ArticlePDF Available

Moringa: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition

Authors:
  • SRG Hospital & Medical College, Jhalawar

Abstract and Figures

This document is aimed to describing the potential benefits of the Moringa tree as a nutrient. Moringa tree can be utilized in treating the malnutrition in a local and cost-effective manner. Malnutrition causes a great deal of human suffering and is associated with more than half of all deaths of children worldwide. Malnutrition severely affects the socio-economic development of a nation because a work force that is stunted both mentally and physically may have a reduced work capacity. Thus nutrition plays an important role in the reproduction of poverty from one generation to the next. Not only is the Moringa oleifera tree extraordinary in that all parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional value. The leaves of the Moringa tree are an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin B vitamin C and other minerals. The leaves are also an outstanding source of calcium, protein, potassium and iron. The content of amino acids such as methionine and cystine is also high. Carbohydrates, fats and phosphorous content are low making this one of the finest plant foods to be found. Present review focuses on the potential benefits of Moringa oleifera in treatment of malnutrition
Content may be subject to copyright.
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
119
Moringa: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition
Abstract
This document is aimed to describing the potential benefits of the
Moringa
tree as a nutrient.
Moringa
tree
can be utilized in treating the malnutrition in a local and cost-effective manner. Malnutrition causes a great
deal of human suffering and is associated with more than half of all deaths of children worldwide. Malnutrition
severely affects the socio-economic development of a nation because a work force that is stunted both
mentally and physically may have a reduced work capacity. Thus nutrition plays an important role in the
reproduction of poverty from one generation to the next. Not only is the
Moringa oleifera
tree extraordinary in
that all parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional
value. The leaves of the
Moringa
tree are an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin B vitamin C and other
minerals. The leaves are also an outstanding source of calcium, protein, potassium and iron. The content of
amino acids such as methionine and cystine is also high. Carbohydrates, fats and phosphorous content are
low making this one of the finest plant foods to be found. Present review focuses on the potential benefits of
Moringa oleifera
in treatment of malnutrition.
Key words:
Deaths of children, high nutritional value, malnutrition, plant foods
Introduction
There are several herbs of nature which help in restoring
the balance of body and maintaining good health. But a
single moringa tree can provide leaf for nutrition, oil for
cooking and healthy skin, seed cake for water purification
and wood to build shelter and keep you warm. Moringa
oleifera is the most widely cultivated pan-tropical species
of a monogeneric family, the Moringaceae, which is native
to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
and Afghanistan. Moringa oleifera is known by such regional
names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge,
mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna [Figure 1].
The history of Moringa dates back to 150 B.C. Historical
proofs reveal that ancient kings and queens used Moringa
leaves and fruit in their diet to maintain mental alertness
and healthy skin. Ancient Maurian warriors of India were
fed with Moringa Leaf Extract in the warfront. The Elixir
drink was believed to add them extra energy and relieve
them of the stress and pain incurred during war. These
brave soldiers were the ones who defeated “Alexander”
the Great.[1,9,10] There are 13 varieties of Moringa, Moringa
Oleifera is the most well known. Every part of this tree is
edible, from the leaves, trunks, stems, all the way down
to its root. The flowers can be eaten or used to make tea
and provide good amounts of both calcium and potassium.
The young pods can be cooked and reportedly have a taste
reminiscent of asparagus. The green peas and surrounding
white material can be removed from larger pods and cooked
in various ways.
Growing/ecology
Moringa tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions.[4]
It will tolerate extremely high temperatures in the shade and
can survive a light frost. The drought-tolerant tree grows
well in areas that receive annual rainfall amounts ranging
Ram Chand Dhakar, Sheo Daa Maurya, Brijendra K. Pooniya1,
Narendra Bairwa1, Manisha Gupta2, Sanwarmal2
Department of Pharmacy, IEC-CET, KP-I, G. Noida,
1Department of Pharmaceucal Sciences, MLS University, Udaipur,
2HIMT College of Pharmacy, Greater Noida, India
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Ram C. Dhakar,
Department of Pharmacy, IEC Group of Instuon,
KP-I, Greater Noida – 201 308, India.
E-mail: dhakar_rc@yahoo.co.in
Access this article online
Website:
http://www.cysonline.org
Quick Response Code
DOI:
10.4103/2229-5186.90887
Review Article
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011
Chronicles of Young Scientists 120
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
between 250 and 1500 mm. It prefers a well-drained sandy
loam or loam soil, but tolerates clay. Moringa is planted
either by direct seeding, transplanting, or using hard stem
cuttings.
Harvesting
Leaves can be harvested after plants grow 1.5 to 2.0 m,
which usually takes 3 to 6 months. They are harvested by
snapping leaf stems from branches or by cutting the entire
branches 20 to 40 cm above the ground. Older leaves need
to be stripped from their tough and wiry stems. These leaves
are more suited to making dried leaf powder, since stems can
be removed during the sifting process. For fresh vegetables
the leaves must be harvested early in the morning and sold
the same day. Flowers and pods are produced during the
second year of growth. The pods are harvested when young,
tender and green. The pulp and immature seeds of older
pods remain edible until shortly before the ripening process
begins.[4]
Contribution to rural and social development
Virtually every part of the tree is beneficial in some way
and both rural and urban people depend on it for their
livelihood. Depending on the purpose and quantity, Moringa
is grown in nurseries, as a community project, or on a small
scale at the family level. It can function as windbreaks,
for land erosion control, live fences, as an ornamental, or
intercropped to provide semi-shade to species requiring
less direct sunlight. One theme surrounding the cultivation
and use of Moringa is the risk that the species may alter
the land and its living systems. However, according to a
recent study, a crucial transition must take place whereby
destructive farming practices must be replaced by new
and improved cultivation methods which raise Moringa
without destroying natural systems on which agriculture
ultimately depends. In fact, the effective development
and management of Moringa can indeed contribute to
sustainable growth and poverty reduction in developing
countries. But for this to take place, a balance must be
found between the short-term needs of the people for
their social and economic development and the protection
of the natural resource base.[11]
Moringa as a nutrient source
In developing tropical countries, Moringa trees have been
used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants
and nursing mothers.[12,13] Three non-governmental
organizations in particular - Trees for Life, Church World
Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization
- advocate Moringa as natural nutrition for the tropics.”
