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Moringa: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition

  • SRG Hospital & Medical College, Jhalawar

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This document is aimed to describing the potential benefits of the Moringa tree as a nutrient. Moringa tree can be utilized in treating the malnutrition in a local and cost-effective manner. Malnutrition causes a great deal of human suffering and is associated with more than half of all deaths of children worldwide. Malnutrition severely affects the socio-economic development of a nation because a work force that is stunted both mentally and physically may have a reduced work capacity. Thus nutrition plays an important role in the reproduction of poverty from one generation to the next. Not only is the Moringa oleifera tree extraordinary in that all parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional value. The leaves of the Moringa tree are an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin B vitamin C and other minerals. The leaves are also an outstanding source of calcium, protein, potassium and iron. The content of amino acids such as methionine and cystine is also high. Carbohydrates, fats and phosphorous content are low making this one of the finest plant foods to be found. Present review focuses on the potential benefits of Moringa oleifera in treatment of malnutrition
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Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
Moringa: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition
This document is aimed to describing the potential benefits of the
tree as a nutrient.
can be utilized in treating the malnutrition in a local and cost-effective manner. Malnutrition causes a great
deal of human suffering and is associated with more than half of all deaths of children worldwide. Malnutrition
severely affects the socio-economic development of a nation because a work force that is stunted both
mentally and physically may have a reduced work capacity. Thus nutrition plays an important role in the
reproduction of poverty from one generation to the next. Not only is the
Moringa oleifera
tree extraordinary in
that all parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional
value. The leaves of the
tree are an excellent source of vitamin A, vitamin B vitamin C and other
minerals. The leaves are also an outstanding source of calcium, protein, potassium and iron. The content of
amino acids such as methionine and cystine is also high. Carbohydrates, fats and phosphorous content are
low making this one of the finest plant foods to be found. Present review focuses on the potential benefits of
Moringa oleifera
in treatment of malnutrition.
Key words:
Deaths of children, high nutritional value, malnutrition, plant foods
There are several herbs of nature which help in restoring
the balance of body and maintaining good health. But a
single moringa tree can provide leaf for nutrition, oil for
cooking and healthy skin, seed cake for water purification
and wood to build shelter and keep you warm. Moringa
oleifera is the most widely cultivated pan-tropical species
of a monogeneric family, the Moringaceae, which is native
to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
and Afghanistan. Moringa oleifera is known by such regional
names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge,
mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna [Figure 1].
The history of Moringa dates back to 150 B.C. Historical
proofs reveal that ancient kings and queens used Moringa
leaves and fruit in their diet to maintain mental alertness
and healthy skin. Ancient Maurian warriors of India were
fed with Moringa Leaf Extract in the warfront. The Elixir
drink was believed to add them extra energy and relieve
them of the stress and pain incurred during war. These
brave soldiers were the ones who defeated “Alexander”
the Great.[1,9,10] There are 13 varieties of Moringa, Moringa
Oleifera is the most well known. Every part of this tree is
edible, from the leaves, trunks, stems, all the way down
to its root. The flowers can be eaten or used to make tea
and provide good amounts of both calcium and potassium.
The young pods can be cooked and reportedly have a taste
reminiscent of asparagus. The green peas and surrounding
white material can be removed from larger pods and cooked
in various ways.
Moringa tolerates a wide range of environmental conditions.[4]
It will tolerate extremely high temperatures in the shade and
can survive a light frost. The drought-tolerant tree grows
well in areas that receive annual rainfall amounts ranging
Ram Chand Dhakar, Sheo Daa Maurya, Brijendra K. Pooniya1,
Narendra Bairwa1, Manisha Gupta2, Sanwarmal2
Department of Pharmacy, IEC-CET, KP-I, G. Noida,
1Department of Pharmaceucal Sciences, MLS University, Udaipur,
2HIMT College of Pharmacy, Greater Noida, India
Address for correspondence:
Dr. Ram C. Dhakar,
Department of Pharmacy, IEC Group of Instuon,
KP-I, Greater Noida – 201 308, India.
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Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
between 250 and 1500 mm. It prefers a well-drained sandy
loam or loam soil, but tolerates clay. Moringa is planted
either by direct seeding, transplanting, or using hard stem
Leaves can be harvested after plants grow 1.5 to 2.0 m,
which usually takes 3 to 6 months. They are harvested by
snapping leaf stems from branches or by cutting the entire
branches 20 to 40 cm above the ground. Older leaves need
to be stripped from their tough and wiry stems. These leaves
are more suited to making dried leaf powder, since stems can
be removed during the sifting process. For fresh vegetables
the leaves must be harvested early in the morning and sold
the same day. Flowers and pods are produced during the
second year of growth. The pods are harvested when young,
tender and green. The pulp and immature seeds of older
pods remain edible until shortly before the ripening process
Contribution to rural and social development
Virtually every part of the tree is beneficial in some way
and both rural and urban people depend on it for their
livelihood. Depending on the purpose and quantity, Moringa
is grown in nurseries, as a community project, or on a small
scale at the family level. It can function as windbreaks,
for land erosion control, live fences, as an ornamental, or
intercropped to provide semi-shade to species requiring
less direct sunlight. One theme surrounding the cultivation
and use of Moringa is the risk that the species may alter
the land and its living systems. However, according to a
recent study, a crucial transition must take place whereby
destructive farming practices must be replaced by new
and improved cultivation methods which raise Moringa
without destroying natural systems on which agriculture
ultimately depends. In fact, the effective development
and management of Moringa can indeed contribute to
sustainable growth and poverty reduction in developing
countries. But for this to take place, a balance must be
found between the short-term needs of the people for
their social and economic development and the protection
of the natural resource base.[11]
Moringa as a nutrient source
In developing tropical countries, Moringa trees have been
used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants
and nursing mothers.[12,13] Three non-governmental
organizations in particular - Trees for Life, Church World
Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization
- advocate Moringa as natural nutrition for the tropics.”
