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Testing and refining the direct and inferential model of reading comprehension

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A significant proportion of American high school students struggle with reading comprehension. Theoretical models of reading comprehension might help researchers understand these difficulties, because they can point to variables that make the largest contributions to comprehension. On the basis of an extensive review of the literature, we created a new model of reading comprehension, the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model. The model hypothesizes relationships among background knowledge, inferences, reading comprehension strategies, vocabulary, and word reading and addresses the direct and mediated effects of these 5 predictors on comprehension. The authors tested the fit of the model and 3 variations of the model to data from 175 students in 9th grade. The DIME model explained 66% of the variance in comprehension. Vocabulary and background knowledge made the largest contributions to comprehension, followed by inference, word reading, and strategies. Analyses of participants scoring below the

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... Inferences are considered necessary in reading comprehension because the text is understood largely through inferential processes, such as identifying coreferences, filling in gaps that are not explicitly stated in the text, and relating large units of text to a coherent textual structure (Kintsch, 1998). Research has reported that more skilled readers generally draw anaphoric and causal inferences better than less skilled readers, and inferencing skills make a unique contribution to reading comprehension (e.g., Cain & Oakhill, 1999;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). For instance, Cromley and Azevedo (2007) reported that for L1 (English) ninth graders, inferencing skills (i.e., anaphoric, text-to-text, and background-knowledge-to-text inferences) had a positive effect on reading comprehension. ...
... Research has reported that more skilled readers generally draw anaphoric and causal inferences better than less skilled readers, and inferencing skills make a unique contribution to reading comprehension (e.g., Cain & Oakhill, 1999;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). For instance, Cromley and Azevedo (2007) reported that for L1 (English) ninth graders, inferencing skills (i.e., anaphoric, text-to-text, and background-knowledge-to-text inferences) had a positive effect on reading comprehension. ...
... In addition, current theoretical cognitive models of reading comprehension assume that comprehension replies on multiple components, including linguistic knowledge in the target language (e.g., Hoover & Gough, 1990;Khalifa & Weir, 2009;Kintsch, 1998). This assumption has been supported by empirical studies in L1s (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kim, 2017) and L2s (e.g., Staehr, 2008;van Gelderen et al., 2004). Furthermore, dissociations between linguistic knowledge and reading comprehension can take place when comparing reading comprehension performances between monolinguals and bilinguals (e.g., Lervåg & Aukrust, 2010;van Steensel et al., 2016). ...
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Adopting a cognitive perspective, this study examined roles of working memory capacity (WMC), first language (L1) syllogistic inferencing, and second language (L2) linguistic knowledge on literal and inferential understanding of L2 reading comprehension in adolescent L2 learners. Participants were 193 Korean ninth-grade learners of English. The results indicated that L2 linguistic knowledge had a paramount role in explaining literal and inferential understanding of L2 reading. Results also showed that greater WMC facilitated L2 literal reading comprehension for L2 learners with lower L2 linguistic knowledge. Better L1 syllogistic inferencing skills facilitated L2 inferential reading comprehension for L2 learners with lower WMC and lower L2 linguistic knowledge. In addition, WMC had indirect impacts on L2 reading comprehension primarily through L2 linguistic knowledge, which indicates that WMC may lead to better L2 reading comprehension, but only when learners also have greater L2 linguistic knowledge. Overall, this study suggests the different roles of cognitive resources on L2 reading comprehension depending on reader characteristics and reading subdomains and highlight the importance of examining how cognitive resources influence L2 reading comprehension.
... Se trata de un modelo estático ya que no analiza cómo cambia la contribución de los distintos componentes sobre la comprensión lectora en función de la edad. La conceptualización original del modelo DIME es propuesta por Cromley y Azevedo (2007). El modelo se define "directo" porque todos los componentes que lo constituyen influyen de forma directa en la comprensión lectora y "de la mediación inferencial" porque la mayoría de los componentes, a excepción de la descodificación, influyen en la comprensión lectora de forma indirecta a través de la habilidad inferencial. ...
... La descodificación se evalúa con medidas de precisión y velocidad lectora (palabras y pseudopalabras). La comprensión lectora se valora con preguntas literales e inferenciales después de la lectura de textos (Cromley y Azevedo, 2007) Se prueba el ajuste de cuatro variaciones del modelo, justificadas por las relaciones causales en las cuales las evidencias son débiles o contradictorias. En la Figura 1 se puede consultar de forma detallada el modelo que mejor se ajusta a los datos. ...
... Sin embargo, no se procede así cuando por algún motivo se considera necesario seleccionar la que se recoge en evaluaciones posteriores, por ejemplo, los instrumentos de evaluación presentan mejores propiedades psicométricas, el número de participantes es superior o se ofrecen los datos necesarios para dar soporte a más senderos. En los estudios en los que se utilizan tareas diferentes para evaluar el mismo componente, se elige la medida realizada con el instrumento con mejores propiedades psicométricas y en igualdad de condiciones la más similar a la utilizada en la validación del modelo DIME en inglés (Cromley y Azevedo, 2007;Cromley et al., 2010). Si este criterio plantea dudas para los revisores, se selecciona una medida al azar. ...
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Resumen El modelo directo y de la mediación inferencial propone que la comprensión lectora es el resultado de las relaciones entre los conocimientos previos, la descodificación, las estrategias, el vocabulario y la habilidad inferencial. El modelo original incluye relaciones causales, establecidas al encontrarse evidencias del efecto directo de uno de los componentes sobre otro, y correlacionales, propuestas entre algunos componentes al no encontrarse evidencias causales. El objetivo del presente estudio es adaptar el modelo para hispanohablantes a partir de una revisión sistemática. Las relaciones causales y las correlaciones propuestas están respaldadas por un solo estudio o un metaanálisis, en ambos casos, el tamaño del efecto es significativo. También se establecen relaciones causales cuando el tamaño del efecto es no significativo, pero sustancialmente importante. Se seleccionan 43 estudios de intervención que dan soporte a cinco relaciones causales: desde las estrategias, el vocabulario y la habilidad inferencial hasta la comprensión lectora; y desde los conocimientos previos y las estrategias hasta la habilidad inferencial. También se seleccionan 74 estudios correlacionales que dan soporte a siete correlaciones: entre los conocimientos previos y la comprensión lectora; la descodificación y la comprensión lectora; las estrategias y los conocimientos previos; el vocabulario y la habilidad inferencial; la descodificación y el vocabulario; la descodificación y los conocimientos previos; y la descodificación y la habilidad inferencial. Los tamaños del efecto de las relaciones causales se sitúan entre g = 0.47 y g = 1.16, y los tamaños del efecto de las correlaciones entre r = .2 y r = .47.
... In addition, it has been shown that the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension differs according to grade levels, revealing a stronger relationship at first grade level (Peng et al., 2018). It is stated that working memory not only contributes directly to reading comprehension, but also indirectly affects reading comprehension through decoding and vocabulary (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Peng & Goodrich, 2020). In addition, it is suggested that working memory plays an active role in individual differences in inference and comprehension skills in text reading, and that reading comprehension difficulties and working memory performance are related independently of word recognition difficulties (Oakhill et al., 2003;Swanson, Howard, & Sáez, 2006). ...
... In the study, word recognition, word decoding (reading nonsense words), phonetic analysis and passage reading tests all require the use of decoding, suggesting that decoding plays a role in the predictive relationship between working memory and reading fluency. In addition, there are studies in the literature suggesting that the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension is stronger in the early grades and that working memory not only contributes directly to reading comprehension but also indirectly affects reading comprehension through decoding and vocabulary (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). The research was carried out with the participants at first and second-grade levels, therefore, at the beginning of their reading acquisition. ...
... In the study, verbal memory made the highest contribution to reading fluency and reading comprehension performance in the first and second grade by comparison with visual memory. Moreover, many studies present the contributions of both verbal and visual-spatial working memory to reading fluency and reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Goff, Pratt, & Ong, 2005). Findings show that verbal memory especially predicts reading comprehension beyond reading, fluency and vocabulary (Cain et al., 2004;Cutting et al., 2009;Oakhill et al., 2011;Sesma et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Working memory, which is an important determinant of learning capacity, is a structure that affects the acquisition and development process of many academic skills, especially reading and writing. On the other hand, it is stated that the effect of working memory on these skills differs according to grade levels. The effect of the verbal and visual components of working memory creates different effects in different dimensions such as fluent reading and comprehension, and the orthographic characteristics of a language are an important determinant on the level of this effect. From this point of view, this study aims to examine longitudinally the prediction of first- and second-grade participants’ reading fluency and reading comprehension performances in terms of their verbal and visual working memory performances. These participants were evaluated in the kindergarten in a transparent orthography with an extremely high letter-sound relationship like Turkish. The research was carried out in schools that were randomly assigned from each stratum, representing the lower-middle and upper socioeconomic levels in the province of Ankara. The participants in the study consisted of 450 children (224 girls, 250 boys) who were aged five (Mean= 66.29 months, SD= 3.91) at the beginning of the study and who were not diagnosed with any cognitive and/or sensory disability. Measurements of the working memory performance of the participants in the kindergarten were conducted using the Working Memory Scale (WMS), and the measurements of the reading fluency and reading comprehension performances in the first and second grades were carried out using the Literacy Evaluation Battery (LAB). The results obtained from the study, in which working memory measurements were determined to predict reading fluency and reading comprehension skills, using the structural equation model, revealed that reading fluency and reading comprehension performances increased from the first grade to the second grade and from the fall semester to the spring semester at each grade level. The results also showed that the verbal and visual working memory performance in the kindergarten contributed to the reading fluency and reading comprehension success of the first and second grades in the fall and spring semesters at different levels.
... * p < .05. ** p < .01. and elaborations. The modest to moderate size of the correlations (r ranging from 0.27 to 0.45) is typical of studies exploring the relationship between motivation and comprehension outcomes, and likely reflects the fact that there are a plethora of other individual difference factors that account for variability in strategic processing and comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kopatich et al., 2019). As such, this underscores the need to assure that these relationships still exist when controlling for proficiency in reading, which we did in Study 2. ...
... The results regarding the relationships between our motivation constructs and comprehension were modest. However, there is growing evidence of both direct and mediational relationships among individual difference factors, inferencing strategies, and comprehension (Ahmed et al., 2016;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kopatich et al., 2019;Magliano, Higgs, et al., 2020), and with respect to constructs related to motivation (i.e., interest; Clinton & van den Broek, 2012). As such, we conducted an exploratory path analysis to assess if the relationships between motivation constructs and GISA performance were mediated by inference strategies. ...
... We conducted an exploratory analysis to assess if there were indirect relationships that involved inference strategies, which was motivated by growing evidence that there are both direct and mediational relationships between individual difference factors, inference strategies, and comprehension (Ahmed et al., 2016;Clinton & van den Broek, 2012;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kopatich et al., 2019;Magliano, Higgs, et al., 2020). Study 2 utilized data from Magliano, Higgs, et al. (2020) and as such the direct and indirect relationships between foundational reading skills and inferences on GISA performance were consistent with those reported in that study. ...
Article
In two studies, we explored the associations among situational reading-related competence beliefs and task value, inference strategies, comprehension during reading, and foundational skills in college age students. In Study 1, 93 participants from a community college completed assessments of comprehension and two types of inference strategies (elaboration and bridging), each immediately followed by a survey of their competence beliefs and task value regarding the task. Results showed that competence beliefs and task value related positively to reading comprehension. In addition, task value was positively associated with both elaborating and bridging inferences, and competence beliefs correlated positively with bridging inferences. In Study 2, we investigated these associations further in a group of 418 students studying at three different colleges. Participants completed the same assessments for competence beliefs, task value, and inference strategies, as well as assessments of comprehension and foundational reading skills. Study 2 analyses revealed that foundational reading skills were a strong predictor of both types of inferencing and also comprehension. Further, when controlling for foundational reading skills, task value predicted elaboration and bridging inferences, whereas competence beliefs did not predict inferencing, but were trending as a predictor of comprehension. Finally, we created a path model to explore mediational effects, and found that task value positively predicted comprehension performance through increased elaborations while thinking aloud.
... vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, inference making, and comprehension monitoring, Cain et al., 2004;Kendeou et al., 2008;Kim, 2017;Yeung et al., 2013). Therefore in our study, we allowed word reading and higher-order cognitive skills to make direct contribution to reading comprehension instead of indirect contribution via listening comprehension, which aligned with evidence from previous literature (Ahmed et al., 2016;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;LARRC & Yeomans-Maldonado, 2017). Second, we empirically tested the direct and indirect effects of orthographic knowledge on reading comprehension given its importance to word reading and reading comprehension among Chinese children (Cheung et al., 2007;Tong et al., 2009;Yeung et al., 2011Yeung et al., , 2013Yeung et al., , 2016. ...
... Thus, it is logical to surmise that higher-order cognitive skills and word reading would act as a mediator-at least a partial mediator-of the relations of foundational language skills to reading comprehension. Several empirical studies support that higher-order cognitive skills and word reading partially mediate the relations between foundational language skills and reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kim, 2017). That is, the foundational language skills make both direct contribution to reading comprehension and indirect contribution via higher-order cognitive skills and word reading. ...
... Drawing from previous studies (Ouellette, 2006;Tong et al., 2009), we hypothesized that the language skills of vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and orthographic knowledge would also predict word reading. With regard to the second research question, we tentatively hypothesized that the higher-order cognitive skills would partially mediate the relations between language skills and reading comprehension, drawing from the results of previous research which did not include listening comprehension in the reading models (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kim, 2017). Word reading was also hypothesized to partially mediate the relations between language skills and reading comprehension based on a recent study demonstrating that language skills were both directly and indirectly related to reading comprehension via word reading in Chinesespeaking second graders (Kim et al., 2020). ...
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This study examined the direct and indirect relations of foundational language skills (vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, and orthographic knowledge), higher-order cognitive skills (inference making and comprehension monitoring), and word reading to reading comprehension in Chinese. Consistent with the hierarchical relations specified in the Direct and Indirect Effect Model of Reading (DIER, Kim, Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4):667–684, 2020a; Journal of Learning Disabilities, 2020b), the foundational language skills are considered as lower level skills, and the higher-order cognitive skills and word reading are considered as upper level skills in this study. Participants were 164 Chinese (Mandarin)-speaking third graders. Results revealed that syntactic knowledge, orthographic knowledge, inference making, comprehension monitoring, and word reading made direct contributions to reading comprehension. In addition, syntactic knowledge contributed indirectly to reading comprehension via inference making, comprehension monitoring, and word reading. Orthographic knowledge also contributed indirectly to reading comprehension via comprehension monitoring. Language skills, higher-order cognitive skills, and word reading explained 72% of variances in reading comprehension. The findings highlight both the direct and indirect pathways and effects of various language and higher-order cognitive skills on reading comprehension in Chinese.
... Theoretical models, such as the simple view of reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986), the direct and inferential mediation (DIME) model (Cromley et al., 2010;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007), and the cognitive model (McKenna & Stahl, 2009) inform the constructs and skills that contribute to reading comprehension. The simple view of reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986) describes reading comprehension as the product of decoding and language comprehension. ...
