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Measurement of Human Service Staff Satisfaction: Development of the Job Satisfaction Survey

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Abstract

Collected data from 3,148 respondents in 19 samples regarding evaluative feelings about their jobs and developed the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), a 9-subscale measure applicable specifically to human service, public, and nonprofit sector organizations. Included are a multitrait-multimethod analysis of the JSS and the Job Descriptive Index, factor analysis of the JSS, and scale intercorrelations. Correlations of JSS scores with criteria of employee perceptions and behaviors for multiple samples were consistent with other satisfaction scales and with findings from the private sector. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)

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... The assessment of job satisfaction was achieved through the use of a structured and weighted questionnaire Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), as developed by Spector (1985) [31]. The Greek version of the questionnaire was translated and weighted by Tsounis and Sarafis (2018) [32]. ...
... The assessment of job satisfaction was achieved through the use of a structured and weighted questionnaire Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), as developed by Spector (1985) [31]. The Greek version of the questionnaire was translated and weighted by Tsounis and Sarafis (2018) [32]. ...
... Negatively worded items 2, 4, 6,8,10,12,14,16,18,19,21,23,24,26,29,31,32,34, and 36 were reverse coded (1 = 6, 2 = 5, . . . , 6 = 1) and, as a result, a higher total score satisfaction (range: 36-216) indicated increased job satisfaction. ...
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Background: Inadequate staffing, increased responsibilities and a high workload are some of the factors that are directly related to stress levels experienced by pharmacists, which in turn affect job satisfaction. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess job satisfaction and stress levels of pharmacists in Cyprus, involving those working in the public and private sector. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed which involved the completion of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) questionnaire to estimate job satisfaction, and the Perceived Stress Scale-14 (PSS-14) questionnaire to evaluate perceived stress. Data collection took place between January and March 2020 and the participation rate was 71.6% (n = 585). Results: Employees in private pharmacies overall reported higher levels of job satisfaction compared to public sector pharmacists. Public sector pharmacists were found to have stronger self-efficacy beliefs compared to other groups (p < 0.001). Female pharmacists had a higher average level of perceived helplessness than male pharmacists (p = 0.001). Regarding public sector pharmacists, it was generally observed that pharmacists working under the management of the Ministry of Health (MoH) had reduced job satisfaction than those working for other organizations. Additionally, pharmacists working under the management of the State Health Services Organization (SHSO) had the least overall perceived stress levels (p = 0.008), high self-efficacy beliefs (p = 0.006) and low perceived helplessness (p = 0.031) compared to pharmacists in other workplaces. Employees of private pharmacies were found to have higher levels of job satisfaction (p < 0.001) than SHSO pharmacists. However, those employees demonstrated increased perceived stress levels (p < 0.001) in comparison with SHSO pharmacists. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ job satisfaction is negatively correlated with perceived stress levels and helplessness, and positively correlated with self-efficacy beliefs. In the public sector, it seems that a re-evaluation is critical regarding the determinants that adversely influence job satisfaction amongst pharmacists.
... Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS-36) in a sample of Canadian adults with ADHD diagnosis. [10] MATERIAL AND METHOD Participants There were 85 participating patients, both men and women, from 19 to 65 years of age (mean=35 years; SD= 10.5). The proportion of male to female was 52/33 (60%/40%). ...
... based on administering the JJS to 3148 responders from 19 different samples that represented multiple employment organizations. [10] The Adult ADHD Quality-of Life Scale (AAQoL) The AAQoL is a 29 item, likert type scale, with four main domains or components: life productivity, psychological health, relationships and life outlook. It provide specific disease measure of the impact of ADHD on quality of life. ...
... Authors examined and modified the psychometric properties of the modified the Job Satisfaction Survey [10] (JSS-36 items), in a Canadian outpatient sample of patients suffering from ADHD. To the knowledge of the author, this is the first instrument modified to measure job satisfaction among adults with attention deficit disorder. ...
... JS is A transformational leader who has a primary goal: to bring followers and develop at a level where they have succeeded in completing organizational tasks without any intervention from the leader [36]. If an employee is given attention, the opportunity to develop himself without the leader's intervention will make an employee have high OCB. ...
... As stated Yukl [30] TL describes a leader who effectively inspires and transforms followers by attracting their ideas and emotions and bringing followers, developing at a level where followers complete organizational tasks without intervention of the leader [36]. The role of a leader can inspire employees to give extra roles to the organization without being asked. ...