The immature pods are the most valued and widely used
of all the tree parts. The pods are extremely nutritious,
containing all the essential amino acids along with many
vitamins and other nutrients. The immature pod can be
eaten raw or prepared like green peas or green beans, while
the mature pods are usually fried and possess a peanut-like
flavor. The pods also yield 38 to 40% of non-drying, edible
oil known as Ben Oil. This oil is clear, sweet and odorless,
and never becomes rancid. Overall, its nutritional value
most closely resembles olive oil. The thickened root is
used as a substitute for horseradish although this is now
discouraged as it contains alkaloids, especially moriginine,
and a bactericide, spirochin, both of which can prove fatal
following ingestion. The leaves are eaten as greens, in
salads, in vegetable curries, as pickles and for seasoning.
They can be pounded up and used for scrubbing utensils
and for cleaning walls. Leaves and young branches are
relished by livestock. The Bark can be used for tanning
and also yields a coarse fiber. The flowers, which must be
cooked, are eaten either mixed with other foods or fried in
batter and have been shown to be rich in potassium and
calcium [Tables 1-4].[14-18]
Moringa as a source of vitamins and minerals
Not only is the Moringa oleifera tree extraordinary in that
all parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect
of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional value. The
leaves of the Moringa tree are an excellent source of vitamin
Table 1: Moringa nutrition content[15]
(per 100 g)
Fresh leaves
(per 100 g)
Dried leaf
(per 100 g)
Moisture % 86.9 75 7.5
Calories 26 92 205
Protein (g) 2.5 6.7 27.1
Fat (g) 0.1 1.7 2.30
Carbohydrates (g) 3.7 13.4 38.2
Fiber (g) 4.8 0.9 19.2
Minerals (g) 22.3
Calcium (mg) 30 440 2003
Magnesium (mg) 24 24 368.0
Phosphorous (mg) 110 70 204.0
Potassium (mg) 24 24 1324
Copper (mg) 3.1 1.1 0.6
Iron (mg) 5.3 0.7 28.2
Oxalic Acid (mg) 10 101 0.0
Sulfur(mg) 137 137 870
Figure 1: Various parts of Moringa Oleifera[1-8]
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
Table 2: Vitamin and mineral content of Moringa [16,17]
Vitamin content
(per 100 g)
Fresh leaves Dried leaves
Carotene (Vit. A) mg 6.78 18.9
Thiamin (B1) mg 0.06 2.64
Riboavin (B2) mg 0.05 20.5
Niacin (B3) mg 0.8 8.2
Vitamin C mg 220 17.3
Calcium mg 440 2,003
Calories cal 92 205
Carbohydrates g 12.5 38.2
Copper mg 0.07 0.57
Fat g 1.70 2.3
Fiber g 0.90 19.2
Iron mg 0.85 28.2
Magnesium mg 42 368
Phosphorus mg 70 204
Potassium mg 259 1,324
Protein g 6.70 27.1
Zinc mg 0.16 3.29
Table 4: Percentage of the recommended daily
allowance of various nutrients
Nutrition component % RDA
Parent Child
Protein 21 42
Calcium 84 125
Magnesium 54 61
Potassium 22 41
Iron 94 71
Vitamin A 143 272
Vitamin C 9 22
Supplied to a nursing mother and a 1 to 3 year old child by Moringa
leaf powder (6 tablespoons per day for a nursing mother;
1 tablespoon three times per day for a 1 to 3 year old child)[17],
RDA: Recommended daily allowance
Table 3: Moringa protein content[15]
Amino acid content
(per 100 g)
Pods Fresh
Dried leaf
Arginine (mg) 360 406.6 1325
Histidine (mg) 110 149.8 613
Lysine (mg) 150 342.4 1325
Tryptophan (mg) 80 107 425
Phenylalanine (mg) 40 310.3 1388
Methionine (mg) 140 117.7 350
Theroine (mg) 390 117.7 1188
Leucine (mg) 650 492.2 1950
Isoleucine (mg) 440 299.6 825
Valine (mg) 540 374.5 1063
A (four times the amount in carrots), the raw leaves are
rich in vitamin C (seven times the amount in oranges), and
they are also a good source of vitamin B and other minerals.
Vitamins and Minerals are required for everything from
building our physical bodies to blood coagulation and energy
production. As a source of nutrients and vitamins, Moringa
leaves rank among the best of perennial tropical vegetables.
Moringa as a source of protein
Moringa trees are known to overcome protein deficiency
in developing countries as the leaves and other parts of
the tree contain high amount of crude proteins and amino
acids compared with soy bean. Moringa is an excellent non-
animal source of protein for vegans and vegetarians.
Moringa leaves contain all of the essential amino acids,
which are the building blocks of proteins. It is very rare
for a vegetable to contain all of these amino acids And
Moringa contains these amino acids in a good proportion,
so that they are very useful to our bodies. Moringa leaves
could be a great boon to people who do not get protein
from meat. Moringa even contains arginine and histidine
two amino acids especially important for infants. Arginine
and histidine, are especially important for infants who
are unable to make enough protein for their growth
requirements. Experts tell us that 30% of children in sub-
Saharan Africa are protein deficient. Moringa could be an
extremely valuable food source.[1,9,19-24]
Moringa as a source of essential fatty acids
The other nutrients required for optimal cellular health are
the essential Fatty Acids. As strange as it may sound, there
are good fats that actively help create good health. These are
the now-famous omeg-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.
