources of 18 adults approaching middle- and older age with HIV. From this, a portrait of using spirituality to cope with HIV is presented. Several spiritual expressions of coping were observed and were classified under the following rubrics: streamlining life, belief in the here and now, right behavior, new path, new strength, fellowship, and closer to God. Examples for each of these expressions are provided as they emphasize how such spirituality facilitates coping with HIV, which may encourage successful aging.
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The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship of frequency of prayer to eight subcategories of physical and mental health. As part of the ongoing Presbyterian Panel, 1,412 active Presbyterian pastors drawn from a national, random sample were surveyed by mail regarding their frequency of prayer and self-perceptions of health outcomes. The results indicated a high level of functioning overall for all eight categories of physical and mental health. Predictably, frequency of prayer was extremely skewed towards high frequency. Despite a lack of variation in both health and prayer, high frequency of prayer was significantly related to higher scores in three health outcomes: vitality, general health, and mental health. These relationships remained significant in the analysis even after controlling for the influence of demographic variables, such as gender and age. Various explanations of the results are explored.
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We examined the associations of two measures of spirituality (i.e., spiritual growth and religious coping) and perceived stress, depression, hazardous alcohol use, and use of tobacco and illicit drugs over time among men who had tested positive for HIV. Data were collected from 226 men at baseline, 197 at a 12‐month follow‐up, and 184 at a 24‐month follow‐up. There were significant time by spiritual growth interactions found for both perceived stress and depression. Increased spiritual growth, that is, spirituality that focuses on seeking meaning, purpose, and transcendence was significantly associated with reduced perceived stress and reduced depression, and the effects varied at different time points. Spiritual growth was not associated with specific risk behaviors (hazardous alcohol use, tobacco and illicit drug use). The effects of religious coping (e.g. Bible reading, prayer, church attendance) on outcomes were consistent across all time points. Religious coping was not significantly associated with perceived stress but it was negatively associated with depression. Moreover, increased religious coping was significantly associated with the likelihood of reduced hazardous alcohol use and illicit drug use.
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Background Spiritual dimensions such as hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence have been found to be predictors of successful ageing, life satisfaction and well-being in older individuals. Connectedness and communicating with others have been seen to facilitate hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence among nursing home patients. AimsThis study aimed to investigate the associations between hope, meaning in life, self-transcendence and nurse-patient interaction in a nursing home population. Design and methodsA cross-sectional design was employed, collecting data in 44 different Norwegian nursing homes (NHs) from 250 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Approval by all regulatory institutions dealing with research issues in Norway and the Management Unit at the 44 NHs was obtained. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients responded to the Herth Hope Index, the Purpose in Life test, the Self-Transcendence Scale and the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale. A structural equation model (SEM) of the hypothesized relationships between the constructs was tested. ResultsThe SEM model fit well with the present data. Significant direct relationships of nurse-patient interaction on hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence were displayed. Meaning and the interconnectedness dimension of hope appeared to be particularly dynamic resources, revealing significant influences on all the constructs in the SEM model tested. Conclusion Nurse-patient interaction influences hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence in cognitively intact nursing home patients and might be an important resource in relation to patients' health and global well-being. Thus, care providers are above all fundamental for nursing home patients. Advancing caregivers' interacting and communicating skills might facilitate patients' health and global well-being and inspire professional caregivers as they perform their daily care practices. More research of the effectiveness of such strategies is greatly needed. LimitationsThe SEM model tested comprised 20 variables, indicating a desirable sample size of n=200, while the present effective sample was n=187. Also, cross-sectional data do not allow making conclusion on the causality.
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The extent to which family members are willing and able to assist with daily activities and provide emotional support can greatly affect the quality of life for persons with chronic illness. In the case of HIV/AIDS, the burdens of symptom management and medication are amplified by social stigma. This chapter provides a summary of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual issues associated with HIV/AIDS along with approaches to assessment and treatment.
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Objectives: To explore (a) how spiritual well-being (WB), emotional WB, life satisfaction, and functional status change during and after rehabilitation; (b) the relationships among these variables over time; and (c) associations with demographic and clinical characteristics. Study Design: Longitudinal assessment across 3 time points. Participants and Setting: 155 adults admitted to a freestanding rehabilitation hospital. Main Outcome Measures: Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Short-Form Health Survey, and the Functional Independence Measure TM. Results: Emotional WB increased during rehabilitation, whereas life satisfaction and spiritual WB did not change; however, substantial subgroups of individuals experienced changes in life satisfaction and spiritual WB over time. Measures of spiritual WB, emotional WB, and life satisfaction were moderately correlated within and across time points. Persons making smaller functional gains during inpatient rehabilitation were least likely to experience increased emotional WB. Although African Americans as a group reported greater spiritual WB than other racial-ethnic groups on admission, they were least likely to increase in emotional WB over time.… (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between spirituality and health status of 39 adult men and women living with HIV-disease. A model building approach was used to explore the associations among the five variables of the Neuman systems model, which was the guiding framework for the study. The model presented includes existential well-being, meaningfulness, age, and income.