The immature pods are the most valued and widely used
of all the tree parts. The pods are extremely nutritious,
containing all the essential amino acids along with many
vitamins and other nutrients. The immature pod can be
eaten raw or prepared like green peas or green beans, while
the mature pods are usually fried and possess a peanut-like
flavor. The pods also yield 38 to 40% of non-drying, edible
oil known as Ben Oil. This oil is clear, sweet and odorless,
and never becomes rancid. Overall, its nutritional value
most closely resembles olive oil. The thickened root is
used as a substitute for horseradish although this is now
discouraged as it contains alkaloids, especially moriginine,
and a bactericide, spirochin, both of which can prove fatal
following ingestion. The leaves are eaten as greens, in
salads, in vegetable curries, as pickles and for seasoning.
They can be pounded up and used for scrubbing utensils
and for cleaning walls. Leaves and young branches are
relished by livestock. The Bark can be used for tanning
and also yields a coarse fiber. The flowers, which must be
cooked, are eaten either mixed with other foods or fried in
batter and have been shown to be rich in potassium and
calcium [Tables 1-4].[14-18]
Moringa as a source of vitamins and minerals
Not only is the Moringa oleifera tree extraordinary in that
all parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect
of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional value. The
leaves of the Moringa tree are an excellent source of vitamin
Table 1: Moringa nutrition content[15]
Nutrition
analysis
Pods
(per 100 g)
Fresh leaves
(per 100 g)
Dried leaf
(per 100 g)
Moisture % 86.9 75 7.5
Calories 26 92 205
Protein (g) 2.5 6.7 27.1
Fat (g) 0.1 1.7 2.30
Carbohydrates (g) 3.7 13.4 38.2
Fiber (g) 4.8 0.9 19.2
Minerals (g) 22.3
Calcium (mg) 30 440 2003
Magnesium (mg) 24 24 368.0
Phosphorous (mg) 110 70 204.0
Potassium (mg) 24 24 1324
Copper (mg) 3.1 1.1 0.6
Iron (mg) 5.3 0.7 28.2
Oxalic Acid (mg) 10 101 0.0
Sulfur(mg) 137 137 870
Figure 1: Various parts of Moringa Oleifera[1-8]
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
121
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
Table 2: Vitamin and mineral content of Moringa [16,17]
Vitamin content
(per 100 g)
Fresh leaves Dried leaves
Carotene (Vit. A) mg 6.78 18.9
Thiamin (B1) mg 0.06 2.64
Riboavin (B2) mg 0.05 20.5
Niacin (B3) mg 0.8 8.2
Vitamin C mg 220 17.3
Calcium mg 440 2,003
Calories cal 92 205
Carbohydrates g 12.5 38.2
Copper mg 0.07 0.57
Fat g 1.70 2.3
Fiber g 0.90 19.2
Iron mg 0.85 28.2
Magnesium mg 42 368
Phosphorus mg 70 204
Potassium mg 259 1,324
Protein g 6.70 27.1
Zinc mg 0.16 3.29
Table 4: Percentage of the recommended daily
allowance of various nutrients
Nutrition component % RDA
Parent Child
Protein 21 42
Calcium 84 125
Magnesium 54 61
Potassium 22 41
Iron 94 71
Vitamin A 143 272
Vitamin C 9 22
Supplied to a nursing mother and a 1 to 3 year old child by Moringa
leaf powder (6 tablespoons per day for a nursing mother;
1 tablespoon three times per day for a 1 to 3 year old child)[17],
RDA: Recommended daily allowance
Table 3: Moringa protein content[15]
Amino acid content
(per 100 g)
Pods Fresh
leaves
Dried leaf
powder
Arginine (mg) 360 406.6 1325
Histidine (mg) 110 149.8 613
Lysine (mg) 150 342.4 1325
Tryptophan (mg) 80 107 425
Phenylalanine (mg) 40 310.3 1388
Methionine (mg) 140 117.7 350
Theroine (mg) 390 117.7 1188
Leucine (mg) 650 492.2 1950
Isoleucine (mg) 440 299.6 825
Valine (mg) 540 374.5 1063
A (four times the amount in carrots), the raw leaves are
rich in vitamin C (seven times the amount in oranges), and
they are also a good source of vitamin B and other minerals.
Vitamins and Minerals are required for everything from
building our physical bodies to blood coagulation and energy
production. As a source of nutrients and vitamins, Moringa
leaves rank among the best of perennial tropical vegetables.
Moringa as a source of protein
Moringa trees are known to overcome protein deficiency
in developing countries as the leaves and other parts of
the tree contain high amount of crude proteins and amino
acids compared with soy bean. Moringa is an excellent non-
animal source of protein for vegans and vegetarians.
Moringa leaves contain all of the essential amino acids,
which are the building blocks of proteins. It is very rare
for a vegetable to contain all of these amino acids And
Moringa contains these amino acids in a good proportion,
so that they are very useful to our bodies. Moringa leaves
could be a great boon to people who do not get protein
from meat. Moringa even contains arginine and histidine
two amino acids especially important for infants. Arginine
and histidine, are especially important for infants who
are unable to make enough protein for their growth
requirements. Experts tell us that 30% of children in sub-
Saharan Africa are protein deficient. Moringa could be an
extremely valuable food source.[1,9,19-24]
Moringa as a source of essential fatty acids
The other nutrients required for optimal cellular health are
the essential Fatty Acids. As strange as it may sound, there
are good fats that actively help create good health. These are
the now-famous omeg-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Nutritional application of Moringa
A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of
Moringa now exist in both the scientific and the popular
literature. Moringa has been in use since centuries for
nutritional as well medicinal purposes. Moringa Leaves are
full of essential disease-preventing nutrients. Moringa is a
natural, whole-food source for vitamins, minerals, protein,
antioxidants, and other important compounds that your body
relies on to stay healthy.[3,25-28] Micronutrient deficiencies are
now recognized as an important contributor to the global
burden of disease. Moringa is an alternative to imported
food supplies to treat malnutrition in poor countries.
Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition,
especially among infants and nursing mothers. Three non-
governmental organizations in particular–Trees for Life,
Church World Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger
Organization–have advocated Moringa as natural nutrition
for the tropics.” Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored
as dried powder for many months without refrigeration,
and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is
especially promising as a food source in the tropics because
the tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other
foods are typically scarce. Leaves were also used for food
fortification.[1,1-21,29,30]
In 1997-98, Alternative Action for African Development
and Church World Service tested the ability of Moringa
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011
Chronicles of Young Scientists 122
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
leaf powder to prevent or cure malnutrition in pregnant or
breast-feeding women and their children in southwestern
Senegal. Malnutrition was a major problem in this area,
with more than 600 malnourished infants treated every
year. During the test, doctors, nurses, and midwives were
trained in preparing and using Moringa leaf powder for
treating malnutrition. Village women were also trained in
the preparation and use of Moringa leaf powder in foods.