Nutritional application of Moringa
A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of
Moringa now exist in both the scientific and the popular
literature. Moringa has been in use since centuries for
nutritional as well medicinal purposes. Moringa Leaves are
full of essential disease-preventing nutrients. Moringa is a
natural, whole-food source for vitamins, minerals, protein,
antioxidants, and other important compounds that your body
relies on to stay healthy.[3,25-28] Micronutrient deficiencies are
now recognized as an important contributor to the global
burden of disease. Moringa is an alternative to imported
food supplies to treat malnutrition in poor countries.
Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition,
especially among infants and nursing mothers. Three non-
governmental organizations in particular–Trees for Life,
Church World Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger
Organization–have advocated Moringa as natural nutrition
for the tropics.” Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored
as dried powder for many months without refrigeration,
and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is
especially promising as a food source in the tropics because
the tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other
foods are typically scarce. Leaves were also used for food
In 1997-98, Alternative Action for African Development
and Church World Service tested the ability of Moringa
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Chronicles of Young Scientists 122
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
leaf powder to prevent or cure malnutrition in pregnant or
breast-feeding women and their children in southwestern
Senegal. Malnutrition was a major problem in this area,
with more than 600 malnourished infants treated every
year. During the test, doctors, nurses, and midwives were
trained in preparing and using Moringa leaf powder for
treating malnutrition. Village women were also trained in
the preparation and use of Moringa leaf powder in foods.
Result had indicated that children maintained or increased
their weight and improved overall health, pregnant
women recovered from anemia and had babies with higher
birth weights and breast-feeding women increased their
production of milk.[1, 11] Pollution, pesticides and numerous
other particles bombard us every day. These are just some of
the free radicals which we now know are so destructive. The
only protection against free-radical damage comes in the
form of Antioxidants.
Treating malnutrition with Moringa
Ideally, good nutrition should be assured by a varied diet
rich in meat, root, grain, fruit and vegetable foods. In reality,
for a majority of the world’s population such variety in food
is unaffordable or seasonally unavailable. Within the arid
countries of the African Sahel, for example, the dry seasons
are marked by a heavy dependence on the staples of rice,
millet and sorghum; during these months, fruits and greens
can be found only in a few irrigated garden plots. And in
virtually every year there is a lean period when grain stores
have been exhausted one to three months prior to the new
harvest. Elsewhere in the tropics, meals are generally built
around one staple food rich in carbohydrates but very poor
nutritionally, such as a pap or fufu made from yam, maize
or manioc. Malnutrition is frequently characterized by this
kind of restricted diet wherein a child consumes the same
weaning pap every day. In this context, Moringa is a very
simple and readily available solution to the problem of
malnutrition. The edible leaves of the Moringa oleifera tree
are already an occasional food source throughout West
Africa and other regions of the tropics and sub-tropics.
Micronutrient deficiencies are now recognized as an
important contributor to the global burden of disease.
Iodine deficiency in pregnancy has long been linked to
intra-uterine brain damage and possible fetal wastage.
Currently, although more than two billion people live in
areas that used to be iodine-deficient, it is estimated that
iodine deficiency is the cause of only 0.2% of the global
burden of disease. Iron deficiency also affects about two
billion people. Recent estimates find that iron deficiency
anemia is responsible for one fifth of early neonatal mortality
and one tenth of maternal mortality. Iron deficiency also
reduces cognitive development and work performance. Iron
deficiency is the cause of about 800,000 deaths and 2.4% of
the global burden of disease.[31,32]
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) harms the eyes and increases
childhood and maternal mortality. Globally, 21% of children
have VAD and suffer increased rates of death from diarrhea,
measles, and malaria. The importance of zinc deficiency is
being increasingly recognized. Trials have shown that zinc
supplementation results in improved growth in children,
lower rates of diarrhea, malaria, and pneumonia, and
reduced child mortality. In total about 800,000 child deaths
per year are attributable to zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency
is the cause of 1.9% of global burden of disease. According
to WHO, 19% of the 10.8 million child deaths globally a
year are attributable to iodine, iron, vitamin A, and zinc
deficiencies. Recent estimates indicate that fortification or
supplementation with iron, vitamin A, and zinc are among
the most cost-effective interventions available, even in
areas that are poor or have high HIV infection rates.
However, mild or moderate malnutrition before this
terminal stage is reached is a completely different matter:
the physiological abnormalities are much less severe and
successful recovery can be had through a fully balanced
diet containing all 40 essential nutrients in the correct
proportions. Moringa, added on a daily basis to a child’s
food, has thoroughly demonstrated its ability to bring
about rapid recoveries from moderate malnutrition.
But while successfully treating malnutrition is good,
preventing it is much better. Malnutrition is brought
on by a multitude of causes: lack of education, poverty,
famine, parasites and impure drinking water are some
of them. A program which focuses on correcting micro-
nutrient deficiencies alone will not fully eradicate
malnutrition until these other causes are addressed.