... The DIME model of reading (Cromley et al., 2011;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) and cognitive model (McKenna & Stahl, 2009) build upon the simple view of reading as component-based models. The relationship between five variables -background knowledge, inference, strategies, vocabulary, and word reading-are hypothesized to result in reading comprehension according to the DIME model. ...
... Prior syntheses and meta-analyses confirm that reading comprehension intervention is efficacious (e.g., Berkeley et al., 2010;Ciullo, Lo, et al., 2016;Edmonds et al., 2009;Elleman & Oslund, 2009;Hall, 2016;Marulis & Neuman, 2010;Scammacca et al., 2007Scammacca et al., , 2015Smith et al., 2021;Solis et al., 2012;Stevens et al., 2019;Swanson et al., 2014). Using the DIME model of reading (Ahmed et al., 2016;Cromley et al., 2010;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007), the cognitive model (McKenna & Stahl, 2009), and prior research (Berkeley et al., 2010;Gajria et al., 2007;Gersten et al., 2001), we operationalized reading comprehension intervention into four different instructional approaches: (a) strategy instruction, (b) background knowledge, (c) metacognitive approaches, and (d) instructional enhancements. Extensive research supports that each of these areas of intervention aids development of reading comprehension. ...
Article
Informed by theories of reading comprehension and prior reviews of reading comprehension intervention, this meta-analysis uniquely contributes to the literature because it describes the relative effects of various approaches to comprehension intervention for struggling readers in Grades 3 through 12. Findings from 64 studies demonstrate significant positive effects of reading comprehension intervention on comprehension outcomes (g = .59, p < .001, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.47, 0.74], τ 2 = .31). A metaregression model indicated significantly higher effects associated with researcher-developed measures, background knowledge instruction, and strategy instruction, and significantly lower effects associated with instructional enhancements. Grade level, metacognitive approaches, and study quality did not moderate effects. Findings support the use of background knowledge instruction and strategy instruction to support comprehension of struggling readers in upper elementary and beyond.
... In particular, using deeper-level strategies aimed at transforming textual information, for example, by generating inferences that involve cross-text connections and connections between text and prior knowledge, has been considered to play a vital role in constructing coherence during reading (Beker et al., 2017;Graesser, 2007;Magliano et al., 2007). Accordingly, research within the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of reading comprehension by Cromley and colleagues (Cromley et al., 2010;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) and the Inferential Mediation Model of Magliano and colleagues (Kopatich et al., 2019;Magliano et al., 2020) has indicated that such inferences not only influence text comprehension directly, but also may mediate the effects of other cognitive resources, such as vocabulary and prior topic knowledge, on comprehension performance. In comparison, surface-level strategies, such as rereading, rehearsing, and paraphrasing textual information without transforming what is already given in the text, have been considered less valuable, with such processing typically deemed more appropriate for retention and reproduction purposes than for constructing coherent understanding of textual information (Beker et al., 2017;Magliano & Millis, 2003). ...
... Prior research has indicated that deeper-level strategies are more strongly related to comprehension performance than are surface-level strategies and also contribute uniquely to comprehension (e.g., Kopatich et al., 2019;Magliano & Millis, 2003;Millis et al., 2006). Further, prior research has found that deeper-level strategies may mediate the effect of prior knowledge on comprehension performance (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). What has been underfocused in this line of research, however, is the possibility that a combination of surface-and deeperlevel strategies may actually be a better option, at least when students possess rather modest prior knowledge about the domain or topic in question. ...
... In addition to participants' prior knowledge about the topic of phobias, we assessed their basic reading comprehension skills. Both theses individual difference variables are likely to influence text processing as well as comprehension performance (e.g., Cromley et al., 2010;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kopatich et al., 2019), and they should therefore be controlled for when examining unique relationships between different types of strategic processing and comprehension performance. ...
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In this study, 58 Norwegian undergraduates read 10 paragraphs on a relatively unfamiliar topic. Verbal protocol analysis was used to assess strategic text processing at different levels of depth, and post-reading written reports on the topic were used to assess text comprehension. Findings indicated that irrelevant processing was negatively and a combination of surface- and deeper-level strategies was positively related to comprehension performance, but that only irrelevant processing was a unique (negative) predictor of performance after individual differences in reading comprehension skills and prior topic knowledge had been controlled for. Finally, a combination of surface- and deeper-level strategies in the absence of irrelevant prosessing was found to mediate the effect on prior topic knowledge on comprehension performance. Taken together, these findings highlight the potential value of combining strategies at different levels of depth into a broad strategic approach for readers who lack competence or expertise in an area. As such, they may have educational as well as theoretical implications that are discussed in the article.
... In addition to its indirect effects on comprehension performance via the behavioral engagement components, we hypothesized that prior knowledge would have a direct positive effect on comprehension performance (Fig. 1). This hypothesis is consistent with prior research showing that prior knowledge may uniquely predict comprehension performance with a host of individual difference and processing variables, including behavioral engagement, controlled for (e.g., Bråten et al., 2014;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Cromley et al., 2010;Taboada et al., 2009). Because all the hypothesized relationships in the model were expected to hold while controlling for the entire set of variables, we did not expect any direct effects of working memory and intrinsic motivation because it would be difficult for such direct effects to emerge when controlling for prior knowledge and the two behavioral engagement components. ...
... To further clarify this issue, it seems pertinent to include components of behavioral engagement together with measures of strategic processing taken during both reading and writing in the same study. So far, however, much more research on mediating processes in text comprehension has focused on cognitive (i.e., strategic) processing than on behavioral engagement (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Cromley et al., 2010;Kopatich et al., 2019;Magliano et al., 2020), with the role of behavioral engagement still being an underfocused area within text comprehension research. ...
Article
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Using a path analytic approach with a sample of Norwegian undergraduate readers, we investigated the effects of behavioral engagement on text comprehension as reflected in students’ post-reading written reports on the topic in question. Results indicated that the behavioral engagement components of writing time and the length of the written responses had distinctive, unique effects on comprehension performance, and that behavioral engagement also mediated the effects of cognitive (prior knowledge, working memory) and motivational (intrinsic reading motivation) individual differences on comprehension performance. Prior knowledge about the topic affected comprehension performance directly as well as indirectly through behavioral engagement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral engagement in the context of written comprehension assessment, and both theoretical and educational implications of these results are discussed.
... Research has also shown that general reading skills, as measured by standardized measures such as the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test and the Nelson-Denny are predictive of performance on content-based, task-oriented reading (e.g., learning from a text; Ozuru et al., 2009). More successful readers tend to engage in more effective metacognitive and comprehension strategies (e.g., Anmarkrud et al., 2013;Cote et al., 1998;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;. ...
... In addition to these main effects, we also explored possible interactions between these individual difference measures. Previous research has shown that prior knowledge has both direct and indirect effects on learners' comprehension processes (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007, McNamara & Magliano, 2009. Skilled writers also tend to make better use of their extant knowledge. ...
Article
Few studies have explored how general skills in both reading and writing influence performance on integrated, source-based writing. The goal of the present study was to consider the relative contributions of reading and writing ability on multiple-document integrative reading and writing tasks. Students in the U.S. (n = 94) completed two tasks in which they read text sets about a socioscientific issue, generated constructed responses while reading, and then composed integrated essays. They also completed individual difference measures (general knowledge, reading skill, reading strategy use) and wrote independent essays to assess their writing ability. Mixed effect models revealed that general knowledge and reading skills contributed to integrated essay performance, but that once general writing ability was entered into the model, it became the strongest predictor of integrated writing scores. These results suggest the need for deeper consideration of the role of writing skills in integrated reading and writing tasks.
... In other words, both tests require accurate processing of basic syntactic units, although the WJ test is much more speeded and demands a comparatively low level of vocabulary knowledge. We recently conducted a study with fifth graders which, then, employed a set of predictors quite similar to Cromley and Azevedo (2007), as well as the same dependent variable -and produced highly compatible findings. Specifically, in our study, the standardized effects on comprehension were. ...
... Interestingly, the vocabulary measure employed byCromley and Azevedo (2007) has similarities to syntactic level measures of fluency, such as the Woodcock Johnson (WJ) III Fluency test (Schrank, Mather, & Woodcock, 2004) employed in our past and current research. Cromley and Azevedo (2007) used a shortened form of the Gates-MacGinitie Vocabulary test (MacGinitie ...
Technical Report
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Adolescents’ Engagement in Academic Literacy Edited By John T. Guthrie, Allan Wigfield and Susan Lutz Klauda Final Report to NICHD, USA
... Over the past 30 years, considerable scientific knowledge has accrued regarding understanding and preventing reading and writing difficulties (Grigorenko et al., 2020), but there is a notable lack of empirical writing models in contrast to the reading and language domains (Miller & McCardle, 2011). For example, the Simple View of Reading (SVR; Hoover & Gough, 1990) and the Direct and Inferential Mediation model (DIME; Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) guide understanding of how component skills can be leveraged to improve performance in reading, but relatively little systematic research has been devoted to specifying and testing models of writing. Simple View models (for reading and writing) posit a lower-level component such as decoding or transcription, as well as a language component such as linguistic comprehension or idea generation, and these models have proven robust across orthographies, grade/age levels, and measures, though most work is in the domain of reading (Ahmed & Wagner, 2020;Florit & Cain, 2011;Juel et al., 1986;Hoover & Gough, 1990). ...
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Research suggests that executive function, motivation, transcription, and composition processes are implicated in the writing quality and productivity of children with and without learning difficulties. However, numerous components embedded within these constructs create both conceptual and empirical challenges to the study of written expression. These challenges are reflected in the writing research by way of poor delineation of constructs and insufficient distinction among domain general resources (e.g. working memory) versus processes related to the academic domain of writing (e.g. pre-planning), as well as among lower- (e.g. handwriting) and higher-order (e.g. editing) writing-specific processes. The current study utilizes the Not-so-Simple View of Writing (NSVW) as an organizing framework for examining the relations among multiple components, correlates, and attributes of writing in a sample of struggling readers/writers (n = 402) in grades 3–5. Data were collected on measures of (a) handwriting, spelling, planning, revision, and editing, derived from the Test of Oral Written Language (TOWL-4), (b) executive function derived from the NIH Examiner, and (c) motivation/self-efficacy derived from the Student Contextual Learning Scale. Structural equation modeling was utilized to test direct and indirect relations in the NSVW model. Results showed generally moderate correlations among observed/latent variables and found support for relations among writing-specific processes. Domain-general resources (executive function and motivation/self-efficacy) were related to spelling directly and indirectly to writing. Domain-specific processes (handwriting, spelling, planning, editing, and revision) were related to writing. The results have implications for explicit instruction of writing processes and for future research on empirical models.
... Fitzgerald and Shanahan (2000) elegantly summarized shared sources for reading and writing as follows: metaknowledge (pragmatics such as knowledge about functions and purposes of reading and writing, one's own meaning making), domain knowledge about content, knowledge about universal text attributes (e.g., graphophonics, syntax, and text organization), and procedural knowledge (e.g., accessing and using knowledge). The inclusion of reading in the expanded DIEW is very much in line with Fitzgerald and Shanahan's (2000) conceptualization but with a critical difference-the expanded DIEW articulates specific component skills that are shared in reading and writing based on theoretical models of writing noted above and those of reading (see the triangle model [Adams, 1990], the simple view of reading [Gough & Tunmer, 1986], the direct and mediated model [Cromley & Azevedo, 2007], the reading systems framework (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014), and direct and indirect effects model of reading [Kim, 2017[Kim, , 2020b). DIEW is also in line with a recent literacy model that integrates reading and writing (Kim, 2020c). ...
Article
Within the context of the Direct and Indirect Effects Model of Writing (Kim & Park, 2019), we examined a dynamic relations hypothesis, which contends that the relations of component skills, including reading comprehension, to written composition vary as a function of dimensions of written composition. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether higher-order cognitive skills (i.e., inference, perspective taking, and monitoring) are differentially related to three dimensions of written composition—writing quality, writing productivity, and correctness in writing; (b) whether reading comprehension is differentially related to the three dimensions of written composition after accounting for oral language, cognition, and transcription skills, and whether reading comprehension mediates the relations of discourse oral language and lexical literacy to the three dimensions of written composition; and (c) whether total effects of oral language, cognition, transcription, and reading comprehension vary for the three dimensions of written composition. Structural equation model results from 350 English-speaking second graders showed that higher-order cognitive skills were differentially related to the three dimensions of written composition. Reading comprehension was related only to writing quality, but not to writing productivity or correctness in writing, and reading comprehension differentially mediated the relations of discourse oral language and lexical literacy to writing quality. Total effects of language, cognition, transcription, and reading comprehension varied largely for the three dimensions of written composition. These results support the dynamic relation hypothesis, role of reading in writing, and the importance of accounting for dimensions of written composition in a theoretical model of writing.
... Vocabulary knowledge is a critical component of language, literacy, and comprehension (Duncan et al., 2007;Marchman & Fernald, 2008). Many empirical studies have demonstrated that there is a close relationship between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension (Cain & Oakhill, 2014;Chrysochoou et al., 2011;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007), and between vocabulary knowledge and inference making (Currie & Cain, 2015;Lepola et al., 2016;Nash & Heath, 2011;Silva & Cain, 2015). ...
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Successful text comprehension results in a coherent mental model of the situation being described. To achieve this, the reader has to infer certain information by connecting parts of the text to their prior knowledge. An important construct involved in this process is vocabulary knowledge, usually divided into breadth and depth. We conducted a meta-analysis on 23 studies, and explored the fit of five different models to establish an effect size of both dimensions of vocabulary on inference making, as well as its developmental trajectory in children aged 3-12. We found a significant and moderate effect of vocabulary knowledge of both modalities. Vocabulary type was not a significant moderator, but age was, meaning that there was a similar effect for both breadth and depth and that the strength of the correlations decreased with age. Heterogeneity was high overall, meaning that more moderators should be assessed in future studies.
... An den beiden Testungen nahmen 945 Schülerinnen und Schüler (49.10 % weiblich) aus 54 Klassen an allen Standorten teil, die zum ersten Messzeitpunkt M ¼ 10.31 Jahre (SD ¼ 0.55 Jahre) alt waren. Zur Erfassung relevanter Facetten der Lesekompetenz, die auch im Fokus der Fördermaßnahmen in der Se-kundarstufe I stehen(Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Lenhard, 2013), kamen etablierte Test-bzw. Fragebogenverfahren zum Einsatz (c Tab. ...
... However, as Spencer et al. (2017) have observed, vocabulary may also influence reading comprehension indirectly via other mediating factors. For example, Cromley and Azevedo (2007) reported that the relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension was mediated by inference making ability while Segers and Verhoeven (2016) have reported that this relationship is mediated by logical reasoning. More recently, Oslund et al. (2018) reported a significant indirect effect of reading vocabulary on reading comprehension via both silent reading efficiency and inference making ability in a sample of sixth to eighth grade English-speaking children. ...