Article
Human resources (HR) is an essential aspect of an organization and requires good governance. The COVID-19 outbreak that has affected the entire world has provided organizational learning in human resource management. This study examines the relationship between transformational leadership (TL) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) mediated by job satisfaction ( JS). A quantitative design was used to test models and hypotheses. The study sample included 116 professional-level employees representing team members from the marketing, accounting, human resources department, and operations departments of 35 wedding organizers operating in DIY. Data were analyzed using least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results show that TL has a positive effect on JS OCB. JS has no direct impact on OCB and is unable to mediate the relationship between TL and OCB. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical findings that TL is a significant predictor of OCB, and also a predictor of JS. Keywords: transformational leadership, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior
... The statistical population of this study includes 271 teachers form Chinese university. The instruments used for the data obtained from the questionnaire of this study are the teacher efficacy scale designed by the short form of (Yu et al., 1995) and the job satisfaction scale designed by Spector (1985). The reliability of the questionnaires was confirmed by experts. ...
... The reliability of each subscale was 0.91, 0.90, 0.87, and the correlation between dimensions was 0.60, 0.70, 0.58(P < 0.001). This study uses the job satisfaction survey (job satisfaction survey) scale compiled by (Spector, 1985). Its reliability has been proved by (Blau, 1999). ...
... To validate the measurement instrument, an online questionnaire was developed. The questionnaire combined four scales (researchers' own development; Spector, 1985;Peng, 2013;Decius et al., 2019) and several personal background variables, such as education level, expertise, years in the current position, gender and participation in formal training. The first scale refers to barriers to learning (researchers' own development) with 89 items. ...
... The assessment of the convergent validity was quite difficult, because there are no instruments comparable to the newly designed measurement of barriers to learning. Therefore, it was compared to the IWC (Decius et al., 2019), hiding knowledge (Peng, 2013) and job satisfaction survey (Spector, 1985). There were negative correlations (e.g., individual barriers and intrinsic intent to learn, β = −0.19), ...
Article
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While facilitating factors to learning at the workplace have been well investigated, throughout the past decade less has emerged about the barriers that occur when approaching a learning activity at the workplace. Barriers to learning at the workplace are factors that hinder the initiation of successful learning, interrupt learning possibilities, delay proceedings or end learning activities much earlier than intended. The aim of this study is to develop and validate an instrument that measures barriers to informal and formal learning at the workplace. An interview pre-study asked 26 consultants about their learning barriers based on existing instruments. Using this data as groundwork, a novel measuring instrument of barriers to informal and formal learning was developed. The instrument is comprised of five factors with items on individual barriers, organizational/structural barriers, technical barriers, change and uncertainty. To validate the scales, a cross-sectional questionnaire with 112 consultancy employees and freelancers was conducted. The validation included exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency assessment, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and convergent validity assessment. The results generated a three-factor scale barrier measurement for formal learning and a two-factor scale barrier measurement for informal learning. All scales featured Cronbach’s alpha values ranging between 0.80 and 0.86. With this developed and validated scales it is intended to help offer insights into factors that hinder individuals from learning at the workplace, and show organizations their potential for change.
... The total satisfaction is the sum of all 36 items, total scores ranging from 36 to 216: scores of 36 to 108 indicates dissatisfaction, 144 to 216 indicates satisfaction, and between 108 and 144 indicating ambivalence. The JSS was found to be reliable and valid according to the literature [20]. In the present study, we sought to examine the internal consistency reliability among our sample. ...
... The results indicate that the prevalence of burnout among medical interns in Oman is 15%, which is similar to the prevalence of burnout among medical interns in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [22]. On the other hand, studies from Ireland and Mexico showed higher rates of burnout among medical interns, 21.8% [24] and 20%, respectively (20). In this study, the majority of interns (65.6%) demonstrated a low sense of personal accomplishment, which is significantly higher than the 29.6% among interns in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia [22], 41.6% among Irish interns [24], and 34.6% among Mexican interns [21]. ...
Article
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Background Medical interns are at risk of burnout due to several organizational and individual factors. There is scarcity of studies exploring the role of chronic physical illness and job dissatisfaction on burnout experience among medical interns. This study examined the prevalence of burnout syndrome and explored whether chronic physical illness and job dissatisfaction could independently predict burnout syndrome among medical interns in Oman. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a random sample of medical interns enrolled in the Omani internship program. One-hundred and eighty interns participated in this study and filled in a self-reported questionnaire that included Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and data related to physical illness. Results The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 15%. Having a physical illness ( OR = 7.285, 95% CI = 1.976–26.857, P = 0.003) and job dissatisfaction ( OR = 16.488, 95% CI = 5.371–50.614, P = 0.0001) was significant independent predictors of high levels of the EE subscale. In addition, having a physical illness ( OR = 4.678, 95% CI = 1.498–14.608, P = 0.008) and being dissatisfied ( OR = 2.900, 95% CI = 11.159–7.257, P = 0.023) were significant independent predictors of the high DP subscale. Having physical illness was independent predictors of the low personal accomplishment subscale ( OR = 0.258, 95% CI = 0.088–0.759, P = 0.014). Conclusions Burnout syndrome is prevalent among medical interns in Oman. Job dissatisfaction and chronic physical illness are risk factors for burnout syndrome. Internship programs should consider these factors when designing burnout mitigative strategies.