However, as the Moringa project in south-western
Senegal has demonstrated, this approach can show
very impressive results in reducing the incidence of
malnutrition.[33] Moringa is used successfully in combating
malnourishment in children and for its capacity to boost
the immune system, it can be used to complement
modern medicines in chronically ill people including
those suffering from AIDS and HIV related illnesses. It
is also used in traditional medicine for the treatment of
various illnesses including recovery from liver damage. It
is currently being examined as a bio-enhancer of drugs
and nutrients because of its production of compounds
with antibiotic activity.[11,32]
These qualities have made the Moringa oleifera tree a
candidate in the fight against malnutrition. A group of health
workers from the Church World Service have been utilizing
this highly nutritious and fast growing tree as a means to
cure and prevent malnutrition in infants, pregnant and
lactating women as an alternative to the classic and expensive
condiments usually used such as whole milk powder, sugar,
vegetable oil, and sometimes peanut butter. It takes around
ten days to see an improvement in malnourished infants
when Moringa leaves are used whereas it takes months for
recovery with conventional methods. According to Dr. Lowell
Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
Fuglie, the West Africa representative of the Church World
Service who used the Moringa tree as a base for a nutrition
program, “for a child aged 1-3, a 100 g serving of fresh cooked
leaves would provide all his daily requirements of calcium,
about 75% of his iron and half his protein needs, as well as
important amounts of potassium, B vitamins, copper and
all the essential amino acids. As little as 20 g of leaves would
provide a child with all the vitamins A and C he needs”.[19,20]
According to Senegal’s National Center for Nutritional
Alimentation, vitamin A supplementation can reduce the
incidence of childhood illness and mortality due to measles
by 50%, due to diarrhea by 40% and due to malaria by 30%.[34]
On average, vitamin A supplementation programs have
been effective in reducing overall childhood mortality by
34%.[35] To combat VAD, UNICEF is working in collaboration
with national health authorities in many countries through
a program to give every under-five child one massive dose
of vitamin A, in tablet form, twice annually. At the same
time iron supplements are being distributed to pregnant
and lactating women against anemia. Given the impressive
impact on child mortality rates these vitamin A programs
have had, they would appear to be a good idea. However,
an opposing argument claims that this approach, focusing
on specific micro-nutrient deficiencies and relying as it does
on imported products and subsidies, is short-sighted and
ultimately unsustainable.[36]
e advantages of using Moringa in malnutrition
prevention programs
It is a drought-resistant and fast growing tree which is
present in nearly all tropical and sub-tropical countries. Its
edible leaves are already an occasional food source in West
Africa regions and appear at the end of the dry season: a
time when other greens are in short supply. As a source of
good nutrition, its leaves are considered the best of tropical
legumes with its high quantities of vitamin A and significant
quantities of vitamin C, calcium, iron, protein, potassium,
magnesium, selenium, zinc and a good balance of all the
essential amino acids. Also, the leaves can be easily dried into
powder form for use as a nutritional supplement for sauces
or as an addition to infant weaning foods. Moringa leaves
can be produced intensively in a family-size small garden.
The seeds can be spaced as closely as 10 cm apart. When the
plants reach a height of a meter, they can be cut down to a
height of 30 cm. The leaves can be stripped from the stems
and used to prepared sauces or dried for long-term storage
as a nutritious food additive, and the stems fed to livestock.
The stumps survive the harvest and will re-sprout, allowing
another harvest in as little as 50 days. Using this technique,
a Moringa garden can continually produce green matter for
several years with very little labor required.[19,20]
Pregnant/breast-feeding women and Moringa
For pregnant and breast-feeding women, Moringa leaves
and pods can do much to preserve the mother’s health and
pass on strength to the fetus or nursing child. Breastfeeding
mothers in India and the Philippines have traditionally been
urged by their elders to add boiled young leaves of Moringa
to their diet. Although the exact mechanism for this is not
yet fully understood, generations of breastfeeding mothers
have sworn by its lactation-inducing effects. One 100 g
portion of leaves could provide a woman with over one-
third of her daily need of calcium and give her important
quantities of iron, protein, copper, sulfur and B-vitamins.
Moringa is especially useful for children and women who are
anemic due to their menstrual cycles.[16,17]
Antioxidants in Moringa
A combination of antioxidants is more effective than
a single antioxidant on an equal weight basis due to
antioxidant cascade mechanism. Moringa has approximately
46 antioxidants and is one of the most powerful sources
of natural anti-oxidants. Daily intake of Moringa Oleifera
will provide the antioxidant which in turn keeps the body
healthy by preventing the adverse effect caused due to fat
deposition. Anti-oxidants supply the free atoms needed by
the human body and mitigate the effect of free radicals. This
antioxidant property helps in preventing the formation of
malignancy. Moringa leaves are rich in Flavonoids, a class
of anti-oxidants. Moringa has essential micronutrients
with antioxidant activity or directly linked to this process:
selenium and zinc. The major anti-oxidants present are
Quercetin, Kaempferol, Beta-Sitosterol, Caffeoylquinic acid
and Zeatin. Antioxidant plays a major role in controlling the
symptoms of aging process and improves the cardiovascular
health. Additionally, Vitamin C and Vitamin E, present in
Moringa, also function as anti-oxidants. Researches confirm
that the anti-oxidants deliver the desired result, if only
taken with the combination of other essential vitamin
and minerals, which makes health enthusiast to seek after
Moringa and diabetes
Moringa Oleifera is a nutrient plant that can help to maintain
normal blood sugar levels. Moringa Oleifera holds so much
promise for those who suffer from diabetes. This is primarily
because of its many amazing, natural benefits. Moringa
Oleifera has been shown to boost the immune system, which
usually becomes compromised in those who suffer from
type 1 and 2 diabetes. Moringa Oleifera has also been shown
to possess many key anti-inflammatory benefits; diabetes
often causes circulatory problems which can be managed
through anti-inflammatory supplements. There are no
negative side effects associated with Moringa Oleifera use,
meaning that it is a safe, natural way for people to manage
their blood sugar and care for their diabetes symptoms. It
is just one more option for the many people who have to
cope with this serious condition.[38] Unexpected benefits of
Moringa include an apparent cure for tapeworms and help
in controlling diabetes and high blood pressure.[39] Moringa
Oleifera as a rich source of ascorbic acid helps in insulin
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Chronicles of Young Scientists 124
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
secretion. It is interesting to note that certain nutrients like
vitamins B1, B2, B12, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, protein
and potassium along with small frequent meals containing
some carbohydrate can actually stimulate production of
insulin within the body. Please consult to your doctor first
before you begin to consume it.[40,41]
Other health benets of Moringa
Relieves arthritis, rheumatism and gout
The oil extracted from Moringa seeds and flowers, called
Moringa oil or ben oil, has anti-inflammatory compounds[42,43]
that help relieve the pain and swelling caused by arthritis,
rheumatism and gout. Just apply the oil over the affected
joint, massage lightly, and leave on for 30 minutes. Making a
decoction from Moringa seeds will also have a similar effect.