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Background Reading comprehension is a complex process influenced by many factors. However, the abilities that are known to influence reading comprehension may not contribute equally for children with different levels of oral language. Aims Here we examined the relationship of two factors known to influence reading comprehension (morphology and syntax) in a group of children who varied in their levels of oral vocabulary. Method Two hundred seventy-three typically developing Spanish-speaking fourth graders were assessed on non-verbal intelligence, word and pseudoword reading, oral vocabulary, morphological awareness and syntax, along with reading comprehension ability. Standardised oral language scores within this group ranged from the first to the 99th percentile. Mediated multiple regression with moderation was used to assess (1) whether the influence of oral vocabulary on reading comprehension was mediated by decoding, morphology or syntax and (2) whether the effects of syntax on reading comprehension varied as a function of oral vocabulary levels. Results There was a direct positive relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension, and this was mediated by word reading and syntax, but not by pseudoword reading or morphology. Furthermore, the relation between syntax and reading comprehension was moderated by oral vocabulary such that the strength of this relationship diminished as oral vocabulary levels increased. Conclusions These findings suggest that longitudinal research is necessary to explore the possibility that a syntax intervention might be beneficial for readers with low oral vocabulary.
... Vocabulary is a basic building block for many school-related subjects, as it is significantly associated with listening and reading comprehension skills in childhood (Cain et al., 2004;Cromley and Azevedo, 2007;Lynch et al., 2008;Florit et al., 2009;Language and Reading Research Consortium et al., 2019). Many also propose that vocabulary may be related to the development of EFs, as language improves children's ability to think, learn, use goal-oriented rules, and trigger deliberate discipline of their actions according to the iterative reprocessing model and cognitive complexity and control theory (Zelazo et al., 2003;Zelazo, 2015;Schmitt et al., 2019). ...
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Inhibitory control (IC) is defined as the executive functioning (EF) and self-regulatory temperamental inhibition of impulsive or pre-potent behavior and has been consistently linked to multiple forms of childhood cognitive and socio-emotional maladjustment including academic and learning challenges, externalizing behaviors, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the results of relevant investigations are somewhat dependent on the method of IC assessment and the theoretical approach of the researcher. The two primary theoretical perspectives on IC are the temperament and the EF approaches, and although there is considerable overlap between these perspectives, there are some distinctions with regard to assessment and emphases on cognition vs. emotion. Therefore, investigations including both temperament and EF approaches to IC are of considerable interest and will best inform future education, prevention, and intervention efforts. This investigation examined associations between child IC, working memory (WM), receptive vocabulary, externalizing behavioral problems, and primary caregiver depression and anxiety symptoms using a family study design. The sample was composed of 99 families with two typically developing preschool children (n = 198; 2.5–5.5 years old; M = 3.88, SD = 1.04) and one primary caregiver/parent. Child IC was assessed using a multi-method approach consisting of one parent-rated questionnaire, three independent observer rating subscales, two videotaped in-person laboratory temperament episodes, and an EF Stroop task. Child WM and receptive vocabulary were measured in the laboratory using standard assessment techniques, and the remaining measures were parent-reported. Male child participants had significantly higher levels of observer-rated hyperactivity and impulsivity, and females had higher levels of observer-rated attention and Stroop-assessed IC. Correlational results showed that excepting IC-Stroop and a snack delay task, all IC measures were significantly correlated. All IC measures except snack delay were positively correlated with WM, and with receptive vocabulary (except Lab-TAB snack delay and observer-rated hyperactivity), and WM and receptive vocabulary were also positively correlated. All IC variables, WM, and receptive vocabulary were significantly related to externalizing behavior problems. Generally, children with higher IC, WM, and receptive vocabulary had lower levels of behavioral maladjustment. Lower parent-rated IC and higher levels of externalizing behavior problems were positively associated with maternal depression and anxiety (lower receptive vocabulary level was related to depression only). Employing structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses, we further examined the interrelationships among IC temperament variables, IC-Stroop, WM, and receptive vocabulary, controlling for age, gender, externalizing behaviors, maternal depression and anxiety, and the parent-rater variance (the multi-method effect). The results of our hypothesized model showed that the IC Temperament factor, composed of the six temperament IC measures, showed a positive effect on receptive vocabulary, while the IC-Stroop positively predicted WM. The IC Temperament factor and IC-Stroop were positively correlated with each other, and the IC Temperament factor, IC-Stroop, WM, and receptive vocabulary were positively related to age. The IC Temperament factor was also associated with fewer externalizing behavior problems, maternal depression had a negative effect on receptive vocabulary, and females showed lower levels of WM and receptive vocabulary than males. Overall, the IC Temperament factor and other covariates together accounted for 22.5% of the variance in vocabulary, whereas IC-Stroop and other controlled variables could explain 49.8% of the variance in WM. These findings indicate that theoretical perspectives (in this case temperament and EF IC contexts) and the different types of assessments used are crucial considerations when interpreting the results of studies of early childhood IC. Although most assessments of IC were associated with the outcomes under study, we found specific associations between temperament measures of IC and receptive vocabulary as well as externalizing, and IC-Stroop and WM. In addition, maternal depression had an effect on receptive vocabulary, emphasizing the developmental importance of family environment in preschool. These findings are relevant to the field of child development because they address several important questions about child EF and self-regulation. 1. Do temperament and EF conceptions of IC differentially predict outcomes? 2. How does the way we measure IC from the EF and self-regulation/temperament perspectives impact our conceptualizations of these important constructs? 3. How can we reconcile the various ways different disciplines define IC and their independence/overlap? 4. How can multi-method and multi-disciplinary perspectives and data collection approaches be combined to better understand both the temperament and EF conceptions of IC? Future studies with this sample will employ this multi-theoretical and multi-method approach on assessment in preschool to predict temperament, EF, and behavioral and academic adjustment in elementary school longitudinally.
... Each of the teachers assessed the passage as suitable. This task also served as a proxy for EFL vocabulary task, because in order to understand a written text, one must have a substantial knowledge and comprehension of vocabulary items (Cromley and Azevedo, 2007) (Cronbach's alpha 0.73). ...
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Many studies have examined literacy and related skills among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL), but little attention has been given to the role of oral language within a cross-linguistic framework despite the fact that English is the most widely spoken additional language today. Oral narratives rely on lexical, morphosyntactic, and conceptual knowledge. An in-depth examination of this modality can shed light on specific associations between cognitive and linguistic L1 and EFL skills and suggest possible mediating variables that assist multilingual speakers in producing complete oral narratives in EFL. The present study examined L1 and EFL contributors to EFL oral narratives produced by native Arabic ( n = 85) and Hebrew ( n = 86) speaking sixth graders seeking to identify cross-linguistic influences. We assessed general cognitive skills, phonological memory (PM), lexical, morphosyntactic knowledge, and reading comprehension in L1 (Hebrew speakers), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA, L2), L3 Hebrew (for Arabic speakers) and EFL. The “Cookie Theft” task assessed EFL elicited narratives using modified narrative analysis scales to account for microstructure (lexical and morphosyntactic complexity) and macrostructure (understanding story elements), generating a Total Narrative score. Our results yielded different patterns of underlying psycholinguistic profiles, and cross and within language associations for each group. Strong interactions between L1, L2/L3, and EFL morphological awareness and reading comprehension suggested cross-linguistic transfer. Regression analysis identified the most influential skills supporting EFL narratives for each linguistic group: English reading comprehension (ERC) was essential for Hebrew speakers and English morphological awareness (EMA) for Arabic ones. These results suggested different allocations of cognitive and linguistic resources in EFL narratives. The results also allowed to identify a common mediating skill for both groups. Findings are discussed within the theoretical framework of the Interdependence Hypothesis , the Linguistic Proximity Model , as well as accounts of direct and indirect transfer, which illuminate the impact of typological distance, general language proficiency and components of linguistic knowledge on cross-linguistic transfer in EFL oral language production.
... This process supports word learning by providing students with contextualized uses of new words but, at the same time, requires that readers have sufficiently developed orthographic, phonological, and semantic word knowledge (Perfetti & Hart, 2002). It is not surprising, then, that reading researchers have consistently found strong correlations between student performance on vocabulary and reading comprehension assessments (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Joshi, 2005;Joshi & Aaron, 2000;McKeown, Beck, Omanson, & Perfetti, 1983;Quinn, Wagner, Petscher, & Lopez, 2015;Tannenbaum, Torgesen, & Wagner, 2006;Wagner et al., 1997), across many languagelearning contexts (Kieffer & Box, 2013;Qian, 2002;Rydland, Aukrust, & Fulland, 2013), and across age groups (Braze et al., 2016;Quinn et al., 2015;Snow, Porche, Tabors, & Harris, 2007). However, the relative importance of component skills used in reading change as students age. ...
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General academic words are those which are typically learned through exposure to school texts and occur across disciplines. We examined academic vocabulary assessment data from a group of English‐speaking middle school students (N = 1,747). We tested how word frequency, complexity, proximity, polysemy, and diversity related to students’ knowledge of target words across ability levels. Our results affirm the strong relation between vocabulary and reading at the individual level. Strong readers were more likely to know the meanings of words than struggling readers were, regardless of the features of the academic words tested. Words with more meanings were easier for all students, on average. The relation between word frequency and item difficulty was stronger among better readers, whereas the relation between word complexity and item difficulty was stronger among less proficient readers. Our examination of academic words’ characteristics and how these characteristics relate to word difficulty across reading performance has implications for instruction.
... As shown, there are many standardized predictors influencing literacy development (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). Given the importance of feedback in learning (e.g., Hattie, 2012) teacher judgment is likely central because of its immediacy and value to students (Südkamp et al., 2012). ...
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Background: Reading fluency is a major determinant of reading comprehension, but depends on moderating factors such as auditory working memory (AWM), word recognition and sentence reading skills. We investigated how word and sentence reading skills relate to reading comprehension differentially across the first six years of schooling and tested which reading variable best predicted teacher judgements. Methods: We conducted our research in a rather transparent language, namely German, drawing on two different data sets. The first was derived from the normative sample of a reading comprehension test (ELFE-II), including 2,056 first to sixth graders with readings tests at the word, sentence and text level. The second sample included 114 students from second to fourth grade. The latter completed a series of tests that measured word and sentence reading fluency, pseudoword reading, AWM, reading comprehension, self-concept and teacher ratings. We analysed the data via hierarchical regression analyses to predict reading comprehension and teacher judgments. Results: The impact of reading fluency was strongest in second and third grade, afterwards superseded by sentence comprehension. AWM significantly contributed to reading comprehension independently of reading fluency, whereas basic decoding skills disappeared after considering fluency. Students’ AWM and reading comprehension predicted teacher judgements on reading fluency. Reading comprehension judgements depended both on the students’ self-concept and reading comprehension. Conclusions: Our results underline that the role of word reading accuracy for reading comprehension quickly diminishes during elementary school and that teachers base their assessments mainly on the current reading comprehension skill.
... Inference and strategy. This measure was modeled on the measures developed by Cromley and Azevedo (2007). Two 10-item multiple-choice tests based on two written narrative passages chosen from HIP Reading Assessment (Jamison, 2007) and Reading Inventory for the Classroom (Flynt & Cooter, 2004) were constructed to measure students' ability to draw inferences and apply various strategies in reading. ...
Article
This study examined (a) the identification of various reading groups across languages in Chinese (L1) adolescents learning English as a second language (ESL), in terms of their word-reading and reading comprehension skills, (b) overlap in reading group membership across languages, and (c) the performance of the various reading groups on reading-related language comprehension measures in English. The participants were 246 eighth-grade students from an English-immersion program in a middle school in China. Latent profile analysis identified three reading groups in each language: (a) a typically developing reader group with average or above-average word-reading and reading comprehension, (b) a group with poor decoding/word-reading skills and weak reading comprehension, and (c) a group with poor reading comprehension in the absence of poor decoding/word reading. The overlap in profile characteristics across languages for typically developing readers and poor decoders was high (about 68% for typically developing readers and 54% for poor decoders), whereas the overlap for being poor comprehenders in each language was moderate (about 37%). Furthermore, poor decoders in either language performed more poorly than the typically developing and poor comprehender groups on word reading in the other language, while poor comprehenders in either language performed more poorly than the typically developing and poor decoder groups on reading comprehension in the other language. The comparison of the reading groups’ performance on English reading-related language comprehension measures showed that poor comprehenders and poor decoders performed worse than typically developing readers. Implications for identification and instruction of ESL children with reading difficulties are discussed.
... Second, lexical knowledge and language (either oral or written) comprehension have been shown to be strongly correlated (e.g., Nagy et al., 2006;Sénéchal et al., 2006) in adults (e.g., Carroll, 1993), adolescents (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007), school-aged children (e.g., Cain et al., 2004;Lonigan et al., 2000;Oakhill et al., 2003;Oakhill & Cain, 2012;Ricketts et al., 2007), and preschool readers (Florit et al., 2009;Roth et al., 2002). For example, Vellutino et al. (2007) found a 0.64 correlation between listening comprehension and vocabulary in school-aged children. ...
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Many studies have demonstrated the crucial role of vocabulary in predicting reading performance in general. More recent work has indicated that one particular facet of vocabulary (its depth) is more closely related to language comprehension, especially inferential comprehension. On this basis, we developed a training application to specifically improve vocabulary depth. The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a mobile application designed to improve vocabulary depth. The effectiveness of this training was examined on 3rd and 4th grade children's vocabulary (breadth and depth), decoding and comprehension performances. A randomized waiting‐list control paradigm was used in which an experimental group first received the intervention during the first 4 weeks (between pretest and post‐test1), thereafter, a waiting control group received the training for the next 4 weeks (between postest1 and posttest2). Results showed that the developed application led to significant improvements in terms of vocabulary depth performance, as well as a significant transfer effect to reading comprehension. However, we did not observe such a beneficial effect on either vocabulary breadth or written word identification. These results are discussed in terms of the links between vocabulary depth and comprehension, and the opportunities the app presents for remedying language comprehension deficits in children.
... For example, the NRP report did not explore instruction that builds on connections between reading and writing, which, at the time of their report and subsequently, have been found to support early reading (Graham & Hebert, 2011;Pressley et al., 2001). Another important aspect of early reading development is students' background knowledge (Anderson & Pearson, 1984;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Hattan, 2019) and the degree to which texts align with students' own experiences and cultural knowledge (Brown et al., 1977;Cummins, 2011;Lipson, 1983). The roles in early-reading development played by language development were similarly unrepresented (Kendeou et al., 2009;Scarborough, 2001), classroom organization (including whole group, small group, and individual instruction) (Connor et al., 2011;Kuhn, 2005;Taylor et al., 2000), and motivation and engagement (Cartwright et al., 2015;Pressley et al., 2004;Wharton-McDonald et al., 1998), which are linked to access to interesting text and choice (Guthrie et al., 2007;Marinak & Gambrell, 2008). ...