... (Beilock & Ramirez, 2011) according to them emotional intelligence is highly related to social skills, interpersonal skills, career domain, effect of positive work. According to Fact Company, 2000 as referenced in (Cote & Miners, 2006) many organizations provide emotional intelligence and career development training to their employees since emotional intelligence is positively associated to job satisfaction (Bavendam, 2000;Spector, 1985). However, very little study has been conducted in the education sector to determine that the aspect of emotional intelligence is significantly correlated with the aspects of job satisfaction of teachers, particularly in the education sector of Pakistan. ...
... Short form of Minnesota job satisfaction (Worrell, 2004) (Spector, 1985) is the most often used standardized questionnaire since the 1960s and is freely used for educational purposes. Some sections of the Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire were reorganized by the researcher. ...
Article
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This study focused on the investigation of emotional intelligence and its impact on job satisfaction of primary school teachers. Major research objectives to were assess emotional intelligence of primary schools teachers, to asses levels of job satisfaction of primary school teachers and to correlate emotional intelligence and teacher job satisfaction primary schools teachers.. Random sampling technique was used for gathering quantitative data using survey questionnaire. Population of the present study was comprised of all primary school teachers of district Mardan. The entire sample drawn from the whole population size is 348 teachers from 201 schools of elementary and secondary education department District Mardan. The research findings shows that the elements of self-emotions appraisal have a high mean value, while the use of emotion has a low mean value, and on an overall scale, most teachers have high emotional intelligence.
... Several scales are reportedly used in the literature to assess job satisfaction among nurses. Castaneda and Scanlan (2014) noted that while some scales were developed specifically for nurses, such as the Mueller and McCloskey Satisfaction Scale (Mueller & McCloskey, 1990), others were not specific to nurses, such as the Job Satisfaction Survey designed by Spector (1985). In a systematic review aimed to examine factors associated with acute care nurses' job satisfaction, the authors reported difficulty in comparing results across studies as different scales to assess nurses' job satisfaction were used (Lu et al., 2012). ...
... The authors maintained that using different scales essentially resulted in different facets of nurses' job satisfaction being reported across different studies. Spector (1985) pointed out that when a particular scale is developed to assess job satisfaction, those who use the scale in other contexts or professional areas become bound to the facets the scale was designed to assess. For example, Yasin et al. (2021) emphasized that while many scales were used to assess acute nurses' job satisfaction, none were specifically designed to do so among the acute care nurse population. ...
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Aim: The aim of this study was to validate a job satisfaction scale among acute care nurses in the context of Qatar. Design: Cross-sectional correlational survey. Methods: A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit 295 acute care nurses between June 2021–September 2021. Exploratory factor analysis followed by confirmatory factor analysis was used for item reduction and convergent and discriminant validity evaluation. Pearson's correlations were conducted to evaluate the concurrent and convergent validity of the revised scale. Reliability was tested using several internal consistency indicators. Results: A revised scale was proposed, the Acute Care Nurses Job Satisfaction Scale-Revised (ACNJSS-R) scale; it is composed of 13 items loaded on five factors. The composite reliability and the maximal reliability were >.7 for all factors. The study provides empirical support for the validity and reliability of the ACNJSS-R scale.
... The construction of items to test the commitment construct is obtained from Meyer and Allen (1997) respondents when answering questionnaires. The construction of items for the work satisfaction construct is obtained from Spector (1985). ...
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Literature review reveals research that combines attitude, leadership style, self-efficacy, and their relationship with human capital development in one framework has not been executed by previous researchers. Thus, this research examines the relationship of attitude, transformational leadership style and lecturers' self-efficacy with human capital development. Attitude and transformational leadership style represent the independent variables, while human capital development be the dependent variable. The respondents are 247 lecturers from MARA Professional Colleges in Malaysia and data were collected via questionnaires. The research findings show that commitment, job satisfaction, individual judgment, and intellectual stimulation relate significantly with human capital development. On the other hand, job involvement and leader as a model are insignificant to human capital development. This research also reveals that attitude has a significant relationship with human capital development when their relationship is mediated by self-efficacy. Self-efficacy also significantly mediates the relationship of transformational leadership style and human capital. Practically, these findings show that the human capital development programs must be given serious attention in any learning institution so that competitive, skilled, creative, and innovative human capital could be produced. These human capitals are hoped to face the organizational environment challenges bravely and enable the organizations to achieve its vision.
... Pay satisfaction was measured according to 3 items on the Spector (1985) scale. Specifically, items were: "PS1. ...