You can also roast the seeds, pound them and apply the
pulverized powder over the affected area. Pounded Moringa
roots can also be used as a poultice for pain and swelling.
Relaxes the muscles and cures diarrhea
The roots and leaves of Moringa have been found to
contain antispasmodic compounds that help relax the
muscles.[42-45] Besides helping soothe tired and painful
muscles, this action also helps control the intestinal spasms
characteristic of diarrhea. Studies have shown that Moringa
root extract contains alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that
have anti-dysenteric and anti-diarrheal properties.
Helps with lower back pain
When mixed with milk, the juice from the root of the Moringa
tree has been used traditionally to help ease lower back
pain or lumbago. Studies have shown that certain extracts
of the Moringa root contains analgesics called moringine
and moringinine that may play a role in its efficacy against
Protects the liver
The flowers and roots of the Moringa plant contain a
compound called quercetin that is known to protect the liver.
Decoctions from dried Moringa flowers and pounded root
have been traditionally used to help with liver disease.[42,43]
Wards o heart disease
Juice or tea made from Moringa leaves has been found to
help lower high blood pressure. This has been discovered to
be due to the action of compounds called glycosides that are
found in the Moringa leaf. The seeds of Moringa are also rich
in these compounds. The crude extract of Moringa leaves has
also been found to significantly lower cholesterol levels due
to the action of beta-sitosterol. The fruit of the Moringa is
the most powerful when it comes to protecting the heart it
has been found to lower blood cholesterol as well as reduce
fat in the liver, heart and aorta.[42,43]
As an antibiotic
The roots and flowers of the Moringa have a compound
called pterygospermin, a powerful antimicrobial that kills
bacteria and fungi. The leaves and roots of Moringa are also
rich in a compound called benzyl isothiocyanate that have
strong antifungal and antibacterial properties. The bark
of Moringa has also been found to have antibacterial and
antifungal effects. You can make a strong antibiotic wash to
clean wounds from fresh Moringa leaves. To make a strong
dressing, pound fresh leaves and mix with coconut oil, then
spread over the wound.[42,43,46,47]
Relieves sore throat
Because of the Maringa’s excellent antibiotic properties, it is
also used to kill bacteria that cause sore throat. A decoction
of roots is usually used as a gargle to provide sore throat
Eases asthma and hiccups
When mixed with milk, juice from the root of the Moringa
plant can help ease asthma and hiccups.[29,30]
Wards o cancer
Studies have shown that several compounds extracted
from Moringa, namely isothiocyanates, a benzyl carbamate,
niazimicin, and beta-sitosterol have anti-tumor properties
against lung, breast, skin, esophagus, and pancreatic cancer.
These compounds are found in high concentrations in the
leaves and seeds of the plant.[29,30]
The Moringa Oleifera plant is the most inexpensive and
credible alternative to providing good nutrition. Moringa
oleifera is the most nutrient-rich plant yet discovered. Not
only is the Moringa oleifera tree extraordinary in that all
parts of the tree are edible, but the most amazing aspect
of the tree is its exceptionally high nutritional value.
Moringa provides a rich and rare combination of nutrients,
amino acids, antioxidants, anti-aging and -inflammatory
properties used for nutrition and healing. The leaves of the
Moringa tree are an excellent source of vitamin A (four times
the amount in carrots), the raw leaves are rich in vitamin
C (seven times the amount in oranges), and they are also
a good source of vitamin B and other minerals. The leaves
are also an outstanding source of calcium (four times the
amount in milk), protein (twice the amount in milk), and
potassium (three time the amount in bananas). The content
of iron is very good as well and the leaves have purportedly
been used for treating anemia in the Philippines. The
content of amino acids such as methionine and cystine is
also high. Carbohydrates, fats and phosphorous content are
low making this one of the finest plant foods to be found.
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Vol. 2 | Issue 3 | Jul-Sep 2011 Chronicles of Young Scientists
Dhakar, et al.: The herbal gold to combat malnutrion
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How to cite this article: Dhakar RC, Maurya SD, Pooniya BK, Bairwa N,
Gupta M, S.
: The herbal gold to combat malnutrition. Chron Young Sci
Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared
... Warriors were said to experience less stress and anguish during combat when they consumed the Elixir drink. "Alexander the Great" was overthrown by these valiant soldiers (Dhakar et al., 2011). ...
... Plants have always been essential to human survival, regardless of location or age. As dietary, social, cultural, religious, and environmental, as well as human health, they were, are, and will continue to be beneficial (Dhakar et al., 2011). ...
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The current drug resistance in human pathogens is a result of the abuse of antibacterial drugs commonly used to treat diseases. Early human civilizations used Moringa oleifera extracts to treat illnesses and infections caused by food-borne bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. In order to calculate the antibacterial effect of Moringa oleifera against Staphylococcus aureus, methanolic extracts from its three parts were prepared. A photochemical analysis of the methanolic leaves, seeds, and roots extracts was performed when the extracts were ready for testing. We used well-diffusion methods to add the three extracts, and the ciprofloxacin antibiotic was used as the standard. From the stock solution, serial dilutions were made in order to calculate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In the phytochemical screening test, steroids, terpenoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids were most abundant in leaves extract, followed by seeds then roots extracts. Moringa oleifera seeds have the highest inhibition zone, which is about 10mm, followed by Moringa oleifera roots at 9mm, and Moringa oleifera leaves at 7mm. In comparison to the other two extracts, the MIC of methanolic extract from Moringa oleifera leaves was 250 mm, the highest concentration, with a MIC of 125 mm for roots and 62.50 mm for seeds. Methanolic extracts of Moringa seeds demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in the present study. For further studies, it is suggested a deeper investigation to study the antibacterial agent dosages of these plant parts, which may be used by the pharmaceutical industry.