... If a student understands a word, he or she probably has an understanding of the concepts related to the word. A study of reading comprehension found that background knowledge and vocabulary were the strongest predictors of comprehension and indirectly influenced whether a student would apply problem-solving strategies when meaning breaks down (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). Vocabulary knowledge plays an important role in reading performance. ...
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No one denied the important role of reading comprehension in learning reading because reading becomes meaningless without comprehending the texts. So, the research “Difficulties in reading comprehension of English majored sophomores at Tay Do University, Cantho, Vietnam” was conducted to help sophomores recognize their problems in reading. The participants of the study comprise 90 English majored sophomores from Bachelor of English 10 (2015-2019) at Tay Do University. All of them still have some difficulties in linguistic causes as vocabulary, grammar structures, background knowledge and in some strategies, such as guessing meaning from the context, skimming, scanning and also in psychological causes as attitude and motivation. The research was divided into 2 stages. The former was delivering questionnaire to participants. Then, students were chosen to do interview paper. The paper also finds out some obstacles to help students to get over their difficulties. Không ai phủ nhận vai trò quan trọng của đọc hiểu đối với học môn đọc hiểu vì việc đọc sẽ trở nên vô nghĩa nếu không hiểu nội dung. Vì vậy, nghiên cứu “Khó khăn khi học môn đọc hiểu của sinh viên năm thứ hai chuyên ngành Ngôn Ngữ Anh tại Trường Đại học Tây Đô, Thành phố Cần Thơ, Việt Nam” được thực hiện nhằm giúp sinh viên năm hai nhận ra vấn đề của họ khi học môn đọc hiểu. Đối tượng nghiên cứu bao gồm 90 sinh viên năm thứ hai Cử nhân tiếng Anh khóa 10 (năm học 2015-2019) tại Trường Đại học Tây Đô. Tất cả sinh viên gặp một số khó khăn về ngôn ngữ như từ vựng, cấu trúc ngữ pháp, kiến thức cơ bản và một số chiến lược đọc hiểu như đoán nghĩa từ theo ngữ cảnh, đọc lướt, đọc lấy ý chi tiết và cả nguyên nhân tâm lý như thái độ và động lực học tập. Nghiên cứu được chia thành 2 giai đoạn. Đầu tiên là gửi bảng câu hỏi cho những người tham gia. Sau đó, chọn người tham gia trả lời phỏng vấn trên giấy. Bài nghiên cứu cũng tìm ra một số trở ngại để giúp sinh viên vượt qua khó khăn khi học môn đọc hiểu. Article visualizations: </p
... Kendeou, Papadopoulos, & Spanoudis, 2012;Kim, Otaiba, Puranik, Folsom, & Gruelich, 2014;Verhoeven, van Leeuwe, & Vermeer, 2011). Vocabulary has been examined thoroughly for its links with reading comprehension (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Hoover & Gough, 1990) because it is regarded as a critical component of listening comprehension (Lervåg et al., 2018;Protopapas, Mouzaki, Sideridis, Kotsolakou, & Simos, 2013). ...
Article
The present study examined oral language growth differences in a sample of 256 Greek-speaking children with and without literacy difficulties (LD), during the first two elementary grades. Measures of vocabulary, phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) were administered in both grades for the assessment of oral language growth. Reading skills were individually assessed in grade 1 and together with spelling in grade 2. Results showed that PA, MA, and RAN growth differed between children with and without LD. Furthermore, children with spelling difficulties, either single or mixed with reading difficulties, presented a slower MA growth rate than children with single reading difficulties. These findings are informative of the early prognosis and intervention of LD.
... There is evidence that vocabulary is a predictor of literacy outcomes (Moody et al., 2018;Moore et al, 2014), that vocabulary instruction can enhance word knowledge and reading abilities in children (Beck & McKeown, 2007;Moody et al., 2018), and that vocabulary and background knowledge can contribute to comprehension ability (Apthorp et al., 2012;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Moody et al., 2018). Furthermore, researchers recommend teaching flexible word-learning strategies and techniques for self-monitoring to improve reading comprehension and to facilitate word knowledge across a variety of contexts (Wright & Cervetti, 2017). ...
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This article reports results of a phase 2 exploratory trial of a vocabulary program delivered in elementary schools to improve student’s reading ability, including their comprehension. The intervention was tested as a targeted intervention in classrooms with children aged 7–10 across 20 weeks during one school year, with eligible students learning in small groups of four. Teachers and support staff received training in this cooperative learning approach to develop children’s vocabulary with particular focus on Tier‐2 words. School staff received additional support and resources to equip them to develop and implement the vocabulary instruction sessions to targeted students. The trial was undertaken with a sample of 101 students in seven schools from three English district areas with high levels of socio‐economic disadvantage. A standardized reading test was used to measure reading outcomes, with significant gains found in student’s overall reading ability, including comprehension. Owing to the positive results found in this trial, including positive feedback about implementation of the technique, next steps should be a larger trial with 48 schools to avoid the risk of sampling error due to limited number of schools.
... À l'école et au collège, les difficultés en mathématiques sont largement imputables à des problèmes d'expression et de compréhension de la langue, essentiellement de la langue courante et de son vocabulaire. Ces difficultés sont majorées chez des enfants apprenant les mathématiques dans une langue seconde (Forsyth & Powell, 2017 ;Haag et al., 2013 ;Orosco, 2014) : plus le vocabulaire général en langue seconde est faible, moins les apprenants peuvent inférer à partir des informations fournies dans les énoncés et les consignes pour sélectionner les bonnes procédures et les stratégies de résolution (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). Il semblerait donc que la différence de compréhension entre des natifs et des apprenants en langue seconde soit plus forte pour le lexique générique que pour le vocabulaire spécialisé de la discipline scolaire, car le premier est rarement explicitement introduit et appris à l'école alors que le deuxième l'est systématiquement (Haag et al., 2013). ...
Conference Paper
Le lexique des discours mathématiques emploie du vocabulaire mathématique spécifique ainsi que du vocabulaire générique. Certains verbes du vocabulaire générique, employés dans les énoncés et les consignes mathématiques, n'ont pas un signifié unique, invariant et explicite, mais se traduisent par des actions différentes en fonction du contexte de leur énonciation. L'interprétation de ces verbes ambigus peut constituer un défi dans un contexte bilingue où l'enseignement des mathématiques est dispensé en français langue seconde (exemple : Liban), surtout lorsque la langue des apprentissages est peu maîtrisée. Cette étude est une étude de contenu : elle recense les verbes polysémiques des classes du cours préparatoire et élémentaire, à partir de quatorze manuels de mathématiques de France et du Liban (en langue française), dans des milieux scolaires libanais socio-linguistiquement différents. Les occurrences et les proportions des verbes dans les différents manuels ont été comparées, les domaines mathématiques où ils sont le plus employés ont été identifiés et les différentes actions mathématiques inférées par ces verbes ont été référencées. Les verbes ambigus sont extrêmement fréquents dans les consignes du CP et maintiennent une proportion d'occurrence conséquente au CE1 et au CE2, dans les trois milieux de l'étude. Cette proportion est plus importante dans les manuels des écoles publiques que dans les manuels des deux autres milieux, quelle que soit la classe, suggérant un manque de diversification des consignes dans les manuels de ce milieu. « Compléter » et « écrire » sont les deux verbes les plus employés. Les actions inférées par ces verbes sont diversifiées (exemple : « calculer », « manipuler la ligne numérique », « transcoder », « comparer », « dénombrer »). Les enfants libanais sont régulièrement confrontés à des verbes polysémiques nécessitant une inférence contextuelle pour être traités. L'orthophoniste devrait ainsi entraîner l'enfant en difficulté à interpréter ces verbes dans leur sens mathématique, de sorte à optimiser sa compréhension des consignes mathématiques auxquelles il sera exposé. Les résultats incitent également à réfléchir sur l'impact des nuances linguistiques en mathématiques chez des apprenants en français langue seconde. / Mathematics academic language uses specific mathematical vocabulary as well as general one. Some verbs of the general vocabulary seen in mathematical tasks and instructions do not carry one explicit unique meaning but can refer to different mathematical actions depending on the context of their use. Interpreting the different meanings of these ambiguous verbs can be challenging in a dual-language learning environment where the language of instruction (French) is different from the children's mother tongue. This content study explores the polysemic verbs found in fourteen first, second and third grade French mathematics textbooks, conceived in France and Lebanon, and used in different socio-linguistic teaching environments in Lebanese schools. Their occurrences and proportions have been compared, the mathematical fields to which they belong have been identified, and the various mathematical actions to which they refer have been extracted. These polysemic verbs are very frequent in first grade mathematical instructions and continue to be substantially used in second and third grades, especially in the Lebanese textbooks used in public Lebanese schools, suggesting a lack of mathematical instructions diversification in this context. “Complete” and “Write” are the most used verbs. The mathematical actions they convey are diverse such as “calculating”, “counting/enumerating”, “comparing”, “number line manipulating”, and “transcoding”. Lebanese children are regularly exposed to polysemic ambiguous verbs throughout their mathematics curriculum and may find it difficult to infer their mathematical contextual meaning, especially if they do not master the nuances of the French language they are learning in. Thus, speech-language therapists should, through explicit training, enable children with mathematical difficulties to intercept the various connotations carried by these verbs, in order to optimize their understanding of tasks and textbook instructions. Furthermore, the current results invite us to consider the impact of maths linguistic nuances on dual-language learners.
... Utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM), Cromley and Azevedo (2007) examined five components of reading: background knowledge, word fluency, vocabulary, strategy use, and inferential comprehension. For students identified as having reading problems (i.e., below the 30th percentile), the best fitting SEM model indicated that for this particular population of students interventions should consider focusing on building background knowledge and vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. ...
... Theories of comprehension universally specify that coherence-building is a foundation of comprehension (McNamara & Magliano, 2009), but most are agnostic regarding the extent that individual difference factors support coherence-building. In contrast, theories of reading typically specify these relationships (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007), but underspecify the nature of and importance of coherence-building . The results of the present study indicate that a comprehensive model that describes how individual differences support coherence-building is warranted but, to our knowledge, there is no formal model that describes how reading and coherence-building operate. ...
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Successful text comprehension requires readers to engage in a number of coherence-building processes. This study examined how analyzing the cohesion of students’ constructed responses can be used to evaluate these coherence-building processes and the extent to which they vary across readers’ individual differences and across types of texts. We posed two primary research questions: 1) Can we predict individual differences in working memory and reading skill based on the cohesion of students’ constructed responses to text? 2) Do the relations between individual differences and cohesion vary as a function of genre? Participants (n = 119) generated constructed responses while reading history and science texts and completed reading skill and working memory assessments. The current study leveraged natural language processing (NLP) techniques to analyze the cohesion of readers’ constructed responses, using cohesion as a proxy for assessing the coherence of their mental representations of the texts. Cohesion was measured at the sentence, paragraph, and synonym levels. Machine learning models showed that linguistic indices related to cohesion were significant predictors of both working memory and reading skill. Additional quantitative and qualitative inspection revealed that the relations between individual differences and coherence-building processes varied depending on the text’s genre. These findings indicate that the interaction between genre and individual differences may be used to model coherence-building processes during reading. This study has important implications for the realm of educational technology such as in the implementation of stealth assessments to predict students’ cognitive abilities.
... Regarding the technical aspects, skilled reading relies on reading fluency and reading comprehension, with reading fluency requiring rapid naming (Kirby et al., 2003), alphabet knowledge, knowledge of print conventions, and decoding skill (Joshi et al., 2012;National Reading Panel, 2000;Snow et al., 1998). Besides decoding, fundamental processes involved in reading comprehension include phonological, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language (e.g., Suggate et al., 2018), inference making, strategy usage, vocabulary and prior knowledge (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007). Importantly, however, engaging in the practice of reading occurs with the purpose not only of developing these technical aspects (e.g., increasing vocabulary), but to gain information or enrich mental experience of places and states without having to physically be present. ...
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Mental imagery is foundational to human experience, lying at the heart of cognition and reading, however research has failed to conclusively investigate and demonstrate a link. Therefore, we conducted three studies measuring adults' reading and imagery performance. In Study 1, the mental imagery skills of 155 adults were measured using two established self-report measures, namely the Plymouth Sensory Imagery Questionnaire (Psi-Q) and the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS), and a novel imagery comparison task. In Study 2 (n = 452), a control for speeded processing replaced the SUIS. In Study 3 (n = 236), we added a measure of reading speed. Findings indicate that the objective measurement of mental imagery was associated with reading performance, whereas self-report measures were not. Further, reading comprehension linked more strongly to mental imagery than reading speed did. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, that mental imagery processes are intrinsically linked with reading performance.
... Theoretical models of reading comprehension have also stipulated key direct and indirect effects of individual difference factors on comprehension outcomes (Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Kopatich et al., 2019), and recent work has contextualized the examination of these effects to multiple text reading and tasks (e.g., Magliano et al., 2020). As one example of this work, List examined the roles of processing variables, such as readers' use of cross-text elaboration strategies, in mediating the contributions of individual difference factors (i.e., topic interest, information evaluation habits) to measures of multiple text comprehension and integration (2020). ...
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Executive functions (EF) have been theoretically implicated in multiple text comprehension. Yet, the contributions of EFs to comprehension and integration of multiple texts have not been tested empirically, and instructional supports for text integration grounded in EFs are only beginning to be developed. Using a conflicting-text paradigm, this study examined the roles of EFs, based on measures of learners’ reported EF use and EF skills, and a text-embedded intervention, designed to elicit readers’ EF and metacognitive engagement, in comprehension–integration of conflicting informational texts. Structural equation modeling was employed to test a proposed indirect effects model in which EF use and skills and the text intervention condition predicted comprehension–integration, both directly and via reported cross-text elaboration; academic achievement was controlled. Learners’ reported EF use contributed directly and indirectly to learners’ comprehension–integration of the conflicting texts; EF skills, based on a measure of verbal fluency, contributed only indirectly to comprehension–integration. The effect of condition on comprehension–integration was transmitted entirely through learners’ reported use of cross-text elaboration strategies. The model explained 15% and 16% of the variance in reported cross-text elaboration and comprehension–integration, respectively, suggesting moderate effects of EFs and the brief, text-embedded intervention on comprehension–integration of the texts. Empirical and theoretical implications are discussed.
... In fact, studies examining the relative effects of this approach to instruction have often found the largest effects on content outcomes are present for students with reading disabilities and limited English proficiency (Wanzek et al., 2016). Additionally, research evidence suggests improving content knowledge will increase reading comprehension (e.g., Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Hwang et al., 2021), given that it is difficult to understand texts without relevant background knowledge. Figure 2 illustrates how Mr. Scott can integrate evidence-based explicit vocabulary instruction using a graphic organizer and reading comprehension strategy instruction into content-area lessons to support his students with reading difficulties. ...