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Unique models of care delivery, such as the Nursing Care Partnership model for practice used at the Denver Nursing Project in Human Caring, have demonstrated a reduction in inpatient admissions, mean length of stay, and total charges. This descriptive study identified and described clients' (N = 75) perceptions of care and explored the cost-effectiveness of this model. Findings suggest nursing care partnerships play a key role in reducing healthcare costs by providing services in a more cost-efficient setting and by having an impact on client utilization of services. Savings in potential hospital costs were estimated at $1,590,384 for 1993.
Article
Studied personality as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle- and upper-level 40-49 yr old executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 yrs, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. One group of 86 Ss suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other group of 75 Ss reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler et al 1970). Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the Ss in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
The relations among hardiness (and its components) and demographic variables, objective health, disability, and perceived health were investigated for 33 women with rheumatoid arthritis. Hardiness and demographic variables were measured once while objective health, disability, and perceived health were measured at three monthly intervals. Hardiness and/or component scores were significantly (P < 0.05) related to age and to employment status but were unrelated to education and to marital status. The control dimension of hardiness was positively correlated with the average percentage of circulating T-cells (r = 0.38, P < 0.05), and with average perceived health compared to one's same age peers (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). Hardiness appears to be a useful construct for understanding adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis, and studies of patients with chronic diseases can shed light on the precursors and consequences of hardiness.
Article
Recent attempts to measure the quality of life or subjective well-being show promise for a more helpful and accurate appraisal of the collective and individual state of people than objective, economically-oriented indicators have allowed. Unfortunately, the quality of life movement has virtually ignored the religious dimension of life and the part that such beliefs and practices play in well-being. In response to this void, Paloutzian and Ellison (1982) have developed a Spiritual Well-Being Scale which measures both religious and existential well-being. This article reports on the conceptualization of the spiritual well-being dimension, development of the scale, research which has utilized the scale, and suggests directions for future research.
Article
A new attitude scale to measure the strength of motivation to find meaning in life is herein developed to complement the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), which measures the degree to which meaning has been found. Both instruments were designed from the orientation of Frankl's logotherapy, which holds the "will to meaning" to be the strongest human motivation. Ss were: Group 1 "abnormal," 128 logotherapy patients, 20 methadone patients, 262 alcoholics; Group 2 "normal," 19 seminary students, 64 mixed college students, 123 female college freshmen. (Subgroup fractionations were studied independently.) Results support a predicted moderate negative correlation with the PIL and statistically significant construct validity in separating normal from abnormal populations. PIL-SONG combinations in the prediction of therapeutic outcome support the usefulness of the SONG as a supplementary instrument. The predicted differences are small, but in the expected direction.
Article
Without a cure on the horizon there is a need to identify ways to sustain hope and spiritual well-being in patients with AIDS. This article examines the impact of AIDS on the emotional and spiritual health of its victims and summarizes current research findings on spiritual well-being in the ill. It also summarizes the authors' study on hope and existential and spiritual well-being in a group of 65 adult male patients who were either serum positive for the human immunodeficient virus or who had been diagnosed with AIDS Related Complex or AIDS.
Article
We have seen a dramatic increase in the types of antiviral strategies and numbers of specific antiviral agents that have emerged since the early 1980s when infection with the human immunodeficiency virus was first recognized. At the moment, zidovudine is the only drug approved by the FDA for treatment of HIV infection, and its indication is limited only to patients in the most advanced stages of immunodeficiency. Although zidovudine cannot "cure" HIV infection, it can significantly delay the seemingly inexorable course of immune system decline and buy some meaningful time for most HIV-1 infected patients, whether or not they have developed immunodeficiency. Other agents such as interferon alpha and the didoxynucleoside analogues, ddI and ddC, have also shown promise as antiretroviral agents, and it is hoped they will be proved, in the near future, capable of delaying the progression of immune system destruction by HIV-1. Other related treatment modalities such as the use of PCP prophylactic regimens also have succeeded in decreasing the incidence of opportunistic infections and thereby improving survival. It is likely that future strategies will involve the use of alternating, multidrug regimens both to reduce selective pressure for the development of drug resistance and to minimize the toxicity of single-agent therapy. The sum of these developments has been to change the prognosis of HIV infection. A disease once viewed as an automatic death warrant is now in the process of becoming a chronic, potentially long-term treatable illness.