Result had indicated that children maintained or increased
their weight and improved overall health, pregnant
women recovered from anemia and had babies with higher
birth weights and breast-feeding women increased their
production of milk.[1, 11] Pollution, pesticides and numerous
other particles bombard us every day. These are just some of
the free radicals which we now know are so destructive. The
only protection against free-radical damage comes in the
form of Antioxidants.
Treating malnutrition with Moringa
Ideally, good nutrition should be assured by a varied diet
rich in meat, root, grain, fruit and vegetable foods. In reality,
for a majority of the world’s population such variety in food
is unaffordable or seasonally unavailable. Within the arid
countries of the African Sahel, for example, the dry seasons
are marked by a heavy dependence on the staples of rice,
millet and sorghum; during these months, fruits and greens
can be found only in a few irrigated garden plots. And in
virtually every year there is a lean period when grain stores
have been exhausted one to three months prior to the new
harvest. Elsewhere in the tropics, meals are generally built
around one staple food rich in carbohydrates but very poor
nutritionally, such as a pap or fufu made from yam, maize
or manioc. Malnutrition is frequently characterized by this
kind of restricted diet wherein a child consumes the same
weaning pap every day. In this context, Moringa is a very
simple and readily available solution to the problem of
malnutrition. The edible leaves of the Moringa oleifera tree
are already an occasional food source throughout West
Africa and other regions of the tropics and sub-tropics.
Micronutrient deficiencies are now recognized as an
important contributor to the global burden of disease.
Iodine deficiency in pregnancy has long been linked to
intra-uterine brain damage and possible fetal wastage.
Currently, although more than two billion people live in
areas that used to be iodine-deficient, it is estimated that
iodine deficiency is the cause of only 0.2% of the global
burden of disease. Iron deficiency also affects about two
billion people. Recent estimates find that iron deficiency
anemia is responsible for one fifth of early neonatal mortality
and one tenth of maternal mortality. Iron deficiency also
reduces cognitive development and work performance. Iron
deficiency is the cause of about 800,000 deaths and 2.4% of
the global burden of disease.[31,32]
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) harms the eyes and increases
childhood and maternal mortality. Globally, 21% of children
have VAD and suffer increased rates of death from diarrhea,
measles, and malaria. The importance of zinc deficiency is
being increasingly recognized. Trials have shown that zinc
supplementation results in improved growth in children,
lower rates of diarrhea, malaria, and pneumonia, and
reduced child mortality. In total about 800,000 child deaths
per year are attributable to zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency
is the cause of 1.9% of global burden of disease. According
to WHO, 19% of the 10.8 million child deaths globally a
year are attributable to iodine, iron, vitamin A, and zinc
deficiencies. Recent estimates indicate that fortification or
supplementation with iron, vitamin A, and zinc are among
the most cost-effective interventions available, even in
areas that are poor or have high HIV infection rates.
However, mild or moderate malnutrition before this
terminal stage is reached is a completely different matter:
the physiological abnormalities are much less severe and
successful recovery can be had through a fully balanced
diet containing all 40 essential nutrients in the correct
proportions. Moringa, added on a daily basis to a child’s
food, has thoroughly demonstrated its ability to bring
about rapid recoveries from moderate malnutrition.
But while successfully treating malnutrition is good,
preventing it is much better. Malnutrition is brought
on by a multitude of causes: lack of education, poverty,
famine, parasites and impure drinking water are some
of them. A program which focuses on correcting micro-
nutrient deficiencies alone will not fully eradicate
malnutrition until these other causes are addressed.
However, as the Moringa project in south-western
Senegal has demonstrated, this approach can show
very impressive results in reducing the incidence of
malnutrition.[33] Moringa is used successfully in combating
malnourishment in children and for its capacity to boost
the immune system, it can be used to complement
modern medicines in chronically ill people including
those suffering from AIDS and HIV related illnesses. It
is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of
various illnesses including recovery from liver damage. It
is currently being examined as a bio-enhancer of drugs
and nutrients because of its production of compounds
with antibiotic activity.[11,32]
These qualities have made the Moringa oleifera tree a
candidate in the fight against malnutrition. A group of health
workers from the Church World Service have been utilizing
this highly nutritious and fast growing tree as a means to
cure and prevent malnutrition in infants, pregnant and
lactating women as an alternative to the classic and expensive
condiments usually used such as whole milk powder, sugar,
vegetable oil, and sometimes peanut butter. It takes around
ten days to see an improvement in malnourished infants
when Moringa leaves are used whereas it takes months for
recovery with conventional methods. According to Dr. Lowell
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
123
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
Fuglie, the West Africa representative of the Church World
Service who used the Moringa tree as a base for a nutrition
program, “for a child aged 1-3, a 100 g serving of fresh cooked
leaves would provide all his daily requirements of calcium,
about 75% of his iron and half his protein needs, as well as
important amounts of potassium, B vitamins, copper and
all the essential amino acids. As little as 20 g of leaves would
provide a child with all the vitamins A and C he needs”.[19,20]
According to Senegal’s National Center for Nutritional
Alimentation, vitamin A supplementation can reduce the
incidence of childhood illness and mortality due to measles
by 50%, due to diarrhea by 40% and due to malaria by 30%.[34]
On average, vitamin A supplementation programs have
been effective in reducing overall childhood mortality by
34%.[35] To combat VAD, UNICEF is working in collaboration
with national health authorities in many countries through
a program to give every under-five child one massive dose
of vitamin A, in tablet form, twice annually. At the same
time iron supplements are being distributed to pregnant
and lactating women against anemia. Given the impressive
impact on child mortality rates these vitamin A programs
have had, they would appear to be a good idea. However,
an opposing argument claims that this approach, focusing
on specific micro-nutrient deficiencies and relying as it does
on imported products and subsidies, is short-sighted and
ultimately unsustainable.[36]
e advantages of using Moringa in malnutrition
prevention programs
It is a drought-resistant and fast growing tree which is
present in nearly all tropical and sub-tropical countries. Its
edible leaves are already an occasional food source in West
Africa regions and appear at the end of the dry season: a
time when other greens are in short supply. As a source of
good nutrition, its leaves are considered the best of tropical
legumes with its high quantities of vitamin A and significant
quantities of vitamin C, calcium, iron, protein, potassium,
magnesium, selenium, zinc and a good balance of all the
essential amino acids. Also, the leaves can be easily dried into
powder form for use as a nutritional supplement for sauces
or as an addition to infant weaning foods. Moringa leaves
can be produced intensively in a family-size small garden.