... 26). As evidence for this claim, a number of cross-sectional studies have reported that vocabulary knowledge is a dominant predictor of reading comprehension (e.g., Ahmed et al., 2016;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007), both (a) by directly impacting comprehension processes (e.g., sentence parsing, proposition building, word-to-text integration, inference generation) and (b) by indirectly impacting reading comprehension through its effect on word reading (Language & Reading Research Consortium, 2015;Tunmer & Chapman, 2012;Verhoeven et al., 2019). ...
... It assumes that decoding and listening comprehension skills in combination affect differences in reading comprehension. However, research has also shown that individual differences in reading comprehension may also stem from higher-order reading skills that go beyond decoding and listening skills (e.g., Cain et al., 2004;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Schindler & Richter, 2018). In addition to these approaches, other approaches and models have recently been introduced to disentangle components of reading skills in more detail (e.g., the complete view of reading model by Francis et al., 2018; for an overview see, Cervetti et al., 2020). ...
... Good vocabulary knowledge is not only at the core of linguistic skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking (Mezynski, 1983;Perfetti & Hart, 2002;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007;Binder et al., 2017), it is also a predictor of academic achievement (Seashore, 1948;Treffers-Daller & Milton, 2013) and it is a core element of IQ tests. The first IQ test, published by Binet and Simon (1907), included questions about words (Gibbons & Warne, 2019), and when Terman adapted the test to English, he was quick to notice the usefulness of a vocabulary test. ...
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We present five studies aimed at developing an L1 vocabulary test for English-speaking university students. Such a test is useful as an indicator of crystallized intelligence and because vocabulary size correlates well with reading comprehension. In the first study, we tested 100 written words with four answer alternatives, based on Nation's Vocabulary Size Test. Analysis suggested two factors, which we interpreted as the possible existence of two types of difficult words: unknown words for general knowledge and unknown words for specialized knowledge. In Study 2, we attempted to develop a vocabulary test for each type of word, and these tests were then validated in Study 3. Since the test for general words proved too easy for the target population, we improved it in a fourth study by creating and testing more difficult items. Finally, a fifth study was conducted to validate the new test. Unexpectedly, Study 5 found a high correlation (r = .82) between the general knowledge vocabulary test and the specialized knowledge vocabulary test, suggesting that they measure the same latent factor, contrary to our initial assumption. Both tests have high reliability (r > .85) and correlate well (r > .4) with general knowledge, author recognition, and reading comprehension. In addition, a collection of other language tests was used and improved to verify the validity of the vocabulary tests. An exploratory factor analysis of all tests identified three factors (text comprehension, crystallized intelligence, and reading speed), with the vocabulary tests loading on the factor crystallized intelligence, which in turn correlates with reading comprehension. Structural equation modeling confirmed the interpretation.
... Specifically, co-teachers can provide explicit instruction on a limited set of evidence-based teacher-and student-led literacy practices that target skills needed for comprehension. Thus, we designed the CALI IF to help co-teachers systematically pre-teach key concepts and vocabulary needed to understand text (Burns et al., 2011;Cromley & Azevedo, 2007) and provide instruction in evidence-based literacy strategies that students can use to help with their own cognitive processing (e.g., main idea generation; Stevens et al., 2019). ...
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We examined the effects of a professional development (PD) with coaching model designed to improve literacy and co-taught instruction for students with and without disabilities in co-taught content-area middle school classes. Eleven co-teaching pairs in nine schools were randomly assigned to [Treatment] (n = 7 pairs) or a business-as-usual comparison condition (n = 4 pairs). All 22 teachers individually completed researcher developed pre- and posttests of teacher knowledge and skills and perceived effectiveness of their personal ability and their co-teachers’ ability. At pre- and posttest, students (n = 212) completed three measures of reading comprehension. [Treatment] teachers demonstrated significantly higher scores than comparison teachers at posttest on a measure of knowledge and skills, perceived personal effectiveness, and perceived co-teachers’ effectiveness. All [Treatment] co-teaching pairs demonstrated high levels of fidelity. Students in the [Treatment] classrooms demonstrated significant gains on an essential aspect of a researcher-developed measure of reading comprehension. However, the treatment effect was non-significant for the two standardized measures of reading comprehension. Results provide initial support for a model in improving teacher instructional outcomes and student academic outcomes.
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Vocabulary is a prominent contributor to reading comprehension. However, little is known about how students with disabilities with lower vocabulary performance respond to Tier 1 instruction, or how their vocabulary knowledge relates to their content acquisition. To examine the differential impact of Tier 1 instruction for middle school students with disabilities and to investigate the relations among academic vocabulary, content knowledge, and reading comprehension, this study analyzed data collected in previous randomized controlled trials. Findings suggest that evidence-based Tier 1 instruction targeting academic vocabulary can help eighth graders with disabilities grow as much as students without disabilities on academic vocabulary and content reading comprehension. In addition to students’ baseline performance, learning gains in academic vocabulary significantly predicted the growth of content acquisition among students with disabilities.
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Many individuals with poor reading comprehension have levels of reading comprehension that are consistent with deficits in their ability to decode the words on the page. However, there are individuals who are poor at reading comprehension despite being adequate at decoding. This phenomenon is referred to as specific reading comprehension deficit (SRCD). The two purposes of this study were to use a new approach to estimate the prevalence of SRCD and to examine the extent to which SRCD can be explained by the simple view of reading. We used model-based meta-analysis of correlation matrices from standardized tests to create composite correlation matrices for the constructs of reading comprehension, decoding, and listening comprehension. Using simulated datasets generated from the composite correlation matrices, we used residuals from regressing reading comprehension on decoding to create a continuous index of SRCD. The prevalence of SRCD is best represented not as a single number but as a continuous distribution in which prevalence varies as a function of the magnitude of the severity of the deficit in reading comprehension relative to the level of decoding. Examining the joint distribution of the residuals with reading comprehension makes clear that the phenomenon of reading comprehension that is poor relative to decoding occurs throughout the distribution of reading comprehension skill. Although the simple view of reading predictors of listening comprehension and decoding makes significant contributions to predicting reading comprehension, nearly half of the variance is unaccounted for.
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Creating Habits That Accelerate the Academic Language of Students (CHAAOS) is a vocabulary intervention developed by O’Connor et al. to improve the academic vocabulary of middle school students with disabilities. This study was designed as a replication of O’Connor et al.’s study; CHAAOS lessons were taught to 33 sixth graders who received special education services for disabilities in English/Language Arts classes. Researcher-designed vocabulary and comprehension assessments for the taught words were administered pre- and post-instruction. The performance of students in this study was compared with the performance of students in O’Connor et al.’s study. Results demonstrated that the present students made similar gains in vocabulary and comprehension compared with the previous CHAAOS students and scored significantly higher than the previous comparison students who did not receive any instruction on the words. These findings support the use of CHAAOS for improving the academic vocabulary of students with disabilities.
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This study synthesized the correlation between reading strategy and reading comprehension of four categories based on Weinstein and Mayer's reading strategy model. The current meta-analysis obtained 57 effect sizes that represented 21,548 readers, and all selected materials came from empirical studies published from 1998 to 2019. Results showed that reading strategies in all the four categories had a similar correlation effect size with reading comprehension. The correlation between monitoring strategy and reading comprehension was significantly larger in first language scripts than second language scripts. Affective strategy and elaboration strategy had an independent effect on reading comprehension, which was not significantly moderated by selected moderators. Results suggested that the reading strategies of all the four categories may have a similar contribution to text comprehension activities.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on what we know about the development of reading comprehension in the early school years, with a particular emphasis on understanding causal processes. According to the simple view of reading, reading comprehension is the product of decoding and language comprehension. Linguistic comprehension is typically assessed using tests of listening comprehension in which a person answers questions about the meaning of a spoken passage. A different approach to measuring the development of reading comprehension over time is to use individual growth curve modeling. The chapter emphasizes on evidence from longitudinal studies of typically developing children published between 2004 and 2020. Reading comprehension is a highly complex skill that is undoubtedly heavily dependent on language comprehension ability. There is very strong support for the simple view of reading: Variations in reading comprehension are strongly predicted by variations in decoding and linguistic comprehension.
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Vocabulary is a fundamental determinant of language development. In the Cattell-Horn-Carroll model of intelligence (CHC) it represents a narrow ability loading on the broad comprehension-knowledge (Gc) factor of intelligence. Furthermore, it is also an important predictor of reading comprehension. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Version 4) aims at assessing receptive vocabulary. Here, we describe the German adaption of the test. In the construction, we matched word frequencies and item complexity of the original form. The normative data is based on a representative sample of N = 3550 children and adolescents with an age range from 2.59 to 17.99 years. The test features excellent reliability. The raw scores display a strong curvilinear development during childhood and a tremendous heterogeneity within each age group. The best performing children at the age of 5 achieved raw scores which the poor performing children did not achieve until the age of 15. While effects of sex were negligible, migration background of the family had a strong effect. In sum, the PPVT-IV is an economic and reliable instrument to assess the receptive vocabulary from an early age until adulthood.
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Die letzten IGLU-und PISA-Studien zeigen, dass es in Deutschland in den letzten 20 Jahren nicht gelungen ist, die ungünstige Kopplung zwischen Leseleistung und sozialer Herkunft maßgeblich zu reduzieren. Im Leseunterricht profitieren vor allem die stärkeren Leserinnen und Leser, während sich der Abstand zu den schwächeren Schülerinnen und Schüler über die Schuljahre vergrößert. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht an einer Stichprobe von 8 859 Grundschulkindern, inwiefern es dem Lesetraining FiLBY-2 gelingt, unterschiedliche Schülergruppen so zu fördern, dass eine sich öffnende Leistungsschere minimiert wird. Die durchgeführten Analysen zeigen, dass alle Kinder hinsichtlich ihrer Leseflüssigkeit von dem Programm profitieren, insbesondere auch die Gruppe der schwächeren Leserinnen und Leser. Der Vorteil der FiLBY-Gruppe bleibt auch nach Kontrolle des Geschlechts, des Mig-rationshintergrunds bzw. des Bildungshintergrundes bestehen. Die Ergebnisse lassen Implikationen für die Unterrichtspraxis zu, die anschließend diskutiert werden.
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We investigate how the valence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance and the readability of CSR disclosure impact investors’ earnings estimates. Ninety‐seven part‐time MBA students participate in an experiment, in which we manipulate the valence of CSR performance (positive versus neutral) and the readability of CSR reports (high versus low), while holding financial information constant. Our findings reveal that investors make more positive earnings estimates when CSR performance is positive. The readability level of CSR reports also influences investors’ decision‐making process. Moreover, by using an eye‐tracking device, we are able to observe investors’ different reading behaviours upon the different levels of readability.
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Zusammenfassung Lesestrategien sind bedeutsam, wenn Textaufgaben zu bearbeiten sind und die in der Aufgabe dargestellte Situation verstanden werden muss. Die Studie betrachtet die Vermittlung von Lesestrategien im Mathematikunterricht aus Sicht von Lehrkräften sowie Lernenden und untersucht, in welcher Relation die Sichtweisen stehen. Im Fokus stehen beide Perspektiven, um basierend auf vorliegenden Konvergenzen Aufschluss über Unterrichtsroutinen zu erhalten und angesichts zunehmender Heterogenität differenzielle Wahrnehmungen in der Gruppe der Lernenden zu ermitteln. 60 Lehrpersonen und 261 Lernende wurden zur Vermittlung von (meta-)kognitiven Lesestrategiearten, der Instruktionsweise bei der Strategievermittlung sowie zur Relevanz von Lesestrategien im Unterricht befragt. Während zwischen beiden Perspektiven Konvergenzen in der Wahrnehmung der Vermittlung kognitiver Lesestrategien sowie der Relevanz der Thematik bestehen, unterscheiden sie sich bezüglich der Vermittlung metakognitiver Lesestrategien sowie der Instruktionsweise. Zudem zeigt eine profilspezifische Betrachtung der Wahrnehmungen innerhalb der Lernenden, dass sie die Vermittlung von Lesestrategien im Mathematikunterricht in Abhängigkeit des Leseverständnisses differenziell einschätzen: Lernende mit schlechteren Leseverständniswerten nehmen die Vermittlung von Lesestrategien im Unterricht in höherem Maße wahr als die Lernenden mit besseren Leseverständniswerten.
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We developed digital materials for inclusive primary school content lessons that combine factual texts with various elements known to foster reading comprehension (e.g., reading strategies, cooperative learning, glossaries). To investigate the usability and feasibility of the digital learning environment, we conducted two mixed-methods studies in both individual (Study 1) and whole-classroom settings (Study 2). Use of the new digital material was found to be intuitive and motivating. Although teachers and students needed time to familiarize themselves with new functions, they liked working with the material. Students benefited when teachers introduced the material in a clearly structured manner. Teachers emphasized the importance of the cooperative learning methods and appreciated the inclusive characteristics of the approach.
Chapter
This chapter provides a literature review on the evidence-based practices for students with learning disabilities (LD). Selective studies include different effective teaching instructions, either for improving vocabulary knowledge or reading comprehension, and developing math problem-solving skills. Research-based practices could fill the gap between research and practice in special education within school context and could help LD students to achieve the same results as their peers. Reviewed studies were grouped in three main categories, namely (1) hetero-regulated language and reading instructions, (2) hetero-regulated math instructions, and (3) auto-regulated instructions/metacognitive strategies, about both language both reading skills. Twenty-six empirical contributions along the last two decades have been entered. With regard to reading, positive results were found on fluency vocabulary-based activities, explicit reading instruction, and contextual learning. With regard to math problems, cognitive and manual instructions were useful. Finally, the development of metacognitive strategies was found effective for any kind of LD. Limitations and psychoeducational implications of the findings will be illustrated, as well as some considerations for future research.
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We examined the effect of drawing sketches on metacomprehension accuracy of science texts for 5th grade (ages 10–11) students (Study 1: N = 60, Study 2: N = 62). Students either received instruction on drawing organizational sketches, which focused on capturing the relationships described in texts, or representational sketches, which focused on capturing details described in texts. They then read and drew sketches for texts, predicted their performance, and completed tests. They completed this procedure for five texts. Metacomprehension accuracy was greater for students instructed to draw organizational sketches than for students instructed to draw representational sketches or those in a control group who did not draw (Study 2). Performance on comprehension tests was also greater for students instructed to draw organizational sketches than for students in other groups. The superior metacomprehension accuracy was explained in terms of the cue-utilization framework of metacognitive monitoring (Koriat, 1997).
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Various knowledge sources have been hypothesized to relate to individual differences in reading comprehension skill in developing readers. We present results from two studies using explanatory item-response models to examine the unique role of knowledge in predicting reading and listening comprehension in 5th grade students (mean age of 10.77 years). In study 1, we investigated the importance of different knowledge sources for comprehending grade-level passages. Participants were 254 students with a range of reading abilities. We found that passage-specific topic familiarity, general academic knowledge, and vocabulary knowledge were all significantly associated with the probability of correctly answering questions about a passage. In study 2, we examined the possible transfer mechanisms that allow knowledge in one area to influence comprehension in a related but unfamiliar area. Participants were 26 students embedded in an Interactive Humanities course focusing on the Renaissance period. Students listened to parallel passages on Guttenberg and the printing press and Twitter use in the Arab Spring and answered comprehension questions. The probability of answering a question about the novel Twitter passage was significantly predicted by the ability to answer the corresponding question on the familiar printing press passage. Results point to the importance of knowledge sources in accounting for variance in comprehension performance.