Article
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El propósito de esta investigación es examinar los efectos de la compensación total (equilibrio entre la vida laboral y personal, apoyo del supervisor, desarrollo profesional y satisfacción salarial). sobre la satisfacción laboral. Esta investigación se realizó sobre un colectivo de 246 empleados incluyendo empleados, técnicos y mandos intermedios de los sectores industrial y de servicios en España, principalmente de empresas medianas y grandes del sector privado. Este documento concluye que el apoyo del supervisor, el desarrollo profesional y el equilibrio entre el trabajo y la vida personal están relacionados de manera fuerte y positiva con la satisfacción laboral, mientras que la satisfacción salarial se relaciona positivamente con la satisfacción laboral solo para el grupo de empleados de menos de 40 años de edad. Es importante que los directivos entiendan estos factores como parte de la compensación total y promuevan políticas de flexibilidad laboral. Además, las empresas deberían promover planes de desarrollo profesional y alentar a los supervisores a apoyar a sus empleados. Estos elementos clave de la compensación total aumentan la satisfacción de los empleados. Los resultados de este estudio se suman a la escasa literatura que ha investigado el creciente campo de la compensación total y sus efectos sobre la satisfacción laboral y el desempeño de los empleados.
... For each area of the scale, a brief explanation is provided, followed by questions about it. Among other things, questions are provided that predispose positive and negative, respectively (Spector, 1985). ...
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Public Health care organizations are the most important social systems in which human resources are the wealth and central factor. This study is a literature review on job satisfaction in the public health care sector, giving tools to prevent with measures scales and information's in theoretical background. Evidence of job satisfaction in the public health care sector is encountered by Greek and Global public health organizations and services. Limited literature in connection and contribution of occupational health and safety with Job Satisfaction in the frame of policy and management. Public health care professionals and Administration managers in the healthcare services need to understand the benefits of adopting effective Job satisfaction. The aim of this research was to identify also analyze the knowledge of job satisfaction in the Public Health Care Sector, Measures Scales necessary to identify and knowledge objective to positively affect Public health professionals' job satisfaction and therefore health care sector quality services. Information's and knowledge produced an understanding of the mechanisms that increase job satisfaction and contribute to the improvement of psychosocial risks, and well-being to take appropriate measures and scales to create a Healthy and Hygiene working environment. Affects direct in health economics as well as organizational productivity, and quality of performance. A systematic review was conducted for the last two-year in Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scientific Journals. There are very few papers published based on the very contemporary title considered for the article, classified as eligible according to the previously established criteria.
... Judge et al. (2017) observed the importance of managing the job satisfaction. Sempane et al. (2002) and Spector (1985) argued for the wellbeing of its employees to reduce the turnover and absenteeism. Huhtala et al. (2015) observed the importance of ethics in improving employee job satisfaction. ...
... Job satisfaction was assessed using the Job Satisfaction Survey developed by Spector (1985) which is a 36-item survey ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" measuring nine sub-scales namely, pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, coworkers, nature of work, communication and the total satisfaction is calculated by the sum of all the 36 items. The survey also consists of negatively worded items which are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 32, 34 and 36. ...
Article
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Positive psychology has paved the way for newer and more informed ideas of living a meaningful, integrated and well-rounded quality of living. The current era of the pandemic has also moulded the ways in which individuals perceive their quality of life and how they want to integrate a holistic approach towards their well-being. The workplace settings have seen tremendous changes in terms of how employers, employees and the organisations at large function and operate. The pre-pandemic concept of success has shifted its focus from hard work to developing grit among employees to increase the overall efficiency of the organisations. Grit has revolutionised the conventional standards of success, meaning in life and has impacted personal as well as occupational welfare. This integration of positive psychology and transpersonal psychology has catalysed the purpose for the current study. To help organisations and individuals thrive in their professional endeavours at the workplace and to provide them with relevant psychological tools to enhance their occupational growth, the present study has been conducted empirically to investigate the antecedents and consequences of grit among 209 working professionals in India. The results of this study indicate that the transpersonal capital of metacognition, flow, optimism and empathy have a significant role to play in developing grit among the participants. The findings have implications for enhancing job satisfaction and job performance of participants. The current research also provides a framework to organisations towards designing interventions for improving efficiency at the workplace.
... The purpose of this research was to carry out a systematic review of the existing scientific 45 information on job satisfaction as perceived by workers or professionals in sports organisations. 46 This systematic review followed the considerations established by the Preferred Reporting Items 47 ...
Article
El propósito de esta investigación fue realizar una revisión sistemática sobre la información científica existente referente a la satisfacción laboral percibida por el trabajador o profesional de entidades deportivas. La presente revisión sistemática siguió las consideraciones establecidas por la Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). En la presente por la revisión sistemática se incluyeron los estudios publicados cuya temática estuviera relacionada con la satisfacción laboral del trabajador o profesional en el ámbito deportivo y especialmente en los servicios deportivos municipales. Tras un primer análisis de trabajos dondese identificaron 168 artículos, se excluyeron aquellos que no cumplieran los criterios de inclusión 18 (n = 147) y así, se obtuvo la selección definitiva de 18 artículos. Los resultados de esta revisión 19 sistemática parecen indicar que la satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores o profesionales de entidades deportivas en su mayoría es moderada, y que además pueden existir diferencias en función del sexo, del tipo de trabajo y del sector (público o privado) al que pertenezcan. Por otro lado, de los resultados analizados en la presente revisión sistemática se desprende que no existe uniformidad en los sistemas de evaluación para medir la satisfacción laboral de los trabajadores.