The seeds can be spaced as closely as 10 cm apart. When the
plants reach a height of a meter, they can be cut down to a
height of 30 cm. The leaves can be stripped from the stems
and used to prepared sauces or dried for long-term storage
as a nutritious food additive, and the stems fed to livestock.
The stumps survive the harvest and will re-sprout, allowing
another harvest in as little as 50 days. Using this technique,
a Moringa garden can continually produce green matter for
several years with very little labor required.[19,20]
Pregnant/breast-feeding women and Moringa
For pregnant and breast-feeding women, Moringa leaves
and pods can do much to preserve the mother’s health and
pass on strength to the fetus or nursing child. Breastfeeding
mothers in India and the Philippines have traditionally been
urged by their elders to add boiled young leaves of Moringa
to their diet. Although the exact mechanism for this is not
yet fully understood, generations of breastfeeding mothers
have sworn by its lactation-inducing effects. One 100 g
portion of leaves could provide a woman with over one-
third of her daily need of calcium and give her important
quantities of iron, protein, copper, sulfur and B-vitamins.
Moringa is especially useful for children and women who are
anemic due to their menstrual cycles.[16,17]
Antioxidants in Moringa
A combination of antioxidants is more effective than
a single antioxidant on an equal weight basis due to
antioxidant cascade mechanism. Moringa has approximately
46 antioxidants and is one of the most powerful sources
of natural anti-oxidants. Daily intake of Moringa Oleifera
will provide the antioxidant which in turn keeps the body
healthy by preventing the adverse effect caused due to fat
deposition. Anti-oxidants supply the free atoms needed by
the human body and mitigate the effect of free radicals. This
antioxidant property helps in preventing the formation of
malignancy. Moringa leaves are rich in Flavonoids, a class
of anti-oxidants. Moringa has essential micronutrients
with antioxidant activity or directly linked to this process:
selenium and zinc. The major anti-oxidants present are
Quercetin, Kaempferol, Beta-Sitosterol, Caffeoylquinic acid
and Zeatin. Antioxidant plays a major role in controlling the
symptoms of aging process and improves the cardiovascular
health. Additionally, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, present in
Moringa, also function as anti-oxidants. Researches confirm
that the anti-oxidants deliver the desired result, if only
taken with the combination of other essential vitamin
and minerals, which makes health enthusiast to seek after
Moringa.[11,19,20,37]
Moringa and diabetes
Moringa Oleifera is a nutrient plant that can help to maintain
normal blood sugar levels. Moringa Oleifera holds so much
promise for those who suffer from diabetes. This is primarily
because of its many amazing, natural benefits. Moringa
Oleifera has been shown to boost the immune system, which
usually becomes compromised in those who suffer from
type 1 and 2 diabetes. Moringa Oleifera has also been shown
to possess many key anti-inflammatory benefits; diabetes
often causes circulatory problems which can be managed
through anti-inflammatory supplements. There are no
negative side effects associated with Moringa Oleifera use,
meaning that it is a safe, natural way for people to manage
their blood sugar and care for their diabetes symptoms. It
is just one more option for the many people who have to
cope with this serious condition.[38] Unexpected benefits of
Moringa include an apparent cure for tapeworms and help
in controlling diabetes and high blood pressure.[39] Moringa
Oleifera as a rich source of ascorbic acid helps in insulin
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011
Chronicles of Young Scientists 124
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
secretion. It is interesting to note that certain nutrients like
vitamins B1, B2, B12, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, protein
and potassium along with small frequent meals containing
some carbohydrate can actually stimulate production of
insulin within the body. Please consult to your doctor first
before you begin to consume it.[40,41]
Other health benets of Moringa
Relieves arthritis, rheumatism and gout
The oil extracted from Moringa seeds and flowers, called
Moringa oil or ben oil, has anti-inflammatory compounds[42,43]
that help relieve the pain and swelling caused by arthritis,
rheumatism and gout. Just apply the oil over the affected
joint, massage lightly, and leave on for 30 minutes. Making a
decoction from Moringa seeds will also have a similar effect.
You can also roast the seeds, pound them and apply the
pulverized powder over the affected area. Pounded Moringa
roots can also be used as a poultice for pain and swelling.
Relaxes the muscles and cures diarrhea
The roots and leaves of Moringa have been found to
contain antispasmodic compounds that help relax the
muscles.[42-45] Besides helping soothe tired and painful
muscles, this action also helps control the intestinal spasms
characteristic of diarrhea. Studies have shown that Moringa
root extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that
have anti-dysenteric and anti-diarrheal properties.
Helps with lower back pain
When mixed with milk, the juice from the root of the Moringa
tree has been used traditionally to help ease lower back
pain or lumbago. Studies have shown that certain extracts
of the Moringa root contains analgesics called moringine
and moringinine that may play a role in its efficacy against
lumbago.[42,43]
Protects the liver
The flowers and roots of the Moringa plant contain a
compound called quercetin that is known to protect the liver.
Decoctions from dried Moringa flowers and pounded root
have been traditionally used to help with liver disease.[42,43]
Wards o heart disease
Juice or tea made from Moringa leaves has been found to
help lower high blood pressure. This has been discovered to
be due to the action of compounds called glycosides that are
found in the Moringa leaf. The seeds of Moringa are also rich
in these compounds. The crude extract of Moringa leaves has
also been found to significantly lower cholesterol levels due
to the action of beta-sitosterol. The fruit of the Moringa is
the most powerful when it comes to protecting the heart it
has been found to lower blood cholesterol as well as reduce
fat in the liver, heart and aorta.[42,43]
As an antibiotic
The roots and flowers of the Moringa have a compound
called pterygospermin, a powerful antimicrobial that kills
bacteria and fungi. The leaves and roots of Moringa are also
rich in a compound called benzyl isothiocyanate that have
strong antifungal and antibacterial properties. The bark
of Moringa has also been found to have antibacterial and
antifungal effects. You can make a strong antibiotic wash to
clean wounds from fresh Moringa leaves. To make a strong
dressing, pound fresh leaves and mix with coconut oil, then
spread over the wound.[42,43,46,47]
Relieves sore throat
Because of the Maringa’s excellent antibiotic properties, it is
also used to kill bacteria that cause sore throat. A decoction
of roots is usually used as a gargle to provide sore throat
relief.[29,30]
Eases asthma and hiccups
When mixed with milk, juice from the root of the Moringa
plant can help ease asthma and hiccups.[29,30]
Wards o cancer
Studies have shown that several compounds extracted
from Moringa, namely isothiocyanates, a benzyl carbamate,
niazimicin, and beta-sitosterol have anti-tumor properties
against lung, breast, skin, esophagus, and pancreatic cancer.