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The identification of poor readers as ?learning disabled? can be the first of many steps toward consigning students to a lifetime of reading failure. The very label that is meant to help children often becomes a burden that works against effective learning throughout their schooling.In this book, the authors identify the dangers of labeling children as reading or learning disabled, contending that a ?reading disability? is not a unitary phenomenon. In order to diagnose and help children, educators and parents need to understand the multiple sources of reading difficulty before they can choose appropriate means to correct it.Drawing on recent research in cognitive psychology, the authors present a new theoretical model of reading disability that integrates a wide variety of findings across age and grade spans. Laid out in terms that are readily comprehensible to parents and practitioners, the model outlines the phases that are characteristic of the path to proficient reading, then describes five ways in which disabled readers may stray from this path. The key to the authors’ work lies in fact that youngsters who stray from the path of normal reading acquisition often are not distinguishable from other children who are classified as ?poor readers? rather than as ?learning disabled.? This model is an especially useful one for practitioners because it both provides a broader view of reading disability than have many previous models and shows how reading disability relates to normal reading acquisition. Using illustrative case studies, the authors describe the five types of reading disabilities, explain how to properly assess them, and suggest ways to conquer them.
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In this study, we investigated the effects of inferential questioning, and of the timing of such questioning, on narrative comprehension by 4th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade students and college students. Students received questions either during or after reading simple narrative texts. Control groups read the texts without questions. Questioning, particularly during reading, interfered with the youngest students' recall both of text information in general and of information specifically targeted by the questions. Questioning facilitated college students' memory but only for information specifically targeted by the questions and only when questioning occurred during reading. As reading and language skills become more proficient and automatic, inferential questioning increasingly directs readers' attention during reading to the information targeted by the questions, In addition, inferential questioning challenges the processing capacities of younger or less skilled readers and, hence, may interfere with comprehension.
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This study examined the relations between the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities and reading achievement during childhood and adolescence. In a large, nationally representative sample including students 6 to 19 years of age, operational measures of CHC cognitive abilities obtained from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) were found to be significantly related to the components of reading achievement. Multiple regression analyses were used to regress several WJ III cognitive clusters onto the WJ III Basic Reading Skills and Reading Comprehension clusters for 14 age groups. Comprehension-Knowledge (Gc) demonstrated moderate to strong relations with the components of reading achievement across childhood and adolescence, and Short-term Memory (Gsm) demonstrated moderate relations throughout this period. Auditory Processing (Ga), Long-term Retrieval (Glr), and Processing Speed (Gs) demonstrated moderate relations with the components of reading achievement during the elementary school years. More specialized cognitive clusters (viz., Phonemic Awareness and Working Memory) demonstrated moderate to strong relations. In contrast, Fluid Reasoning (Gf) and Visual-Spatial Thinking (Gv) demonstrated no consistent pattern of significant relations across childhood and adolescence. The results offer external validity evidence for the WJ III cognitive clusters and provide valuable insights into the specific cognitive abilities that are important for understanding the development of reading skills during childhood and adolescence.
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Purpose: This investigation examined the performance of 50 African American children on a reading comprehension test. Method: Longitudinal data were compared for two groups of students who were preschoolers or kindergartners at Time 1 and elementary-grade students at Time 2. Outcomes were examined for positive predictive relationships based on their oral language and cognitive skills as preschoolers and kindergartners at Time 1. The Time 1 preschoolers were all from low-income homes, whereas the Time 1 kindergartners were all from middle-income homes. All students were urban dwellers and speakers of African American English. Results: Two measures predicted later reading comprehension levels for the Time 1 preschoolers: use of complex syntax and shape matching. The Time 1 preschoolers and kindergartners showed no significant differences in reading comprehension at the end of first grade, but the preschoolers were significantly ahead of the kindergartners in reading by third grade. Clinical implications: The potential of preschools that emphasize early language and literacy for improving the reading outcomes of African American students is discussed.
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The possibility that students can learn counterintuitive science concepts as the result of reading and then discussing ideas within a social context was examined in this study. Students read one of two texts, narrative and expository, that taught students Newtonian principles related to projectile motion. After reading, they (a) answered questions about ideas in the text, (b) participated in a scaffolded discussion with another student and a researcher to answer the same questions, or (c) participated in a control activity. Students who read expository text and students who participated in scaffolded discussion performed better on posttests than did those who read narrative and participated in question/answer sessions. Students who answered questions after reading had inappropriate search strategies, and they twisted information to make it consistent with their own nonscientific understandings. Students who discussed the text evidenced the same behaviors; however, the scaffolded discussion helped them focus more accurately on the text.
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This study explored the development of students' knowledge of the meanings of 10 common English suffixes. A test was constructed to assess students' knowledge of the contribution of suffixes to the meanings of derivatives. Students were asked to choose which of several sentences correctly used a suffixed word. The suffixed words consisted of novel combinations of familiar stems and suffixes (e.g., butterless). Students were also tested on parallel items using familiar nonsuffixed words. The test was administered to 630 fourth-grade, seventh-grade, and high school students. Knowledge of the meanings of common English suffixes was found to undergo significant development between fourth grade and high school. Even in high school, however, there were some students who showed little knowledge of the meanings of these suffixes. The test identified students who have particular difficulties with English suffixes, and thus it has potential as a diagnostic tool.
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Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational factors were examined as predictors of individual differences in the reading comprehension abilities of good and poor readers. Two hundred twenty seventh graders were measured on reading comprehension, and the top 30% and bottom 30% were identified as good and poor readers, respectively. Subjects were then measured on word recognition, metacognitive knowledge about text processing, perceived competence, and attributional beliefs about the reasons underlying academic outcomes. The results indicated that good readers in comparison to poor readers scored higher on the word recognition measure, possessed richer metacognitive knowledge, and had more positive beliefs about their academic abilities. Regression analyses indicated that word recognition and metacognition predicted reading comprehension in the whole sample; however, regression analyses within subgroups indicated that word recognition was the most important predictor variable for poor readers, whereas perceived competence predicted the reading comprehension abilities of good readers.
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Although both prior topic knowledge and vocabulary knowledge have been known to affect comprehension in general, less is known about the specifics of the interactions between these factors. Using a magazine article about a ceremony marking the retirement of a baseball player's jersey number, this study examines the effects of knowledge of baseball in general and of the career of Tom Seaver in specific and of knowledge of word meanings in general and of words used in the passage specifically on tenth graders' recall of different aspects of passage content. Vocabulary knowledge tended to affect the number of units recalled overall; prior knowledge influenced which units were recalled. Prior topic knowledge influenced whether subjects produced a gist statement in their recall and how well they recalled numbers relevant to Seaver's career. High knowledge subjects also tended to focus more on information given about his career than low knowledge subjects. Specific and general domain knowledge were so closely related that their effects could not be disentangled. A qualitative analysis of the protocols confirmed the general trends in the quantitative analysis. Results suggest both that domain knowledge and vocabulary have independent effects on comprehension and that these effects are on what is comprehended as well as how much is comprehended.
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Traditional intervention programs for children with decoding and reading comprehension problems often focus on remediation of the decoding ability. The goal of this study was to determine whether it is possible to teach these children text comprehension strategies. The subjects were fourth-grade students from elementary schools and 9- to 11-year-old students from special schools for learning disabled children. All the children were poor in decoding and reading comprehension, and they scored poorly or normally on a listening comprehension test. Four strategies, clarifying, questioning, summarizing, and predicting were trained through direct instruction and reciprocal teaching in reading and listening settings. The effects were measured by using a pretest posttest retention test control group design. The dependent variables were the ability to apply the four strategies, general reading and listening comprehension performance, and knowledge of reading strategies. Analyses of each variable indicated significant main effects for School Types (children from elementary schools perform better than children from special schools), Listening Levels (normal listeners perform better than poor listeners), and Time of Testing (there was a general progress from pretests through retention tests). Although there were no significant main effects for Groups (experimental and control groups had similar scores), significant program effects were indicated by significant Groups × Time of Testing interactions. However, these positive program effects were restricted to pretest-posttest comparisons and they apllied more to strategic variables than to general reading comprehension.
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Text search is a type of strategic reading that involves locating specific goal-relevant information. Previous research has indicated that college and high school students often exhibit inefficient or unsuccessful text-search performance. Consequently, the effects of 2 manipulations on text-search performance were investigated: (1) the presence of indexed terms in a text-search task and (2) the use of a planning prompt before beginning a task. 34 college students engaged in 6 text-search tasks. Half of these tasks contained terms that could be used in an index; half required that a search term be generated. Half of the subjects were randomly assigned to a prompt condition in which they were prompted to plan their search before beginning each task. The results indicated that a planning prompt raised the success level of search performance, as did the presence of terms that were searchable in the textbook's index.
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It has been about 25 years now since researchers first became interested in the study of metacognition, with the onset of interest marked by the publication of the 1975 metamemory interview study of Kreutzer, Leonard, and Flavell and the seminal theoretical work of John Flavell (1976) and Ann Brown (1978). The early work by developmental psychologists on age-related differences in children's metacognition captured the attention of researchers concerned with individual differences in academic achievement in children as well as adults. Within academic domains, most of the research has been focused on reading and studying (Baker & Brown, 1984; Forrest Pressley & Waller, 1984; Garner, 1987; Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991), but mathematics (Van Haneghan & Baker, 1989), writing (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 1985), and science (Baker, 1991) have also received attention. The consistent finding has been that students who are more successful in a domain exhibit higher levels of meta cognitive knowledge about the domain and are more skilled at regulating their cognitive processes. Clearly, the construct of metacognition has had wide appeal and wide applicability, stimulating a great deal of research across a broad spectrum of psychological problems and issues, as well as a growing amount of intervention work in classrooms. In a 1994 review paper on social influences on metacognitive development, Baker wrote, "The popular appeal of metacognition has led to the widespread adoption and somewhat uncritical acceptance of the construct among educators. This situation is obviously problematic from a scientific standpoint and makes clear the need for further basic research on how metacognition develops, the role of metacognition in cognitive development, and how metacognition may best be fostered" (pp. 202-203). The concern about uncritical acceptance is no less apt with regard to measurement; let us therefore amend the final sentence to end with and measured. In this chapter, we address the issue of metacognitive assessment first by examining methods of measuring metacognition used in empirical research, including questionnaires, interviews, think-aloud procedures, error-detection procedures, and various on-line measures. We then examine some of the instruments that have been subjected to tests of reliability and validity by independent investigators; their numbers are few. Next we consider recommendations for assessing metacognition that are published in books and journals for teachers and school psychologists; their numbers are many. Throughout, primary emphasis is on metacognition as it relates to reading and studying, but some reference is made to assessment of meta cognition in other domains as well (e.g., metamemory, problem solving).
Article
This study investigated the effectiveness of a direct instruction model for teaching children the comprehension skill of main idea. Sixty-six, sixth-grade students, blocked on achievement level, were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: a Strategy group, in which subjects received intensive main idea instruction according to a direct instruction paradigm developed by the author; a Basal group, in which subjects were administered massed basal lessons on main idea comprehension from a current, popular basal series; or a Control group, in which subjects engaged in unrelated vocabulary development exercises. A series of dependent measures assessing students' ability to recognize and produce explicit and implicit main ideas at the paragraph and short passage levels indicated a powerful treatment effect favoring the Strategy group over both the Basal and Control groups. These results are interpreted as further support for the efficacy of a direct instruction paradigm for teaching children reading comprehension skills. /// [French] Cette étude a approfondi l'efficacité d'un modèle d'instruction directe pour enseigner aux enfants la compétence de compréhension d'idées principales. On a assigné au hasard soixante-six élèves de sixième, bloqués au niveau accomplissement, à un des trois groupes expérimentaux: un groupe de stratégie, dans lequel les sujets ont reçu une instruction d'idées principales intensive selon un paradigme d'instruction directe developpé par l'auteur; un groupe de base, dans lequel on a administré aux sujets des leçons de base en masse sur la compréhension d'idées principales à partir de séries de base populaires en cours; ou un groupe de contrôle, dans lequel les sujets se sont engagés dans des exercises de développement de vocabulaire sans rapport. Une série de mesures dépendantes évaluant la capacité des élèves à reconnaître et produire des idées principales explicites et implicites aux niveaux de paragraphe et court passage, a indiqué un effet de traitement puissant favorisant le groupe de stratégie par rapport aux groupes de base et de contrôle. Ces résultats sont interprétés comme support supplémentaire envers l'efficacité d'un paradigme d'instruction directe pour enseigner aux enfants des compétences de compréhension de lecture. /// [Spanish] Este estudio investigo la efectividad de un modelo de instrucción directa a alumnos, para la enseñanza de destrezas de comprensión de ideas centrales. Se asignaron al azar a cada uno de 3 grupos experimentales 66 alumnos de grado sexto, clasificados en niveles de habilidad: un grupo de Estrategia, en el que los alumnos recibieron instrucción intensa de ideas centrales basada en el modelo de instrucción directa desarrollado por el autor; un grupo Básico, al que fue administrado una concentración de lecciones básicas de comprensión de ideas centrales de una serie contemporánea popular de textos básicos; un grupo Control, en el que los alumnos participaron en ejercicios de desarrolo de vocabulario no relacionado. Una serie de medidas dependientes, en las que se evaluó la habilidad de los alumnos de reconocer y producir explícitas e implícitas ideas centrales a nivel de párrafo y de corto pasaje, indicaron un efecto poderoso del tratamiento, favoreciendo el grupo de Estrategia sobre el Básico y el de Control. Estos resultados se interpretan de soportar adicionalmente la eficacia de un modelo de instrucción directa para la enseñanza de destrezas para la comprensión de lectura a los alumnos.
Article
THIS STUDY investigated the implications of signifying, a form of social discourse in the African-American community, as a scaffold for teaching skills in literary interpretation. This investigation is related to the larger question of the efficacy of culturally sensitive instruction. The major premise on which the hypotheses of this study are based is the proposal that African American adolescents who are skilled in signifying use certain strategies to process signifying dialogue. These strategies are comparable to those that expert readers use in order to construct inferences about figurative passages in narrative texts. In order to apply this premise, an instructional unit was designed aimed at helping students bring to a conscious level the strategies it is presumed they use tacitly in social discourse. This approach is offered as a model of cognitive apprenticing based on cultural foundations. Analyses are presented of how the cultural practice links to heuristic strategies that experts use in a specific domain, as well as how instructors modeled, coached, and scaffolded students.