... The above five factor are the mainly effected the JSF level as compared to the other factor. JSF was measured by the 25 items Spector (1985) construct. The Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) measure the attributes of employees on the basis of five point Likert Scale (1="strongly disagree" and 5 depicting "strongly agree") attribute.Many of researchers elaborated the worker loyalty by different approach and developed Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. ...
... The Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985) is a measurement instrument consisting of 16 items addressing job satisfaction, supervisor treatment, the likelihood of a salary increment, job evaluations, operating procedures, coworker relations, the nature of work, and communication. Therefore, it yielded nine subscales that capture job satisfaction. ...
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This study aimed at identifying the interplay between individual and organizational factors and predictors of work motivation, job satisfaction, and burnout. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted with 460 early education teachers in Kosovo. Based on the results, job satisfaction and professional development are significant positive predictors whereas burnout is a significant negative predictor of work motivation. Conversely, burnout is a significant negative predictor of job satisfaction, whereas work motivation, job satisfaction, and professional development are significant negative predictors of burnout. The findings provide useful insights which can help policy makers take necessary action to ensure improving early education quality.
... Section 4 -Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS; Spector, 1985): The JSS (Cronbach's alpha 0.91) assesses job satisfaction among hospital nurses. It includes 36 items with nine facets as follows: pay (4 items), promotion, supervision (4 items), fringe benefits (4 items), contingent rewards (4 items), operating procedures (4 items), co-workers (4 items), nature of work (4 items) and communication (4 items). ...
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Aim The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between stress, psychological symptoms and job satisfaction among frontline nursing staff at a military hospital in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods Data were collected using an online survey. All Registered Nurses (N = 1,225) working at a military hospital between February to April 2021 were contacted, 625 responded (51%). Data were analysed using descriptive and multivariate analysis, Student's t-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Results Stress was experienced more significantly than depression or anxiety. Approximately 29% of the change in scores for psychological symptoms was explained by age group, being a Saudi national and working in emergency departments (F[3,620] = 19.063, p < 0.0001). A 37% change in nursing stress scores was explained by nationality and work department. (F[5,618] = 19.754, p < 0.0001). A 29% change in job satisfaction scores was explained by nationality and work department (F[3,620] = 19.063, p < 0.0001).
... To index job satisfaction, Spector's (1985) 36-item questionnaire was used to assess nine aspects of one's work including pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, coworkers, nature of work and communication. Participants indicate the extent to which they agree with each statement (e.g., "I feel I am being paid a fair amount for the work I do") on a scale from one (disagree very much) to six (agree very much). ...
... To measure organizational commitment will used item scale that come from Meyer et al. (1993) which has been modified by Mas'ud (2004). Meanwhile, to measure reward from islamic perspective will used items from Spector (1985) and Tang et al. (1996) which has been modified by Mas'ud (2004) (Santoso, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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Organizational Commitment has an important role in the organization as an indicator of organization effectiveness. Commitment by various underlying theori, especially side bet theory from Becker looked commitment as a result of investment obtained by Individu from organization. This investment could come from the reward given by organization to him. As we have seen the concept of reward comes mostly from scholars or scientists from the west. This study will examine the concept of reward from islamic persepective and its effect toward organizational commitment. This study aimed to teachers who teach in Madrasah Tsanawiyah (junior high school). Madrasah Tsanawiyah are religious school, of course, teachers who teach or work there very understand trully values of islam. This study will be conducted in Demak. Demak is a region which its people is very religious. Madrasah and pesantren (place where studied religion) thrives in this area. Madrasah Tsanawiyah in Demak according to data from EMIS (Education Management Information System) there are 133 madrasah, with 128 private while 5 state. Teachers who teach in Demak according data from EMIS there are 2555, with 2074 non civil servant and 481 civil servant. Samples will be taken are 15 Madrasah with each madrasah taken 10 teachers. The research method is quantitative, with the data obtained from questionnaires which will given to 150 teachers who teach in private Madrasah. The hypothesis is: is there influence of reward from the Islamic perspective on organizational commitment. The hypothesis will tested using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), with the software used is AMOS. Exogenous variable is reward from islamic perpektive and endogenous variables are normative, affective, and continuance commitment. This study is expexted to contribute in management science and economics that values of religion can improve effectiveness of organization especially organizational commitment.
... In many organizations, one cultural dimension often is emphasized more than the others and basically shapes the organization's personality and the way members of the orgarizations work with others (Robbins and Coultel 2012 gain. It can also be viewed as a collection of evaluative feelings about the job (Spector, 1985). According to the literature on the job satisfaction there are numerous factors that influence job satisfaction. ...