These compounds are found in high concentrations in the
leaves and seeds of the plant.[29,30]
Conclusion
The Moringa Oleifera plant is the most inexpensive and
credible alternative to providing good nutrition. Moringa
oleifera is the most nutrient-rich plant yet discovered. Not
only is the Moringa oleifera tree extraordinary in that all
parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect
of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional value.
Moringa provides a rich and rare combination of nutrients,
amino acids, antioxidants, anti-aging and -inflammatory
properties used for nutrition and healing. The leaves of the
Moringa tree are an excellent source of vitamin A (four times
the amount in carrots), the raw leaves are rich in vitamin
C (seven times the amount in oranges), and they are also
a good source of vitamin B and other minerals. The leaves
are also an outstanding source of calcium (four times the
amount in milk), protein (twice the amount in milk), and
potassium (three time the amount in bananas). The content
of iron is very good as well and the leaves have purportedly
been used for treating anemia in the Philippines. The
content of amino acids such as methionine and cystine is
also high. Carbohydrates, fats and phosphorous content are
low making this one of the finest plant foods to be found.
References
1. Gopalan, C, Rama BV, Balasubramanian SC. Nutrive value of Indian foods.
Hyderabad, India: (Naonal Instute of Nutrion), 1971.
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
125
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
2. Fuglie, Lowell J, editor. The miracle tree—Moringa oleifera: Natural
nutrion for the tropics. Training Manual. 2001. Dakar, Senegal: Church
World Service; 2002.
3. Price ML. “The Moringa Tree.Educaonal Concerns for Hunger Organizaon
(ECHO) Technical Note. 1985 (revised 2002). May 2002.
4. De Saint Sauveur, Armelle. “Moringa exploitaon in the world: State of
knowledge and challenges.” Development Potenal for Moringa Products.
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Internaonal Workshop; 2001.
5. Morton JF. “The horseradish tree, Moringa pterygosperma (Moringaceae)-A
boon to arid lands?” Econ Bot 1991;5:318-33.
6. Indian Gyan. The source for alternave medicines and holisc health. Home
Remedies for Common Ailments. 2002.
7. Bakhru HK. Foods that heal: The natural way to good health. South Asia,
South Asia Books; 1995.
8. New Crop Resource Online Program (NewCROP). “Moringa Oleifera Lam.”
1998. Purdue U. Jan. 2005.
9. Manzoor M, Anwar F, Iqbal, Bhnager MI. Physico-chemical characterizaon
of Moringa concanensis seeds and seed oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2007;
84:413-9.
10. Nasir E, Ali SI. Editors. Flora of west Pakistan: An annotated catalogue of
the vascular plants of West Pakistan and Kashmir. Karachi, Pakistan: Fakhri
Prinng Press. 1972. p. 1028.
11. Available from: hp://www.underulized-species.org/species/brochures/
Moringa.pdf [Last accessed on 211 Feb 08].
12. Dahot MU, Memon AR, Nutrive signicance of oil extracted from Moringa
oleifera seeds. J Pharm Univ Kar 1985;3:75-80
13. Ram J. Moringa a highly nutrious vegetable tree, Tropical Rural and Island/
Atoll Development Experimental Staon (TRIADES), Technical Bullen No.
2, 1994.
14. Moringa Saurce. Available from: hp://www.moringasource.com/ [Last
accessed on 2011 Feb 08].
15. Abrams B, Duncan D, Hertz Piccioto I. A prospecve study of dietary
intake and acquired immune deciency syndrome in HIV sero-posive
homosexsual men. J Acquir Immune Dec Syndr 1993;8:949-58.
16. Anwar F, Bhanger MI. Analycal characterizaon of Moriga oleifera seed oil
growth in temperate region of Pakistan. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:6558-
63.
17. Prakash AO. Ovarian response to aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera
during early pregnancy in rats. Fitoterapia 1988; 59:89-96.
18. Available from: hp://www.naturalnews.com/022272.html#ixzz1Atc2
moVA [Last accessed on 2011 Feb 08].
19. Fuglie LJ. The Miracle Tree: Moringa oleifera: Natural nutrion for the
tropics. Church World Service, Dakar: 1999. p. 68; revised in 2001 and
published as The miracle tree: The mulple aributes of Moringa: 2001.
p. 172.
20. Fuglie LJ. New uses of Moringa studied in Nicaragua. ECHO Development
Notes 68, 2000.
21. Locke CT, Calvert CC, Grive LE. Energy and micronutrient composion of
dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural
Fulani, Northeastern Nigeria. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2000;51:195-208.
22. Babu SC. Rural nutrion intervenons with indigenous plant foods: A case
study of vitamin deciency in Malawi. Vol. 4. Internaonal Food Policy
Research Instute, Washington, DC. Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ.; 2000.
p. 169-79.
23. Duke JA. Moringaceae: Horseradish-tree, benzolive-tree, drumsck-tree,
sohnja, Moringa, murunga-kai, malunggay. In: Benge M, editor. Moringa:
A mulpurpose vegetable and tree that puries water. Sci. and Technol.
For., Environ., and Natural Resources Agro-Forestaon Tech. Ser. 27.
Washington, D.C: US AID; 1987. p. 19-28.
24. Oliveira JT, Silveira SB. Composional and nutrional aributes of seeds
from the mulple purpose tree Moringa oleifera Lamarck. J Sci Food Agric
1999;79:815-20.
25. Ramachandran C, Peter KV, Gopalakrishnan PK. Drumsck (Moringa
oleifera): A mulpurpose Indian Vegetable. Econ Bot 1980;34:276-83.
26. Dahot MU, Memon AR. Nutrive signicance of oil extracted from Moringa
oleifera seeds. J Pharm Univer Karachi 1985;3:75-80.
27. Delaveau P, Boiteau P. Oils of Moringa oleifera and Moringa drouhardii.
Plantes Medicinales et Phytotherapie 1980;14:29-33.
28. Dhar B, OP Gupta. Nutrional value of Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.).
B.M.E.B.R. 1982;3:280-8.
29. Mahatab SN, Ali A, Asaduzzaman AH. Nutrional potenal of sajna leaves
in goats. Live stock Advisor, 1987;12:9-12.