... Es considerada una de las más poderosas fuentes de antioxidantes naturales, con un contenido aproximado de 46 antioxidantes, los cuales juegan un papel importante en el control de los síntomas del proceso de envejecimiento y mejoran la salud cardiovascular (Dhakar, 2011). ...
... Se ha demostrado que la Moringa oleífera Lam. estimula el sistema inmunológico, el cual normalmente se ve comprometido en las personas que sufren de diabetes tipo 1 y 2. Asimismo, la moringa posee muchos beneficios antiinflamatorios y, a menudo, la diabetes causa problemas circulatorios que pueden ser administrados a través de suplementos antiinflamatorios (Dhakar, 2011). ...
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Fecha de recepción: 2 de febrero del 2014 / Fecha de aceptación: 12 de diciembre del 2014 Resumen El presente trabajo tuvo por finalidad el aprovechamiento de la Moringa Oleífera Lam deshidratada para el desarrollo de una crema con sabor a pollo y la evaluación de sus características nutricionales, microbiológicas y sensoriales. Inicialmente, se caracterizó bromatológicamente la harina de moringa, esta reportó un valioso aporte calórico (348 kcal/100g), alto contenido de proteínas (13,53%) y de digestibilidad (81,88%); se realizaron cinco formulaciones, donde se varió el porcentaje de harina de moringa y se evaluó el nivel de agrado mediante un panel sensorial de aceptación. La formulación escogida fue F2, constituida por el 25 % de moringa, donde resaltó que esta presentó un color verde claro, olor suave a pollo y vegetal con textura cremosa. El producto escogido fue analizado nutricionalmente, se destacó una contribución importante de proteínas (15 %), grasas (12,2 %) y carbohidratos (62 %), en comparación con cinco (5) cremas existentes en el mercado colombiano. Finalmente, se realizó un análisis microbiológico en el tiempo 0 y después de ser almacenada durante 10 días a temperaturas de 32 °C y 55 ºC en empaque Flex Vac metalizado de 140 µm, para la valoración de la calidad microbiológica, lo que dio como resultado el cumplimiento de los requisitos especificados por el Invima para sopas y consomés deshidratados. Palabras claves: cremas deshidratadas, alimentos funcionales, aporte nutricional. Nutritional and sensory assessment of a chicken flavored cream soup added with Moringa oleífera Lam Abstract The aim of this paper is to report the use of dehydrated Moringa oleífera Lam to develop a chicken-flavored cream soup. As well as, this document aims to provide an evaluation of the aforementioned plant nutritional, microbiological and sensorial properties. Initially, a bromatological analysis on Moringa flour's composition was performed, reporting valuable energy intake (348 kcal / 100g), high protein content (13.53%) and digestibility (81.88%). Five formulations were developed in which the use percentage of moringa flour variated to evaluate the level of appreciation by a sensory panel acceptance. The formulation that was chosen was the F2 formulation (that consists of 25% moringa). It is highlighted that such formulation presented a light green color, soft vegetable chicken-like smell and creamy texture. The selected product was nutritionally analyzed and our research study led to the following results: there is an important protein (15%), fat (12.2%) and carbohydrates (62%) contribution in comparison with five (5) existing cream soups in the Colombian market. Finally, a microbiological analysis was performed at time 0 and after having the product stored for 10 days at temperatures of 32 and 55 °C in metallic FlexVac packages of 140µm in order to assess its microbiological quality. Consequently, the requirements specified by the INVIMA regarding dehydrated soups and bouillons were accomplished.
... One of the plants that can be used as a nutritional supplement is Moringa oleifera leaves which have high protein content (27,1 %), carboydrate content (38,2 %), and fiber content (19,2 %) (Dhakar et al., 2011). In addition, there are also micronutrients such as calcium (991 ppm), potassium (4.710 ppm), iron (13 ppm), magnesium (351 ppm), manganese (11,9 ppm), copper (0,7 ppm), phenolic compounds, as well as vitamins A, B, C, and D as good provitamins (Olson et al., 2016): (Adi et al., 2019). ...
... Fortification of Moringa oleifera gave additional protein content in wet noodles. This was supported by Dhakar et al. (2011) which found that Moringa oliefera leaves contain high protein and rich in amino acids such as arginine, and histidine. Apart from Moringa leaves, the use of eggs in each treatment were similar and it also increase the protein content of the wet noodles, because eggs not only contain fat compounds but also contain quite a lot of protein. ...
... Bubuk daun kelor kering (daun kering giling) telah muncul sebagai suplemen nutrisi di pasar Barat dan diposisikan sebagai "makanan super hijau" yang tersedia di toko kesehatan dan online. Oleh karena itu pengolahan daun kelor yang dikemas dalam bentuk makanan ringan Churros ini sangat memiliki nilai yang dapat di perhitungkan (Dhakar et al. 2013). ...