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Slum women are the most deprived section of the society. Like other cities of Bangladesh, living condition and overall milieu, especially health situation in the slum areas of Sylhet city is miserable. This study tried to measure the relationship between the hygienic behavior and their health statues. Descriptive designs have been followed in the study. Collected data have been analyzed by the Hygienic Behavior Index (HBI) and Problem Confrontation Index (PCD). The index value of hygienic behavior indicates that practices of hygiene are relatively poor among slum women. The Study reveals that, slum women's health care situation is of poorer quality because of their meager economic condition, lack of consciousness and deprived of education. Consequently, they incessantly suffered from a variety of diseases like diarrhea, dysentery skin disease, Headache, Trichomonar vaginitis, Nausea, Vaginal candidacies etc. To improve these situations, government and NGO should increase different awareness campaigns among them.
... Teachers who are not satisfied with their jobs may result in bad teaching or learning process, and school effectiveness will consequently be negatively impacted". Spector [6] found that "if employees find their job fulfilling and rewarding, they tend to be more satisfied with their jobs". "School leaders (heads of schools,) are supposed to possess the ability to influence their staff, parents and other stakeholders of education to make sure their schools successfully attain their pre-intended objectives by making sure that teachers perform well their responsibilities and learners perform well in their academic as anticipated. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of head teachers’ leadership styles on teachers’ job satisfaction in public secondary schools. The study used a descriptive survey design based on mixed research approach. Both purposive and random sampling techniques were used in selecting 10 head of schools and 80 teachers respectively. The primary data were collected using questionnaires and interview guidelines. Collected data were descriptively analysed to generate frequencies and percentages. The study findings demonstrate that using a democratic leadership style by heads of schools improves teachers’ job satisfaction. Despite the fact that heads of school leadership seemed to be a very important factor in teachers’ job satisfaction in the schools but it was concluded that they need to have leadership skills to increase teachers’ job satisfaction.
... As the research was quantitative survey research therefore, a questionnaire based on demographic questions and scales was constructed. The research instrument was based on three scales;Psychological empowerment scale developed by Spreitzer (1995), Teacher's Motivation Scale developed by Karavas (2010) and Job satisfaction survey (JSS) questionnaire developed by Spector (1985) were used to measure the variables of the study. The reliability and validity of the instrument, a pilot test was conducted on the sample of 50 teachers selected from five secondary schools of Sargodha tehsil. ...
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Teacher’s motivation and Job satisfaction plays a vital role in their effective teaching which circuitously affects the students’ learning. In addition, literature documents that if teachers are psychological empowered, they possess positive attitude towards their job. Therefore, the study was aimed to examine the mediating role of motivation in the relationship between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction of the school teachers. Where, psychological empowerment along with four sub variables described by Spreitzer (1995) was taken as the independent variable and job satisfaction is dependent variable.A quantitative survey research design was used to collect the data. Total 317 secondary school teachers were selected through multi stage sampling technique from the three tehsils of Sargodha. Proposed model was test by using structural equation modeling in AMOS v.20. The fit indices depicted that data fit the model well (Fit indices (χ2(normed) = 1.766; CFI = .991; RMSEA = 0.04). Moreover, the path estimates showed that motivation is significantly mediated in the relationship between psychological empowerment, particularly its two sub variables ‘Meaning’ and ‘competence’, and job satisfaction. Thus, the findings showed that when teachers feel psychologically empowered, they become loyal and committed towards their organization and ready to put their best efforts for the betterment of their organization.
... These all followed the global burnout scores. The most frequently used wellbeing measures were Satisfaction with Life (Satisfaction with Life Scale; Diener et al., 1985), Professional Quality of Life Scale (Stamm, 2010), Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985), and Psychological Wellbeing Scales (Ryff, 1989). ...
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Objectives The general aim of this systematic review is to synthesize, analyze, and critically review existing studies concerning the relationship between sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and work-related factors and burnout, as well as psychological wellbeing among psychotherapists.MethodologyWe performed a structured literature search utilizing the PRISMA framework in the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, MedLine, PsyARTICLES, ProQuest, and Google Scholar. The most relevant inclusion criteria were quantitative and peer-reviewed articles published in English.ResultsAfter the selection process, we accepted 52 articles for further systematic review. Thirty-eight studies examined burnout among psychotherapists, while the other 14 studies focused on psychological wellbeing in this sample.Conclusions Burnout and wellbeing among psychotherapists are related to numerous sociodemographic (e.g., age, gender), intrapersonal (e.g., coping, personality), and work-related characteristics, including work settings and professional support in this profession (e.g., supervision or personal therapy). However, the high heterogeneity observed between studies in terms of burnout and wellbeing operationalization and measurement warrants more consistent and advanced methodological models of these theoretical constructs in the future in this specific sample.