30. Trees for Life. Moringa Book. 2005. Available form: hp://www.
treesforlifeorg/project/moringa/ book/default.asp.[Last accessed on 2011
Feb 08].
31. Pregnant and breast-feeding women with Moringa oleifera powder.”
Development potenal for Moringa products. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania:
Internaonal Workshop; 2001.
32. Black R. Micronutrient deciency: An underlying cause of morbidity and
mortality. Bull World Health Organ 2003;81:79.
33. WHO. Management of severe malnutrion: A manual for physicians and other
senior health workers. Geneva: World Health Organizaon; 1999. p. 4.
34. SNEPS-SNAN, 2000. Journées naonales de micronutriment. République
duénégal. Ministère de la santé (brochure).
35. Bellagio Brief. Conclusions of a meeng on February 3-7, 1999 in Bellagio,
Italy.
36. Engineering soluons to malnutrion. Seedlings magazine. GRAIN, 2000.
37. Njoku OU, Adikwu MU. Invesgaon on some physico-chemical
anoxidant and toxicological properes of Moringa oleifera seed oil. Acta
Pharmaceuca Zagreb 1997;47:287-90.
38. Admin. 2010. Moringa Oleifera for diabetes. Available form: hp://www.
b12shots.info/moringa-oleifera-for-diabetes/ [updated on May 10, 2010,
Last accessed on 2011 Feb 08].
39. Fuglie LJ. Combang malnutrion with Moringa. Bot J Linn Soc
2001;135:315-48.
40. Mossa JS. A study on the crude andiabec drugs used in Arabian folk
medicine. Int J Crude Drug Res 1985;23:137-45.
41. Available from: hp://medicmagic.net/natural-suplement-for-diabetes
moringa-oleifera.html [Last accessed on 2011 Feb 08].
42. Anwar F, Laf S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. Moringa oleifera: A food plant with
mulple medicinal uses. Phytother Res 2005;21:17-25.
43. nwar F, Laf S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH. Moringa oleifera: A review of the medical
evidence for its nutrional, therapeuc, and prophylacc Properes. Trees
Life J 2007;1:5.
44. Saralaya MG, Patel P, Patel M, Roy SP, Patel AN. Andiarrheal acvity of
methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera lam roots in experimental animal
models. Int J Pharmaceuc Res 2010;2:35-9
45. Admin. 2010. Moringa Oleifera for Diabetes. Available form: hp://www.
b12shots.info/moringa-oleifera-for-diabetes/ [Last updated on 2010 May
10, Last accessed on 2011 Feb 08].
46. Dahot MU. Anmicrobial acvity of small protein of Moringa oleifera
leaves. J Islam Acad Sci 1998;11:27-32.
47. Pal SK, Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Anmicrobial acon of the
leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Anc Sci Life 1995;14:197-9.
How to cite this article: Dhakar RC, Maurya SD, Pooniya BK, Bairwa N,
Gupta M, S.
Moringa
: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition. Chron Young Sci
2011;2:119-25.
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared
[Downloadedfreefromhttp://www.cysonline.orgonSunday,December14,2014,IP:180.215.142.26]||ClickheretodownloadfreeAndroidapplicationforthisjournal
... Additionally, other studies have also found higher values of moisture content [46][47][48][49][50], which depends on the dryness of the original sample. [53], and Fuglie et al. [54]. However, our value was higher than that obtained by Ogbe and Affiku [44], Amabye and Gebrehiwot [45], Umerah et al. [46], Fokwen et al. [49], and Valdez-Solana et al. [55]. ...
... The mineral content of the Moringa oleifera is shown in Table 2. In general, high levels of macrominerals were obtained, but among these, K (1752 mg/100g DW) was the most abundant element, followed by Ca (1475 mg/100g DW) and S (982,49 mg/100g DW), which was also shown by previous authors [34,37,46,53]. In this regard, Olusanya et al. [33] noticed that it could be used for the development of strong teeth and bones, which is a crucial need in children and pregnant women. ...
... In this regard, Olusanya et al. [33] noticed that it could be used for the development of strong teeth and bones, which is a crucial need in children and pregnant women. Regarding the other macrominerals, high values were also obtained except for Na, that was the least abundant macromineral, but the data on Mg were lower than those found by other authors [34][35][36][37]43,51,53,[61][62][63]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Moringa oleifera is a tree cultivated originally in northern India, whose ancient use as a medicine has demonstrated its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to its richness in minerals and macronutrients, the antioxidant capacity and the mineral bioaccesibility were assessed. In addition, the chemical composition, amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral content were also evaluated. The performed analysis reported a high content of proteins and low content of lipids in the chemical composition. Regarding the mineral content, Ca and Fe presented high bioaccessibility; K, S, Ca, and Fe being the most concentrated elements. The obtained values using FRAP, ABTS, and ORAC methods showed high antioxidant capacity, directly related to the increased content of phe-nolic compounds. In view of the results, Moringa oleifera can be incorporated into the diet as a functional ingredient or as a fortifier of any kind of food. The important source of minerals, phenolics, proteins, unsaturated fats, and folates make it an excellent extract with beneficial properties.
... One of the plants that can be used as a nutritional supplement is Moringa oleifera leaves which have high protein content (27,1 %), carboydrate content (38,2 %), and fiber content (19,2 %) (Dhakar et al., 2011). ...
... Fortification of Moringa oleifera gave additional protein content in wet noodles. This was supported by Dhakar et al. (2011) which found that Moringa oliefera leaves contain high protein and rich in amino acids such as arginine, and histidine. Apart from Moringa leaves, the use of eggs in each treatment were similar and it also increase the protein content of the wet noodles, because eggs not only contain fat compounds but also contain quite a lot of protein. ...
Article
Full-text available
Noodles are often consumed by the public and contain a lot of carbohydrate compounds. Human needs are not only for carbohydrates but also for protein, fat, or mineral compounds. The need for macronutrients or minerals is not only found in flour sources, but can be obtained from natural sources such as Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves have nutritional, mineral or antioxidant potential and other bioactive. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of macronutrients, crude fiber, and minerals (Ca and Fe) contained in wet noodles fortified with Moringa oleifera leaves flour. In this study, the experimental design used a completely randomized design (CRD). The treatment carried out in the study was using 100% wheat flour as a control, 5% Moringa oleifera leaves flour, and 95% wheat flour, 10% Moringa oleifera leaves flour and 90% wheat flour, 15% Moringa leaves flour, and 85% wheat flour. The results showed that the addition of higher concentrations of Moringa oleifera flour affected crude fiber, macronutrients, and minerals content in wet noodle products. Based on the previous study that we conducted about sensory evaluation. Different concentration of Moringa oleifera gave different sensory characteristic. For 5% concentration results organoleptic of colours 103.06, aroma 102.34, taste 103.64 and texture 107.71. Whilw in 15% concentration of Moringa oleifera it has 32.09 of colours, 29.44 of aroma, 29.89 of taste and 38.37 of texture. It is recommended that the use of Moringa oleifera flour does not exceed 5% because it is affects the organoleptic of the product. Concentrations of 5%, 10%, and 15% have potential to increase macronutrients and minerals in noodle products.