Article
Children were taught to be strategic and to monitor their success while searching for information in text. In the first study, 180 children were randomly assigned to receive strategy instruction with monitoring, strategy instruction only, or no instruction. Grade 3 children who were taught the strategy without monitoring instruction were more successful than control children, whereas Grade 4 and Grade 5 students benefitted from instruction only when they were also encouraged to monitor their performance. In the second study, Grade 3 and Grade 4 students transferred the strategy to an unfamiliar informational book. The third study examined category selection and extraction components of the strategy to find again additive effects of all three components.
Article
The study was designed to examine the differential effects of a strategy to promote inferential thinking and a procedure to organize text information on comprehension and comprehension monitoring. Subjects, 101 high-, middle-, and low-ability fifth-grade students, were assigned to one of four treatments: (a) a cloze strategy to help students integrate prior knowledge with text information, (b) a structured overview to help students organize text information, (c) a strategy that combined the two previous treatments, and (d) a control condition. Subjects received instruction for 6 weeks during social studies class. Subjects were pretested on general reading ability, background knowledge, comprehension ability, and metacognitive awareness. Posttests on both literal and inferential comprehension were administered after each instructional unit. Transfer tests were administered at the end of the instruction and after delays of 6 and 20 weeks. The metacognitive interview was administered again at the end of instruction. According to the results, the cloze strategy, which induced students to integrate text information with prior knowledge, yielded superior gains in comprehension compared to the treatments that did not include this strategy. These effects transferred to unfamiliar texts, and lasted as long as 4 months. Students who received the cloze strategy training also demonstrated greater metacognitive awareness. /// [French] Par ce travail on a voulu examiner les effets différentiels d'une stratégie pour promouvoir la réflexion déductive et d'une procédure d'organisation de l'information du texte sur la compréhension et le contrôle de la compréhension. Cent un élèves de cinquième année, de niveau fort, moyen et faible, ont été soumis à l'une de ces quatre conditions: (a) une stratégie de closure aidant les élèves à intégrer leurs connaissances antérieures à l'information du texte, (b) un système de planification aidant les élèves à organiser l'information du texte, (c) une stratégie combinant les deux conditions précitées, et (d) un groupe contrôle. Les sujets ont reçu l'enseignement lors des cours de sciences sociales pour une durée de 6 semaines. On avait évalué au préalable leurs performances en lecture, leur savoir acquis, leur habileté à déduire et leur conscience métacognitive. On a administré des posttests sur la compréhension directe et déductive après chaque unité d'enseignement. Des tests de transfert ont été administrés à la fin de la période d'enseignement et après un délai de 6 et 20 semaines. On a encore évalué la conscience métacognitive à la fin de l'enseignement. Selon les résultats, la stratégie de closure modifiée qui incitait les élèves à combiner l'information du texte à leurs connaissances antérieures, a conduit à de meilleurs résultats en compréhension comparativement aux conditions n'incluant pas cette stratégie. Ces effets ont pu se transférer sur des textes inconnus et ont duré jusqu'à 4 mois. Les élèves ayant bénéficié de l'enseignement de la stratégie de closure ont également démontré une plus grande conscience métacognitive. /// [Spanish] El estudio fue diseñado para examinar los efectos diferenciales de una estrategia para promover pensamiento inferencial y un procedimiento para organizar información del texto en la comprensión y el monitoreo de la comprensión. Ciento un sujetos de quinto grado de alta, mediana y baja habilidad fueron asignados a uno de cuatro tratamientos: (a) una estrategia de cloze para ayudar a los estudiantes a integrar conocimientos previos con información del texto, (b) una visión estructurada para ayudar a los estudiantes a organizar la información del texto, (c) una estrategia que combinaba los dos tratamientos previos, y (d) una condición control. Los sujetos recibieron instrucción por 6 semanas durante la clase de estudios sociales. Se sometió a los sujetos a pre-tests de habilidad general de lectura, conocimientos previos, habilidad para inferir y alerta metacognitiva. Se administraron post-tests tanto en comprensión literal como inferencial después de cada unidad instruccional. Se administraron pruebas de transferencia al final de la instrucción y después de 6 y 20 semanas. La entrevista metacognitiva fue administrada otra vez al final de la instrucción. De acuerdo a los resultados, la estrategia de cloze modificada, que indujo a los estudiantes a integrar información del texto con conocimientos previos, rindió ganancias superiores en comprensión comparada a los tratamientos que no incluyeron esta estrategia. Estos efectos se transfirieron a textos desconocidos y duraron hasta 4 meses. Los estudiantes que recibieron el tratamiento de estrategia de cloze también demostraron mayor alerta metacognitiva. /// [German] Die studie wurde entworfen, um Unterscheidungseinflüsse einer Strategie zu prüfen, die Folgerungsdenken und einen Vorgang zum Organisieren von Text-Information über Verständnis-Ueberwachung fördert. Die Prüflinge, 101 hoch-, mittel- und wenig-talentierte Fünf-Klässler, wurden einem von vier Verfahren zugeteilt: (a) eine Cloze-Strategie, die Schülern helfen sollte, Vorwissen mit Text-Information zu verbinden, (b) eine gegliederte Uebersicht, die Schülern helfen sollte, Text-Information zu organisieren, (c) eine Strategie, die die beiden vorangeführten Methoden miteinander kombinierte, und (d) ein Kontroll-Zustand. Die Prüflinge erhielten ihre Instruktionen sechs Wochen lang, und zwar in Rahmen ihrer Gesellschaftskunde-Klassen. Die Prüflinge wurden vorgeprüft auf ihre allgemeine Lesefähigkeit hin, auf Vorwissen, ihre Folgerungsfähigkeit, und auf ihr meta-cognitives Verständnis. Vorprüfungen, wörtliches sowie folgerndes Verständnis betreffend, wurden nach jedem Lehrabschnitt vorgenommen. Uebertragungstests wurden durchgeführt am Ende der Belehrung und nochmals nach 6 und 20 Wochen. Die metacognitive Besprechung wurde erneut durchgeführt am Ende der Lehrstunde. Wie die Resultate aufzeigen, ergab die modifizierte Cloze-Strategie, welche Schüler anleitet, Text-Information mit Vorwissen zu vereinen, einen grossen Gewinn an Verständnis, verglichen mit den Verfahren, die eine solche Behandlung nicht enthielten. Diese Einflüsse übertrugen sich auf unvertraute Texte und hielten bis zu 4 Monaten an. Schüler, die dem Cloze-Strategie-Verfahren ausgesetzt wurden, zeigten obendrein eine ausgeprägtere metacognitive Erkenntnis.
Article
The authors investigated the task of locating information in a textbook chapter (text search). Text search is distinct from traditional reading comprehension tasks in that it involves finding a specific subset of information relevant to a particular goal, rather than recalling or understanding the entire contents of a text. The authors presented a textbook chapter and its accompanying index, table of contents, and glossary on a computer, and asked 31 U. S. high school students to search for answers to simple and complex questions. They found differences between more efficient and less efficient searchers in how they distributed their time across various aspects of the task. As task complexity increased, more efficient searchers allocated relatively more of their search time to the initial stages of text search, during which they selected relevant categories of information for pursuing their goals. As a consequence of making a more targeted or methodical choice of categories to search, more efficient searchers were able to spend less time than less efficient searchers on the actual extraction of the information sought. These results contribute to our understanding of text search--a pervasive task that is distinct from prose recall, but has not been well researched. /// [French] La présente étude analyse la tâche que constitue la recherche d'informations dans un chapitre de livre. Ce type de tâche consiste à rechercher un sous-ensemble spécifique d'informations en fonction d'un but particulier et non pas comme les tâches de lecture traditionnelles à rappeler ou à comprendre tout le contenu du texte. Dans la recherche qui suit, les auteurs présentaient sur ordinateur, un chapitre de livre avec l'index, la table des matières et le glossaire correspondants; 31 étudiants du niveau secondaire devaient lire et trouver les réponses à des questions variant selon leur degré de complexité. Les résultats analysés en fonction de la réussite aux questions montrèrent des différences entre les étudiants forts et les étudiants faibles quant au temps pris pour réaliser les differentes parties de la tâche. Dans les parties plus difficiles, les étudiants forts prenaient plus de temps dans la phase initiale de la recherche durant laquelle ils choisissaient les catégories d'informations pertinentes à la poursuite de leur objectif. Le fait de mieux cibler les catégories d'informations et de mieux planifier la recherche eut pour conséquence que les étudiants forts purent allouer moins de temps à la recherche effective d'informations. Ces résultats ont permis de mieux comprendre ce type de tâche qui est de plus en plus répandu et qui se distingue des tâches traditionnelles de rappel du texte beaucoup plus étudiées jusqu'à présent. /// [Spanish] Los autores investigaron la tarea de localizar información en un capítulo de un libro de texto (búsqueda de texto). La búsqueda del texto se distingue de las tareas tradicionales de comprensión de lectura en que la primera involucra encontrar un subset específico de información relevante a una meta particular más que recordar o comprender el contenido global de un texto. Los autores presentaron un capítulo de un libro de texto junto con su índice, tabla de contenidos, y el glosario en computadora, y les pidieron a 31 estudiantes norteamericanos de secundaria que buscaran las respuestas a preguntas simples y complejas. Se encontró que hay diferencias entre buscadores más eficientes y menos eficientes en la forma de distribuir su tiempo a lo largo de varios aspectos de la tarea. Conforme la complejidad en la tarea aumentaba, los buscadores más eficientes dedicaban relativamente más de su tiempo de búsqueda a las etapas iniciales de búsqueda de texto, durante la cual seleccionaban los categorías relevantes de información para alcanzar sus metas. Como consecuencia de hacer una elección mejor enfocada o planeada de las categorías para buscar, los buscadores más eficientes podían dedicar menos tiempo que los buscadores menos eficientes en la extracción real de la información buscada. Estos resultados contribuyen a nuestra comprensión de la búsqueda de texto -- una tarea bastante común claramente diferente del recuerdo de prosa, que aún no ha sido suficientemente investigada. /// [German] Untersucht wurde die Aufgabe, Informationen in einem Lehrbuchkapitel zu lokalisieren (Textsuche). Die Textsuche unterscheidet sich von herkömmlichen Leseverständnisaufgaben darin, daß bei ihr ein spezieller Informationsteil aufzufinden ist, der auf ein bestimmtes Ziel bezogen ist. Textsuche ist daher nicht einfach das Nacherzählen oder Verstehen eines gesamten Textinhaltes. Die Verfasser legten 31 Schülern der High School auf einem Computer ein Lehrbuchkapitel mit begleitendem Index, Inhaltsangabe und Glossar vor. Aufgabe der Schüler war es, nach Antworten auf einfache und komplexe Fragen zu suchen. Bei der Zeitverteilung über unterschiedliche Aspekte der Aufgabe hinweg wurden Unterschiede zwischen leistungsstärkeren und leistungsschwächeren Textsuchern festgestellt. Mit zunehmendem Schwierigkeitsgrad der Aufgabe wurde von den leistungsstärkeren Textsuchern verhältnismäßig mehr ihrer Suchzeit für die Anfangsstadien der Suche aufgebracht, während der sie anwendbare Informationskategorien zum Erreichen ihres Zieles auswählten. Aufgrund der Tatsache, daß leistungsstärkere Textsucher bei der Auswahl der abzusuchenden Kategorien gezielter und planvoller vorgingen, benötigten sie weniger Zeit als leistungsschwächere Textsucher für das Lokalisieren der gesuchten Informationen. Diese Ergebnisse tragen zu unserem Verstehen einer Textsuche bei -- eine vorherrschende Aufgabe, die sich von Nacherzählungen literarischer Werke unterscheidet, die jedoch kaum hinreichend erforscht worden ist.
Article
This book introduces multiple-latent variable models by utilizing path diagrams to explain the underlying relationships in the models. This approach helps less mathematically inclined students grasp the underlying relationships between path analysis, factor analysis, and structural equation modeling more easily. A few sections of the book make use of elementary matrix algebra. An appendix on the topic is provided for those who need a review. The author maintains an informal style so as to increase the book's accessibility. Notes at the end of each chapter provide some of the more technical details. The book is not tied to a particular computer program, but special attention is paid to LISREL, EQS, AMOS, and Mx. New in the fourth edition of Latent Variable Models: * a data CD that features the correlation and covariance matrices used in the exercises; * new sections on missing data, non-normality, mediation, factorial invariance, and automating the construction of path diagrams; and * reorganization of chapters 3-7 to enhance the flow of the book and its flexibility for teaching. Intended for advanced students and researchers in the areas of social, educational, clinical, industrial, consumer, personality, and developmental psychology, sociology, political science, and marketing, some prior familiarity with correlation and regression is helpful. © 2004 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
BONNIE J.F. MEYER DAVID M. BRANDT GEORGE J. BLUTH Arizona State University THE STUDY INVESTIGATEnSi nth-grade students' use of a reading strategy (the structure strategy) which focuses on following the organizational structure of text in order to determine what is important to remember. Texts read were well organized with problem/solution or comparison structures; signaling varied the saliency of these structures. Signaling effects were expected to interact with mastery of the structure strategy. Regardless of signaling, good comprehenders on the Stanford Achievement Test were expected to follow the structure strategy while poor comprehenders were not. However, comprehension underachievers (vocabulary substantially above comprehension test scores) were expected to follow the structure strategy only when signaling was present. Most predictions were supported; the structure strategy appeared to be a particularly effective retrieval mneumonic. Its development with age across different discourse types is discussed. Also characterized is the approach to reading and retelling of ninthgrade students who do not employ this structure strategy.
Article
The present study compared the reading comprehension abilities of students with learning disabilities (LD) and those of both their age peers and their reading-level peers. Reading passages included familiar and unfamiliar topics, so as to assess the use of prior knowledge under varying conditions. All passages tested inferential reading ability, since the answers to test questions could be inferred from content, but were not explicitly stated. Subject activation and experimenter activation of prior knowledge were also compared. All groups benefited from experimenter activation of prior knowledge, but these benefits were most noteworthy for subjects with LD, and when passage topics were unfamiliar. The subjects with LD performed very similarly to their reading-level peers, as opposed to their age peers. Thus, the findings shed some light on the nature of learning disabilities. Implications for instruction are explored.
Article
In the present paper, the conceptual and procedural knowledge related to textbook search was examined. It was assumed that certain aspects of conceptual knowledge would help students search texts more quickly and efficiently. Two experiments were conducted to explore this proposal. In Experiment 1, college students were interviewed to determine the extent of their conceptual knowledge of human anatomy. Results revealed that the properties of organs provided by students fell into seven categories: an organ's function, location, parts, importance, diseases, appearance, and tissue type. This information was used to design Experiment 2 in which students were asked to find answers to two questions about anatomy using one of two anatomy texts. Half of subjects were given a standard text which arranged organs into traditional systems. The other text arranged organs in a way unlikely to be familiar to students. Results showed that conceptual knowledge facilitated search only when subjects were given the standard text. These results are discussed in terms of their support of the conceptual vs procedural knowledge distinction.