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AbstrakKegiatan pengabdian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan inovasi pemanfaatan sumber daya alam, khususnya daun kelor, yang mampu menghasilkan produk yang dapat diterima oleh para anak dan balita, memberikan alternatif PMT ( Pemberian Makanan Tambahan ) kepada para Ibu melalui produk berbahan dasar daun kelor , yang mempunyai nilai gizi yang baik, ekonomis, mudah untuk di buat, namun di buat dengan sajian yang modern, dengan di sajikan berupa Churros dengan saus coklat cair di harapkan dapat menarik perhatian para anak-anak dan balita. Metode kegiatan dilakukan dengan bentuk sosialisai dan penyuluhan mengenai stunting dan PMT, dengan sasaran utama kegiatan Ibu-Ibu yang ada di Desa Kanoman, Kecamatan Karangnongko, Klaten. Hasil kegiatan pengabdian pada masyarakat ini menunjukkan bahwa para peserta sangat antusias dan merasa termotivasi untuk membuat produk Churros berbahan dasar daun kelor. Para peserta sangat mengharapkan kegiatan pelatihan produk olahan lainnya dengan bahan dasar dan sajian yang berbeda.AbstractThis service activity aims to provide innovation in the use of natural resources, especially Moringa leaves, which are able to produce products that are acceptable to children and toddlers, provide an alternative PMT (Supplementary Feeding) to mothers through products made from Moringa leaves, which have value. good nutrition, economical, easy to make, but made with a modern dish, served in the form of Churros with liquid chocolate sauce is expected to attract the attention of children and toddlers. The method of activity is carried out in the form of socialization and counseling about stunting and PMT, with the main target being the activities of mothers in Kanoman Village, Karangnongko District, Klaten. The results of this community service activity showed that the participants were very enthusiastic and felt motivated to make Churros products made from Moringa leaves. The participants really expected other processed product training activities with different basic ingredients and presentations.Keywords: Innovation; Moringa Leaf Churros; Training; Socialization; Supplementary Food
... Salah satu sumber makanan bergizi tinggi adalah tanaman kelor dari jenis spesies oleifera. Beberapa peneliti sependapat bahwa daun dan biji kelor mengandung senyawa karbohidrat, serat, mineral Zink (Zn), Magnesium (Mg), zat besi (Fe), β-karoten, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, protein, serta senyawa antioksidan dari golongan moringinin, quercitine, rhamnetin, dan polifenol (Winarno, 2018;Melesse et al., 2012;Dhakar et al., 2011;Saa, et al., 2019) yang memiliki potensi sebagai obat antitumor dan antikanker (Paikra, et al., 2017;Razis, et al., 2014). Ditambahkan oleh Ikrarwati & Anisatun (2018) berdasarkan hasil penelitiannya, bahwa daun kelor kaya potasium (K), vitamin A, zat besi, vitamin C, kalsium (Ca), dan protein, serta berpotensi dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan baku obat untuk penstabil tekanan darah, mengontrol kadar glukosa, penurun kolesterol, pereda diare, disentri, gonorhoea, sakit kepala, anemia, iritasi, luka infeksi, antialergi, antikarsinogenik, antiparasit, antiinflamasi. ...
Daun kelor merupakan salah satu sumber pangan bergizi tinggi, dan sudah dimanfaatkan oleh sebagian masyarakat di daerah tropis umumnya, terutama India, Afrika, negara bagian Asia Selatan dan Tenggara, termasuk Indonesia. Khasiat lain daun kelor telah direkomendasikan sebagai suplemen penambah daya tahan tubuh yang dapat menunjang kebugaran fisik agar terhindar dari bahaya covid-19. Daun kelor segar yang berasal dari pohon kelor sehat, telah diteliti jenis fitokimia yang terkandung didalamnya setelah menjadi simplisia menggunakan pelarut metanol 80% dan metode gas kromatografi dengan alat GCMS tipe QP-2010. Sampel daun kelor lainnya telah diolah menjadi serbuk kering untuk dibuat dalam kemasan menjadi teh herbal, kemudian diukur kadar air atas perbedaan temperatur oven pengering. Diperoleh 17 jenis fitokimia daun kelor yang teridentifikasi melalui alat GCMS antara lain adalah senyawa karbinol, n-heksana, siklopentana, dan golongan etanol beserta derivat-derivatnya. Keempat jenis senyawa dominan tersebut, merupakan senyawa hasil metabolit sekunder yang berpotensi sebagai senyawa antioksidan, antiinflamasi, antibiotik atas infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri dan jamur, sebagai pelarut untuk terjadinya reaksi-reaksi kimia menghasilkan beragam senyawa derivat lain yang bermanfaat bagi industri pangan, dan kesehatan kulit. Teh herbal daun kelor yang dikeringkan melalui oven pengering pada temperatur 50oC dan 60oC memiliki kadar air lebih tinggi daripada 70oC yaitu, 12,70%, 12,84% dan 10,06%. Ketiga nilai kadar air yang diperoleh memenuhi standar pembuatan teh herbal, namun masing-masing perlakuan belum diuji terhadap organoleptik (aroma dan rasa) serta daya simpan.
... as a procedure followed by [63]. One-step RT-PCR was performed with gene-specific primers (CMV S1 forward-CGACCATTAATAGACCG, CMV S1 reverse-ATCTACTGGCGTGGGTTCTT) to obtain the cDNA fragment (610 bp) containing the Coat Protein gene [45]. From the isolated RNA, one-step reverse transcription PCR was conducted using a PrimeScript. ...
Weed control is one of the most challenging chores in agriculture which accounts for a significant portion of the cost of output. The use of mechanical devices for weed extraction reduces the cost of labor and saves time. However, a mechanical device is rarely used in the northeastern part of the country. The reason may include the undulated terrain condition, lack of awareness and technical knowledge, and poor economic conditions. To help farmers in rural areas overcome their challenges, a low-cost portable device for uprooting and eliminating weeds has been developed. A rolling wheel with spikes on the periphery at the front end and a fixed rake at the back end make up the developed tool's working mechanism. The fixed rake's function is to ensure that all weeds left behind by the rolling wheel are eliminated. As a result, there's a high probability that weeding efficiency could be improved when compared to currently available tools.KeywordsNortheasternLow costRuralPeripheryFixed rake
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Moringa oleifera Lam. commonly known as “drumstick tree” and “horseradish tree” belongs to the family Moringaceae. It is found in tropical and subtropical regions all over the globe. It can overcome the adverse effects of both extreme drought and light frost. Entire tree is well-known because of its nutritional and economic value. The leaves are enriched with important compounds, essential vitamins, and minerals. Moringa oleifera has been shown to improve the growth performance, health status and product quality of various livestock species. M. oleifera application in processed foods can increase their nutritional content, some organoleptic qualities, oxidative stability, and shelf life. This chapter examines the various therapeutic applications of Moringa across disciplines and discusses the “Miracle Tree’s” horticultural, dietary, economic, and notable pharmacological characteristics.