... For the majority of developing countries and low-income populations, some varieties of food are unaffordable or seasonally unavailable. In the tropics for instance, meals are generally built around one staple food rich in carbohydrates but very poor nutritionally, such as a dough made from yam, maize or cassava (Dhakar et al., 2011;Ramota et al., 2013). This kind of restrictive diet consumed every day leads to chronic malnutrition (Dhakar et al., 2011). ...
... In the tropics for instance, meals are generally built around one staple food rich in carbohydrates but very poor nutritionally, such as a dough made from yam, maize or cassava (Dhakar et al., 2011;Ramota et al., 2013). This kind of restrictive diet consumed every day leads to chronic malnutrition (Dhakar et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Native to India, Moringa oleifera Lam. is a plant with high nutritional value, which is now grown across the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. This study determined the knowledge, consumption, attitudes and beliefs toward Moringa oleifera in some African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, and South Africa) and in India to gain a better understanding of why this plant is widely consumed in India but less so in Africa. An online survey was conducted using a snowball sampling procedure with 258 respondents who are consumers of Moringa (124 are Indians and 134 are Africans; 54% are Male and 46% are Female). We hypothesized that the differences in patterns of Moringa consumption in India and Africa might be due to differences in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards Moringa. In particular, we expected Indian respondents to have a better knowledge and more positive attitudes and beliefs towards Moringa than African respondents. Based on our study sample, we observed differences in terms of knowledge and consumption of Moringa between Indian and African respondents. However, these differences could not be explained in terms of beliefs and attitudes: No significant difference was found between African and Indian respondents’ beliefs towards Moringa. Having positive attitudes and beliefs is not enough to change Moringa consumption behavior. Past behavior seems to be a better predictor of Moringa consumption behavior. As Moringa is not yet anchored in African families and cultural practices, especially in South Africa, providing only nutritional and health information is not enough to promote Moringa consumption in Africa. A better option would be to increase the familiarity of Moringa by incorporating it into familiar local foods with a high satiating power. Family also seems to be an important driver of Moringa consumption that needs to be taken into account.
... mg hydrogen cyanide per 100 g of Moringa leaves (Auwal et al. 2020). The level of oxalates Source: (Dhakar et al. 2011;Gopalakrishnan et al. 2016;Liang et al. 2019;Price 1985). ...
Article
Full-text available
Moringa oleifera, a member of the plant family Moringaceae, has been recognized to have an abundance of nutrients and bioactive substances with the potential to positively affect health. Moringa has proven to be a versatile plant, with every part of it being used as either a food or a therapeutic agent. The favorable results of different scientific investigations on the use of Moringa in human nutrition have prompted a quest to investigate its potential application in the livestock sector as an alternative to traditional animal feed. Moringa, being an excellent source of nutrients, particularly proteins, can be used as a source of protein in animal diets or as an alternative to conventional livestock feed and fodder. Many research articles have recently been published suggesting that Moringa can be utilized as an unconventional feed or as a fortification agent in animal feeds at inclusion levels that have no negative impact on health, survival, mortality, growth rate, or reproduction.
... M. oleifera is a plant which can be found in a variety of climates and substandard soils. It is one of the world's most useful trees as almost every part of the tree can be used for food, medicine or other beneficial products (Dhakar et al., 2011). All parts of the Moringa Anim al Research I nternational (2022) 19(1): 4382 -4389 tree are edible but the roots which are used as condiment in the same way as horseradish contain the alkaloid spirochin, a potentially fatal nerve paralyzing agent (Makkar and Becker, 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
M oringa oleifera is one of nature's amazing plants that is nutritionally and medicinally beneficial to m an. This study w as aim ed at determ ining the people's know ledge, utilization and distribution of M oringa in Ohaukw u Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Three tow ns w ere selected from the LGA, 450 respondents participated in the study. House visits w ere used to reach the people. I nterview er adm inistered and structured questionnaires w ere used to gather information from the participants. Distribution of M. oleifera plants w as estimated by counting the plant stands in the compounds visited. Utilization of M. oleifera w as subdivided into nutrition, agriculture, m edicine and cultural uses. The know ledge of M. oleifera by the people varied among the sexes. M ore females 108(65.06 %) than the males 58(34.94 %) had know ledge of M. oleifera plant. Know ledge of the plant decreased w ith increased educational status. I t varied w ith different occupational groups being highest among farmers and least among the drivers. M. oleifera w ere found grow ing luxuriantly in the three clans but sparsely distributed due to felled M oringa trees. The plant population ranged from 7 to 11 stands in the study communities. Uses of M. oleifera include: human nutrition, animal shed, fodder and in treating various ailments. Ailments commonly treated w ith M. oleifera include; toothache, constipation, catarrh, sore throat, helminthiasis and rheumatism. Follow ing the dearth in know ledge of the plant among youths and its sparse distribution, there is need for planting of M. oleifera in the community for better know ledge and utilization by the people.
... On the other hand, moringa leaves are rich in minerals, vitamins, antioxidant compounds such as phytochemicals, tocopherols, polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids (Fahey 2005, Aja et al. 2014, Chhikara et al. 2020. Several studies reported that moringa leaves contain seven times the content of ascorbic acid as in oranges, four times the concentration of vitamin A as in carrots, three times the concentrations of calcium and iron as compared to those in milk (Fahey 2005;Dhakar et al., 2011;Rweyemamu et al., 2015;Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016;Vanga and Raghavan, 2018;Meireles et al., 2020). The presence of these multiple bioactive constituents has positive effects on the human health system and could enhance the prevention of various non-communicable and age-related diseases (Santos et al. 2019). ...