... La edad también es un factor que tiene una relación positiva con los niveles de satisfacción, debido a la experiencia social que los empleados de mayor edad van adquiriendo, lo que les permite manejar sus emociones y comprender las emociones de los demás (El Badawy & Magdy, 2015). La inteligencia emocional del empleado es otro factor que se relaciona positiva y significativamente con la satisfacción laboral (Anari, 2012;Spector, 1985). ...
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Este libro presenta un análisis de la administración enfocado en servicios. Específicamente se aborda la administración del talento humano y las operaciones en dos sectores económicos: sector financiero y sector hotelero. El libro está compuesto por seis capítulos. En el primero se analiza la administración del talento humano enfatizando la importancia que tiene el liderazgo para la consecución del compromiso organizacional, que luego permita a las organizaciones alcanzar sus metas y objetivos. En el segundo capítulo se analiza la administración desde el enfoque de las operaciones. Al igual que la administración en el talento humano, las operaciones forman parte de toda organización pública o privada, en todos los sectores económicos.
... Different from what was stated above, (Jex, Bliese, Buzzell, & Primeau, 2001) defines job satisfaction as a feeling of satisfaction related to the attitude of workers towards their work which includes cognitive and behavioral aspects. (Spector, 1985) also defines job satisfaction as the feelings that individuals have about their work and aspects of the job. Job satisfaction is closely related to the extent to which individuals feel satisfied or not with the work at hand. ...
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This study aims to examine the job satisfaction and performance models of nurses with job crafting as a mediating variable, with work-life balance, and emotional intelligence as antecedents. This study was conducted on the people of Banda Aceh City who had been patients at the Zainal Abidin Regional General Hospital (RSUDZA) located in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The population was RSUDZA nurses totaling 520 people who are distributed in 23 treatment rooms. The sampling technique was probability sampling and the number was determined with the Slovin formula providing 226 respondents and it was following the requirements for using the SEM statistical method through AMOS software. Data were collected by distributing questionnaires. The results prove that work-life balance and emotional intelligence affect job crafting at RSUDZA nurses, work-life balance, emotional intelligence, and job crafting affect job satisfaction of RSUDZA nurses, work-life balance, emotional intelligence, and job crafting affect the performance of RSUDZA nurses, work-life balance and emotional intelligence affects the job satisfaction of RSUDZA nurses through job crafting as a mediating variable, and work-life balance and emotional intelligence affect the performance of RSUDZA nurses through job crafting as a mediating variable.
... The MSQ measures satisfaction with 20 factors -eight, measuring satisfaction with intrinsic work aspects and 12, assessing extrinsic work elements. Spector's JSS was developed in 1985 [33] and is currently available in two forms -JSS 1, which has 36 items and measures nine job satisfaction facets (pay, promotion, supervision, fringe benefits, contingent rewards, operating conditions, coworkers, nature of work and communication), and the newer commercial version -JSS 2, which measures overall satisfaction, plus seven satisfaction facets (salary, promotion opportunities, supervision, fringe benefits, coworkers, tasks and communication) [34]. The JDI measures employees' general satisfaction and their satisfaction with five job-related factors -people on their present job, work on their present job, pay, opportunities for promotion and supervision [35]. ...
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Since there are numerous scales measuring employee job satisfaction, containing different behavioral, cognitive and affective elements, the purpose of the present article is to present a review of the different measurement instruments, arranging them in three main categories-global, composite and facet scales. Additionally, the study aims to identify the job satisfaction factors, which are most commonly used in the facet scales. The examined scales have been chosen based on a detailed literature review and analysis of numerous empirical studies, which examine employee job satisfaction in different academical, industrial and cultural contexts. The identification of the most common influence factors will be done through a comparative analysis. As a result of the literature review, 25 global and 36 facet scales have been identified. The factors that are most frequently used in the facets scales are 1) pay, 2) relationship with the supervisor, 3) relationship with the colleagues, 4) opportunities for career advancement and 5) work nature. Due to its popularity and significance for employee behavior and organizational welfare, job satisfaction has been in the center of many studies for almost a century. As a summary of the different measurement methods of job satisfaction, the current review can be used as a convenient practical guide by academics and HR managers to improve the understanding of job satisfaction and its complex nature.
... The Gallup a twelve-question survey is a specific questionnaire of Employee engagement that has been widely used. Rewards were measured through satisfaction items of Job Satisfaction Survey which was developed by Spector (1985). To measure level of enthusiasm of the respondents on job characteristics and growth and development opportunities, researcher adopted items relating to these variables from the Job Diagnostic Survey by Hackman and Oldham (1974) and these have been adapted and modified by the researcher to suit the requirements of study in hand and the local environments. ...