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Protein deficiency is a problem in the growth and development of children. Several studies reported that Moringa oleifera L. (MO) leaves contain protein, which can be used to balance the composition of amino acids and minerals in food. This study aimed to determine an extraction method for MO dry leaves, to obtain an optimal concentration of protein, and to identify the composition of amino acids, minerals, and bioactive compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. An ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) method using ethanol was used to extract protein from MO dry leaves at 40°C for 60 minutes. The protein contents obtained from this extraction were 45.5%, with the composition of the dominant amino acid phenylalanine at 22.25 g/kg and the non-essential amino acid, glutamic acid at 60.03 g/kg. The macro and micro minerals were kalium (1174.23 mg/100g) and selenium (149 mg/100g). The standardization test of extracted MO quality revealed a low aflatoxin level of microbial contamination as well as a low level of heavy metal contamination. The antioxidant activity and cytotoxic activity showed IC50 values of 41.04 ppm and 182.66 ppm, respectively. We concluded that MO extracted with the UAE method produces qualified food-grade protein in high concentrations.
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Malnutrition, especially micronutrient deficiency, is a widespread health challenge that predominantly affects young children, young ladies who are within the productive age, refugees, and older adults who reside in rural communities and informal settlements in underdeveloped and developing countries. Malnutrition is caused by consuming either too little or too much of one or more food nutrients. Additionally, monotonous dietary lifestyle, especially the over-reliance on staple foods, is identified among the top factors limiting many individuals' intake of essential nutrients. Thus, enriching starchy and cereal-based staple foods including Ujeqe (steamed bread) with fruits and especially leafy vegetables is being suggested as a strategic medium for essential nutrient delivery to malnourished populations and especially the Ujeqe regular consumers. Amaranthus, called pigweed, has been rediscovered as a nutrient-dense multipurpose plant. The seed has been explored as a nutrient-enhancer in staple foods; however, the leaves are underutilized, especially in Ujeqe. This study aims to enhance the mineral content of Ujeqe. An integrated research approach was used where Amaranthus dubius was self-processed into leaf powder. Amaranthus leaf powder (ALP), and the ALP-supplemented wheat flour Ujeqe prototypes 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% were investigated for their mineral composition. Sensory evaluations of enriched Ujeqe were conducted using 60 panelists on a five-point hedonic scale. Findings show that the moisture contents of the raw materials and the supplemented prototypes were low, indicating a good shelf life of the food ingredient before being used for Ujeqe development. Carbohydrates of raw materials ranged from 41.6-74.3%, fat ranged from 1.58-4.47%, ash ranged from 2.37-17.97%, and protein ranged from 11.96-31.56%. Additionally, fat, protein, and ash content had significant differences at (p < 0.05). The moisture content of enhanced Ujeqe was equally low, connoting keeping quality of the sample. The increase concentration of ALP led to an enriched Ujeqe especially in the ash and protein content. Similarly, calcium, copper, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, and iron content were significantly influenced at (p < 0.05); 2% ALP-supplemented Ujeqe was the most acceptable prototype as the control sample, 6% was the least preferred prototype. Although ALP dubius can enrich staple foods including (Ujeqe), this study declared that higher addition of ALP dubius leads to low consumer acceptability rate of the Ujeqe, which is not statistically significant. Amaranthus is an economical source of fiber, which was not investigated in the study. Therefore, further studies can explore the fiber content of the ALP-supplemented Ujeqe.
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Las hojas de moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) se cosechan, y almacenan previo a su comercialización. Hay dudas respecto a la calidad bromatológica después de almacenar las hojas. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue comparar las propiedades bromatológicas de las hojas de esta especie almacenadas en un periodo, para verificar si ocurren cambios bioquímicos durante el almacenamiento. Se colectaron hojas maduras de moringa en muestreos sucesivos en la huerta “Kio-Komukai” en Escuintla, Chiapas, México. Se determinó el contenido de humedad, proteína, grasa, fibra cruda y cenizas en cada muestra para cada una de las fechas de cosecha. Los resultados del análisis de la prueba t de Student, indican que no hubo diferencias en la calidad nutrimental (P > 0.05) de las hojas en las fechas de cosecha respecto al tiempo de almacenamiento. Los valores obtenidos de las cosechas de hoja en el análisis bromatológico son similares a los reportados en trabajos previos; grasa (%): 9.36 ± 1.05, fibra cruda (%): 19.94 ± 4.2, proteína: 20.35 ± 2.26, humedad (%): 7.22 ± 9.79 y cenizas (%): 10.14 ± 1.68.
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The Moringa oleifera kernel contains 20% oil rich in β-carotene, plant sterols and lecithin. The oil contains no unusual fatty acids. Toxicological studies reveal the absence of mycotoxins.
A survey of different regions of Saudi Arabia revealed that a large number of herbal drugs are used for the treatment of diabetes in the traditional medicine of this country. Twelve of these antidiabetic plants were collected and identified. The literature was surveyed to find distribution, chemical constituents and other medicinal uses of these plants. Studies for antidiabetic activity in alloxanized mice in our laboratory showed that out of 12 plants, three plants (Teucriurn Oliverianum, Hammada saticornica and Allium cepa) possess significant oral hypoglycemic (25% to 38%) activity; three plants (Artemisia abyssinica, Azadirachta indica and Loranthus curviflorus) showed moderate (11% to 23%) activity. Five plants (Rhazya stricta, Momordica churuntia, Aloe Vera, Allium sativum and Coriandrum sativum) were found to possess no significant activity. One plant (Moringa oleifera) rather increased the blood glucose (15%) in diabetic mice.