Article
Although PNI is a relatively new field, basic research has demonstrated the interconnectedness of immune and neurological systems, alerting nurses to the need to conduct multisystem assessments and provide holistic nursing care to persons with AIDS. Although the burden of research does not support the notion that the mind can cure AIDS, preliminary studies suggest that under certain circumstances the psychogenic and physiological conditions of the host alter rates of progression of HIV infection. Nursing research is needed to determine circumstances under which immunomodulating events alter disease progression in this population.
House staff physicians and nurses at a major New York City teaching hospital completed a 79-item questionnaire designed to assess AIDS anxiety, fear of contagion, and personal attitudes about homosexuality. Sixty-three percent of respondents were skeptical of or did not believe assurances by experts that health care workers who observe safety guidelines are at minimal risk of contracting AIDS from patients. Respondents from minority groups were significantly less trusting of experts' reassurances of their safety and were more uncomfortable working with homosexual patients. Twenty-six percent of all respondents feared that they would become victims of AIDS if they continued their present work, yet 97 percent expressed a firm commitment to caring for AIDS patients throughout their illness and the dying process. The author suggests that AIDS training and educational programs for health care professionals should consider their cultural background and psychosocial needs.
Article
The nurse is in a position to look holistically at PWAs to diagnose spiritual distress with the same sensitivity and skill as that used to diagnose physical and psychosocial problems. Caring for these persons requires holistic planning and intervening as well, with an awareness of the effect of spirituality on well-being.
Article
The palliative care of the patient who is dying of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) embraces the same general concepts as does the care of any dying patient. Treatment is aimed at maximizing function and comfort despite progressive physical deterioration, it is important, however, to be aware of those aspects of the biological, psychological, social and spiritual realms that differentiate hospice care of the patient with AIDS from traditional hospice care.
Article
This study examined exercise and personality-based hardiness as independent buffers of the stressful event-illness relationship. Self-report measures of exercise, hardiness, stressful events and illness were obtained from 137 male business executives. Hardiness and exercise each interact with stressful events in decreasing illness. Further, subjects high in both hardiness and exercise remain more healthy than those high in one or the other only. These additive effects are consistent with the view that hardiness buffers by transforming the events themselves so as to decrease their stressfulness, whereas exercise buffers by decreasing the organismic strain resulting from experiencing stressful events.
Article
Notes some of the psychosocial aspects of AID patients and offers general guidelines for caregivers in dealing with the factors of impact, regression, acknowledgment, and reconstruction. Identifies the main tools of ministry as those of presence, affirmation, and listening. Challenges the church to go beyond society's negativism regarding AIDS and to offer the sort of reconciliation made manifest in the scripture.
Article
It is the assumption of this article that when the etiology of an illness is framed in a “moral” language and the illness in question affects religiously stigmatized and legally proscribed minorities, the victims of the illness will be blamed for their ill health. Evidence is given of the connection between moralizing about a medical issue and the response of the medical establishment. The role of religion in the definition and interpretation of AIDS is emphasized as well as its effects on gay people and gay life. A political analysis of AIDS and its assumed causes is also given. These homophobic explanations are viewed as attempts to disenfranchise and discredit gay life further. Responsibility for containing AIDS is discussed in the context of “brokenness” between and among gay people. “Healing” is given as a necessary solution.
AIDS: Caring for the dying patient
  • D I Abrams
  • J Parker-Margin
  • K W Unger
Abrams, D. I., Parker-Margin, J., & Unger K. W. (1989). AIDS: Caring for the dying patient. Patient Care, November 30, 22-35.
The spiritual needs of persons with AIDS. Family and Community He&h
  • C G Walker-Robbins
  • Cristiana
  • N M Father
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Research directions on spiritual well-being
  • Ellison
Burnout as a spiritual issue: Rediscovering meaning in nursing practice
  • Arnold
Spiritual well-being, hardiness, and ego strength in persons with AIDS
  • Carson
Spiritual direction: Important issues to the AIDS patient
  • Carson
Spirituality: A systemic view
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The great stress-illness controversy
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AIDS: Caring for the dying patient
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Why do some people survive AIDS?
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