Article
Formulation of plant-based food ingredients rich in nutrients is becoming a viable intervention to enhance food security. In this study, a novel soy-moringa beverage was produced using two processing methods. Method I involved blending soymilk and moringa juice, whereas method II dealt with the co-grinding of soymilk together with blanched moringa leaves. The proximate and mineral compositions, pH, total dissolved solids, and viscosity of the soy-moringa beverages were carefully analysed using standard methods. The results showed different nutritional compositions in the soy-moringa beverages formulated. Moreover, method II was found to be the most effective technique to process the soy-moringa beverage. Hence, the proximate compositions were observed to increase significantly (p < 0.05) with an increase in moringa leaves. The amounts of protein, fat, ash, fibre and carbohydrates increased by 49.77%, 8.59%, 84.85%, 85.71%, and 114.56%, respectively with the increase of moringa leaves. The concentrations of β-carotene, iron, calcium, copper, magnesium, and potassium presented an increasing trend by 147%, 40%, 284%, 30%, 12% and 190%, respectively as moringa leaves increase. The quantitative data on nutritional values and physicochemical properties suggested that the soy-moringa beverages produced with 30 and 40% moringa leaves under method II could be suitable to address undernutrition for vulnerable people.
Article
Full-text available
Moringaoleifera, a highly valued plant produced globally and utilised in several food compositions, has medical and industrial purposes.This plant is gaining popularitydue to its nutrient-rich leaves, pods, seeds, and flowers. Moringa oleifera, such as a miracle tree, has many health benefits, and it is a rich source of specific essential nutritional componentsand various health benefits.The oil from seeds was extracted and used for skin lotion and perfume. The most widely studied part of the Moringa plant is Moringa leaves and has many benefits related to health in various chronic conditions like liver diseases, hypertension, diabetes, cancer,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation.Moringa leaves extract can also be used to treat diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and malnutrition, while Moringa seeds can be utilised to enhance water quality. Moringa is a source of nutrition due to various essential phytochemicals, which are present in its leaves, pods, and seeds. It can be used for many nutritional as well as for commercial purposes. Moringa has many nutrientswhich have significant health benefits for the maintenance of the body. The seed powderof Moringa can be used to purify dirty water modestly and rapidly, and it possesses many health benefits.
Article
Full-text available
Herein, a sensitive electrochemical sensor for bisphenol A (BPA) has been developed through modification of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (f-MWCNT) and green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We present a novel, green, and cost-effective approach for the synthesis of AgNPs from Moringa oleifera extract with a simpler and faster-synthesized process compared to previously green reduction methods mentioned in the literature. This biosynthesis method gives place to spherical silver nanoparticles of an average size of 45 nm (± 5 nm). The AgNPs were characterized using UV–visible (UV–Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and Raman spectroscopy methods. Here, green AgNPs and f-MWCNT were used as catalysts in electroanalysis and were simply dropped onto the surface of GCE to obtain AgNPs/f-MWCNT/GCE structure-based BPA nanosensor which allowed the analysis of BPA at trace level by square wave voltammetry (SWV) from 0.3 to 8 µM with a limit of detection (LOD) of about 0.22 µM. The selectivity of the sensor with respect to several interfering species was demonstrated to be at a good level. The sensor was applied successfully to detect BPA in drinking water.
Article
Full-text available
Moringaoleifera, a highly valued plant produced globally and utilised in several food compositions, has medical and industrial purposes.This plant is gaining popularitydue to its nutrient-rich leaves, pods, seeds, and flowers. Moringa oleifera, such as a miracle tree, has many health benefits, and it is a rich source of specific essential nutritional componentsand various health benefits.The oil from seeds was extracted and used for skin lotion and perfume. The most widely studied part of the Moringa plant is Moringa leaves and has many benefits related to health in various chronic conditions like liver diseases, hypertension, diabetes, cancer,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation.Moringa leaves extract can also be used to treat diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and malnutrition, while Moringa seeds can be utilised to enhance water quality. Moringa is a source of nutrition due to various essential phytochemicals, which are present in its leaves, pods, and seeds. It can be used for many nutritional as well as for commercial purposes. Moringa has many nutrientswhich have significant health benefits for the maintenance of the body. The seed powderof Moringa can be used to purify dirty water modestly and rapidly, and it possesses many health benefits.
Article
Full-text available
The Moringa oleifera kernel contains 20% oil rich in β-carotene, plant sterols and lecithin. The oil contains no unusual fatty acids. Toxicological studies reveal the absence of mycotoxins.
Article
A survey of different regions of Saudi Arabia revealed that a large number of herbal drugs are used for the treatment of diabetes in the traditional medicine of this country. Twelve of these antidiabetic plants were collected and identified. The literature was surveyed to find distribution, chemical constituents and other medicinal uses of these plants. Studies for antidiabetic activity in alloxanized mice in our laboratory showed that out of 12 plants, three plants (Teucriurn Oliverianum, Hammada saticornica and Allium cepa) possess significant oral hypoglycemic (25% to 38%) activity; three plants (Artemisia abyssinica, Azadirachta indica and Loranthus curviflorus) showed moderate (11% to 23%) activity. Five plants (Rhazya stricta, Momordica churuntia, Aloe Vera, Allium sativum and Coriandrum sativum) were found to possess no significant activity. One plant (Moringa oleifera) rather increased the blood glucose (15%) in diabetic mice.
Article
Among medicinal plants, Moringa oleifera Lam. has been recommended for several disorders in folk medicine. Indian Materia Medica describes the use of roots of Moringa oleifera Lam in the treatment of a number of ailments, including asthma, gout, lumbago, rheumatism, enlarged spleen or liver, etc. Nevertheless, no pharmacological studies of Moringa oleifera Lam root have thus far evaluated for its anti diarrheal activity. Thus the purpose of the present study is to evaluate scientifically the effect of hydroalcoholic (50:50) extract of root of Moringa oleifera Lam against castor oil induced diarrhea models in rats. The parameters used for the evaluations are the decrease in severity and frequency in diarrheas caused due to castor oil, futher to understand the probable mechanism of its anti-diarrhoeal activity, its effect was evaluated on intestinal transit, castor oil induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling) and electrolyte concentration in the small intestinal fluid. The methanolic root extract of Moringa oleifera Lam 200 (p<0.01)and 400 mg/kg (p<0.001) produced a significant reduction in the severity and frequency of diarrhea, intestinal fluid accumulation, the volume of intestinal content and intestinal transit compared to normal saline control group, dose dependently more than atropine (3mg/kg i.p). This signifies the usefulness of this model and the clinical effect of the extract. Moringa oleifera Lam root extract may be useful in a wide range of diarrheal states due to both disorders of transit e.g.functional diarrhoeas, radiation diarrhea or due to abnormal secretory mechanisms like in cholera or E.coli entero-toxin induced diarrhea. Further studies are necessary for chemical characterization of the active principles and more extensive biological evaluations.