Article
A conceptual model of question answering from academic texts is proposed that is of potential value in investigating differences in the academic reading comprehension behavior of native and nonnative English speakers. The model guided protocol analysis of seven college students answering questions on two selections drawn from their introductory oceanography textbook. The three nonnative English speakers and four native English speakers described what they were doing to answer the questions. Students varied in level of expertise, based on their backgrounds in related science courses. The questions varied in terms of their relation to the text and the types of processing required to answer them. Solution strategies were abstracted from the protocols and indicated predicted effects of question type on difficulty and on solution strategies. Differences among individuals were related to domain expertise and to language background.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strategy instruction on reading comprehension. The main objective of strategy instruction is to foster comprehension monitoring. The study examined whether reciprocal teaching methods (strategy instruction) were superior to traditional methods of remedial reading (skill acquisition) in large intact high school remedial classes. This setting was chosen because it is a more natural setting for the implementation of reciprocal teaching than settings used in previous studies. With a methodology similar to that used in the pioneering work of Palincsar and Brown (1984), 53 students in five intact reading classes who received strategy instruction were compared to 22 students in three control-group classes. The results indicated that in this challenging setting strategy instruction was superior to traditional reading methods in fostering reading comprehension as measured by experimenter-designed reading tests. Consistent with previous research, no differences were found between the groups on two standardized measures of reading.
Article
Middle school students' reading behavior is a timely issue given the recent interest in the education of young adolescents. Previous research has provided information about middle school readers' strategy use, attitudes toward reading, and time spent reading. However, this research is limited in scope because it does not address the multitude of factors, both from within individual readers and from outside contexts, that influence reading behaviors. The present study extends the research on young adolescent readers by focusing on three individual sixth-grade readers and how they experienced reading day-to-day in their classrooms over a period of 5 months. Participants in the case studies included a successful reader, a moderately successful reader, and a struggling reader. Constant comparative analysis of data, including classroom observations, interviews with students, one-on-one reading periods with individual students, and the researchers' reflective joural, revealed that all three students' reading performance and dispositions toward reading varied according to the context of their reading, the materials they read, and the purpose of the reading. Despite the range of success with in-school reading among the three students, none could be accurately categorized as skilled or unskilled, motivated or unmotivated. Rather, each student was quite complex as a reader.
Article
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of preteaching vocabulary of differing levels of importance to a text using two different methods of instruction on children's comprehension of basal stories. One hundred and twenty average and above-average fifth-grade readers participated in two group sessions. During the first session, small groups of subjects received a vocabulary lesson on one set of five words (central or noncentral), using one of two methods of instruction (dictionary or concept) for one of two stories. Twenty-four hours later the second session was held, and two comprehension measures (recall and questions) and two vocabulary measures (definition and example) were administered. The results of the word-level treatment indicated that preteaching unfamiliar vocabulary enhanced children's comprehension of story ideas that were related to the instructed vocabulary regardless of level of importance. The results of the instructional method treatment were unclear due to interactions with story. The results also suggested that comprehension questions designed to evaluate students' understanding of story ideas that were related to the instructed vocabulary provided a more sensitive measure of children's comprehension than a general recall measure. /// [French] Cette recherche avait pour but de déterminer les effets d'un enseignement préalable des mots de vocabulaire d'importance variable dans un texte sur la compréhension des histoires par les élèves. On a utilisé deux méthodes différentes d'enseignement avec 120 élèves de cinquième année, se situant dans et au-dessus de la moyenne, participant aux deux sessions collectives. A la première session, on a enseigné le vocabulaire à de petits groupes à partir d'une série de cinq mots (principaux ou non), appliquant l'une des deux méthodes d'enseignement (dictionnaire ou concept) pour l'une des deux histoires. Le lendemain, à la deuxième session, ils ont dû compléter deux exercices évaluant le vocabulaire (définition et exemple) et deux exercices évaluant la compréhension (rappel libre et questions). Les résultats du traitement des mots selon leur niveau d'importance indiquent que l'enseignement préalable du vocabulaire non familier a amélioré chez les élèves la compréhension des idées de l'histoire reliées au vocabulaire enseigné, sans distinction du niveau d'importance. L'application de la méthode d'enseignement a donné des résultats peu concluants, vus les interactions avec l'histoire. Les résultats suggèrent aussi que les questions de compréhension conçues pour évaluer la compréhension des idées de l'histoire reliées au vocabulaire enseigné s'avèrent une mesure plus juste que l'exercice de rappel général si on désire évaluer la compréhension des enfants. /// [Spanish] El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar los efectos que la pre-enseñanza de vocabulario a diferentes niveles de importancia en un texto tiene en la comprensión de historias básicas por los niños. Dos métodos diferentes de instrucción fueron utilizados. La muestra consistió de 120 lectores de quinto año de habilidad promedio y por arriba del promedio, los cuales participaron en las sesiones de dos grupos. En la primera sesión, grupos pequeños de sujetos recibieron una lección de vocabulario con un set de cinco palabras (central o no central), usando uno de dos métodos de instrucción (de diccionario o de concepto) para una o dos historias. Durante la segunda sesión en el siguiente día, se administraron dos medidas de comprensión (reconocimiento libre y preguntas) y dos medidas de vocabulario (definición y ejemplo). Los resultados del tratamiento a nivel de palabra indican que la pre-enseñanza de vocabulario no familiar enfatizaba en los niños la comprensión de las ideas de la historia relativas al vocabulario enseñado sin importar el nivel de importancia de éste. Los resultados del tratamiento del método instruccional no fueron claros debido a las interacciones con la historia. Los resultados sugieren también que las preguntas de comprensión usadas para evaluar el entendimiento de los estudiantes de las ideas de las historias que están relacionadas con el vocabulario enseñado, proporcionan una medida más sensible de la comprensión de los niños que una medida de recuerdo general. /// [German] Der zweck dieses Forschungsprojekts war festzustellen, wie sich das vorherige Unterrichten von Wortschatz unterschiedlicher Bedeutung im Text auf das Verständnis der Kinder von Fibelgeschichten auswirkt. Bei den 120 durchschnittlichen und überdurchschnittlichen Leseschülern der fünften Klasse, die an den zwei Gruppensitzungen teilnahmen, wurden zwei verschiedene Unterrichtsmethoden verwendet. Während der ersten Sitzung erhielten kleine Testgruppen Unterricht im Wortschatz einer Gruppe von fünf Wörtern (zentraler oder nichtzentraler Bedeutung), wobei für die zwei Geschichten zwei unterschiedliche Unterrichtsmethoden (Wörterbuch oder Worterklärung) verwendet wurden. Während der zweiten Sitzung am folgenden Tag wurden zwei Verständnismessungen (freie Erinnerung und Fragen) und zwei Wortschatzmessungen (Definition und Beispiel) durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Anwendung auf der Wort-Ebene weisen darauf hin, daß der vorherige Unterricht unbekannten Vokabulars dem Verständnis der Kinder der in der Geschichte enthaltenen Gedanken, die mit dem unterrichteten Vokabular zu tun hatten, ungeachtet des Wichtigkeitsgrades förderlich war. Die Ergebnisse der Anwendung der Unterrichtsmethode waren unklar aufgrund von Interaktionen mit der Geschichte. Die Ergebnisse weisen auch darauf hin, daß Verständnisfragen, die das Schülerverständnis von in der Geschichte enthaltenen Ideen, die mit dem unterrichteten Vokabular zu tun haben, bewerten, eine genauere Messung des Verständnisses der Kinder ermöglichen als eine allgemeine Erinnerungsmessung.
Article
SOME EDUCATORS (e.g., Ravitch, 1992) have suggested that students use multiple source documents to study history. Such documents could be primary sources, such as legislative bills or eyewitness accounts; secondary sources, such as editorials; or tertiary sources, such as textbooks. This study examined the processes used when high school students were presented documents about a controversial incident in U.S. history, the Tonkin Gulf Incident and its aftermath. These students were asked to read these either to describe or develop an opinion about the incident or the Senate action on the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. We were interested in (a) whether students could develop a rich, mental model of a historical event, (b) what they would do with the document information, (c) how the task influenced their processing of information, (d) how students integrated information across texts, and (e) whether students engaged in corroborating, sourcing, and contextualizing in evaluating historical materials. We found that the mental models created by these students were more internally consistent after reading at least two documents, but did not become more consistent after that. When compared to knowledgeable readers, they failed to make any growth after a first reading. Examining their notes, we found that students tended to rake literal notes, regardless of the final task, suggesting that they were using the initial readings to garner the facts about the incident or the resolution If students were asked for a description, they tended to stay close to the text. If asked for an opinion, however, they tended to ignore the information in the texts they read, even though they may have taken copious notes. Our observations suggest that high school students may not be able to profit from multiple texts, especially those presenting conflicting opinions, without some specific instruction in integrating information from different texts.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two prereading instructional treatments on students' comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The authors randomly assigned 63 fifth-grade students in the U. S. to three groups. Each group was exposed to three treatment conditions. The three conditions were (a) a teacher-directed condition in which teachers read prepared scripts designed to provide students with important information necessary for understanding upcoming texts, (b) an interactive condition in which teachers activated and discussed students' prior knowledge about the topics of upcoming texts, and (c) a control condition in which no prereading instruction was provided. Three narrative and three expository passages were counterbalanced with the three treatments and three teachers across groups, to control for effects of instructor and passage. Hierarchical multiple-regression analyses of within- and between-subject effects indicated that the teacher-directed condition was more effective than the interactive condition at promoting comprehension, and that both treatment conditions were superior to no prereading instruction at all. The teacher-directed condition may have been more effective because (a) it focused only on the most important information necessary for understanding the text, (b) it included direct and explicit instruction, or (c) it was more typical of traditional prereading instruction and therefore more familiar to students. However, the interactive strategy may be more useful for other instructional goals, such as developing students' abilities to activate their own background knowledge. /// [French] Le but de la présente recherche était de comparer l'effet de deux types d'activités de pré-lecture sur la compréhension de textes narratifs et informatifs. Soixante-trois élèves américains de cinquième année primaire ont été répartis au hasard dans trois groupes, chacun étant exposé aux trois conditions expérimentales. Les trois conditions étaient: (a) enseignement dirigé-par-l'enseignant au cours duquel l'enseignant lisait un script préparé à l'avance qui fournissait aux élèves les informations importantes reliées au contenu du texte; (b) enseignement interactif au cours duquel l'enseignant activait les connaissances antérieures des élèves et stimulait la discussion autour du thème du texte qu'ils auraient à lire; (c) situation contrôle au cours de laquelle aucune activité de pré-lecture n'était réalisée. Les trois textes narratifs et informatifs ont été balancés dans chaque groupe de façon à contrôler les effets possibles dûs à l'enseignant et au texte. Des analyses de régressions multiple hiérarchiques portant sur les comparaisons inter- et intra-groupes montrèrent que l'enseignement-dirigé-par le maître a eu plus d'effet que l'enseignement interactif pour améliorer la compréhension et que les deux approches ont été plus efficaces que la situation contrôle. On peut supposer que la condition d'enseignement-dirigé-par le maître a été plus efficace parce-que: (a) l'enseignant mettait l'accent uniquement sur les informations importantes, (b) l'enseignement était direct et explicite et (c) ce type d'enseignement était plus familier aux enfants que l'enseignement interactif. On peut penser toutefois, que l'enseignement interactif serait plus efficace en regard d'autres objectifs, tel l'objectif de développer chez l'élève l'habileté à activer ses connaissances antérieures. /// [Spanish] El proposito de este estudio fue comparar los efectos de dos tratamientos de instrucción de prelectura en la comprensión de estudiantes en textos narrativos y expositorios. Los autores asignaron al azar a 63 estudiantes de quinto año en los Estados Unidos a tres grupos. Cada grupo fue expuesto a las tres condiciones. Las tres condiciones eran (a) una condición dirigida por un maestro en que los maestros leyeron guiones preparados diseñados para proporcionar a los estudiantes la información necesaria para entender textos subsiguientes, (b) una condición interactiva en que los maestros activaron y discutieron el conocimiento previo de los estudiantes acerca de los temas de los textos subsiguientes, y (c) una condición de control en la que no se proporcionó instrucción de prelectura. Tres pasajes narrativos y tres expositorios fueron balanceados con los tres tratamientos y los tres maestros a través de los tres grupos para controlar los efectos de instructor y pasaje. Los análisis jerárquicos de regresión múltiple de los efectos de dentro y entre los sujetos indicaron que la condición dirigida por un maestro fue más efectiva que la condición interactiva para promover la comprensión, y que ambos condiciones fueron superiores al no presentar ninguna instrucción de prelectura. La estrategia que usó maestros para dirigir puede haber sido mas efectiva debido a que (a) se enfocó solamente en la información lo mas importante para entender el texto, (b) incluyó instrucción directa y explícita, o (c) era más típica de la instrucción recibida en sus clases y por tanto más familiar a los estudiantes que la instrucción interactiva. Sin embargo, la estrategia interactiva puede ser más útil para otras metas de instrucción, tales como desarrollar la habilidad de los estudiantes para activar su propio conocimiento previo. /// [German] Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Auswirkungen von zwei vor dem Lesen durchgeführten Unterrichtsmaßnahmen auf das Verständnis von Erzähl- und Expositionstexten zu vergleichen. In den USA wurden 63 Schüler der 5. Klasse willkürlich in drei Gruppen aufgeteilt, in denen zwar die gleichen Testbedingungen vorlagen, die aber unterschiedliche Textpassagen und Lehrer aufwiesen. Innerhalb der Gruppen wurden drei Erzähl- und drei Expositionstextabschnitte durch drei Maßnahmen und drei Lehrer ausgeglichen, damit die Auswirkungen der Lehrer und Textabschnitte kontrolliert werden konnten. Die drei Maßnahmen lauteten: (a) eine Lehrer-bezogene Modalität, bei der Lehrer vorbereitete Texte vorlasen, deren Ziel darin bestand, den Schülern wichtige Informationen zu vermitteln, die zum Verständnis des bevorstehenden Textes erforderlich waren; (b) eine interaktive Modalität, bei der die Lehrer die Vorkenntnisse der Schüler über das jeweilige Thema der zu lesenden Texte aktivierten und besprachen; und (c) eine Kontrollmodalität, bei der keine Unterrichtsmaßnahmen vor dem Lesen durchgeführt wurden. Hierarchisch angeordnete Multi-Regressionsanalysen der Einflüsse unter und zwischen den Beteiligten zeigten, daß die vom Lehrer geleitete Modalität bei der Förderung des Verständnisses effektiver war als die interaktive Modalität und daß beide Modalitäten effektiver waren als die Kontrollmodalität. Die vom Lehrer geleitete Maßnahme könnte aus folgenden Gründen effektiver gewesen sein: (a) sie konzentrierte sich nur auf die für den Text wichtigen Informationen, (b) sie enthielt direkten und expliziten Unterricht, und (c) sie war den Schülern vertrauter als der interaktive Unterricht. Die interaktive Maßnahme könnte jedoch für andere Unterrichtsziele nützlicher sein (z.B. dann, wenn die Fähigkeit der Schüler, ihre eigenen Vorkenntnisse zu aktivieren, entwickelt werden soll).