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This research is an attempt to identify the impact of job related factors on employee engagement in the Banking Industry in Sri Lanka. The design of the research was hypothesis testing, as it explains the nature of certain relationships and to explain the variance in the dependent variable. The target population consists of all employees in the private sector commercial Banking institutions in Sri Lanka. For the purpose of the study the researcher selected only three leading commercial banks. The study population was the executive level employees in these three commercial banks in the Colombo district, convenience sampling technique has been used as only 03 banks have been surveyed for limitation of time and resources. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of job-related factors, Rewards, Growth & Development opportunities, and Job Characteristics on Employee engagement in the private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka.-125-HRM Perspectives 2015 Derived from this main objective, there were three specific objectives in this study and those are to find out the correlation between Rewards and Employee Engagement, the correlation between Growth & Development opportunities and Employee Engagement, and finally to find out the correlation between job characteristics and Employee Engagement. And also, there is an additional sub-objective to find out whether the demographic factors of employees (Age, Gender, and Experience) make any significant difference in employee engagement in the private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka. In order to achieve the above objectives, several hypotheses were used based on the previous literature. The first hypothesis was there is a positive relationship between rewards and employee engagement in private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka. The second hypothesis was there is a positive relationship between growth and development opportunities and employee engagement in private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka and the third hypothesis was there is a positive relationship between the job characteristics and employee engagement in private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka. These hypotheses were tested using the correlations analytical tool and according to the results of the analysis, it has been noted that all three hypotheses associated with rewards, growth and development opportunities, and job characteristics were accepted. The results and findings of this study can use to bridge the gap between identifying the "right" way/s to increase the level of engagement in commercial sector banks in Sri Lanka.
... Employee job satisfaction was measured using the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) instrument (Spector, 1985). The questionnaire has 36 items, classified into 9 dimensions. ...
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The paper examines the effects of organizational culture on employee job satisfaction and financial performance. The research was carried out in organizations in Serbia. 220 employees participated in the research. The dimensions of organizational culture have statistically significant, strong, and positive correlations with the dimensions of job satisfaction and items of financial performance. The exception is the dimension of organizational culture OC3-Power Distance, which has mostly negative correlations. The strongest influences are exerted by the dimensions of Collectivism within the group, Performance Orientation, Humane Orientation, and Assertiveness. The dimensions of organizational culture have stronger predictive effects on the dimensions of job satisfaction than on the items of financial performance. Thus, organizational culture has a greater impact on individual performance, social relations, personal feelings, and satisfaction of employees, while financial performance is also influenced by numerous external factors, such as the state of the industry, the strength, and performance of the competition, consumer needs, and requirements.
... For economic reasons, large sample studies often use relatively short scales that are more easily administered (e.g., a oneitem job satisfaction measure). By contrast, smaller studies may use more comprehensive measures (e.g., the 36-item Job Satisfaction Survey [Smith et al., 1969]; the 72-item Job Descriptive Index [Spector, 1985]). Such a systematic difference in measures is likely to yield effect sizes of different magnitudes for small and large sample studies because of differences in reliability/validity. ...
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Meta-analytic reviews are a primary avenue for the generation of cumulative knowledge in the organizational and psychological sciences. Over the past decade or two, concern has been raised about the possibility of publication bias influencing meta-analytic results, which can distort our cumulative knowledge and lead to erroneous practical recommendations. Unfortunately, no clear guidelines exist for how meta-analysts ought to assess this bias. To address this issue, this paper develops a user’s guide with best-practice recommendations for the assessment of publication bias in meta-analytic reviews. To do this, we review the literature on publication bias and develop a step-by-step process to assess the presence of publication bias and gage its effects on meta-analytic results. Examples of tools and best practices are provided to aid meta-analysts when implementing the process in their own research. Although the paper is written primarily for organizational and psychological scientists, the guide and recommendations are not limited to any particular scientific domain.
... Birincisi; tehlike ve riskleri kaynağında tespit ederek önlemek ve böylece iş kazalarını ya da meslek hastalıklarını ortadan kaldırmaktır (Yaman, 2004;Akkaya, 2017;Arıtan & Ataman, 2017). İkincisi ise çalışanları ve işyeri çevresini olumsuz etkilerden koruyarak sağlıklı, güvenli ve konforlu çalışma alanı yaratmaktır (Spector, 1985;Aydın vd., 2011;Yiğit, 2013;Erdem ve Kaya, 2013;Altay ve Turunç, 2018;Koçali, 2021a). ...
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“Koru Kendini Bir Daha Hiçbir Ana Doğuramaz Seni” bir hekim-yönetici ve işyeri hekimi olan Necdet Özkaya tarafından kaleme alınmış ve 2022 yılında yayınlanmıştır. İş sağlığı ve güvenliği konusunda toplam kırk beş öykü üç başlık altında okuyucuya sunulmuştur. Öyküler kurmaca olmayıp, yaşanmış iş kazası hikayelerine ve yazarın deneyimlerine ya da gözlemlerine dayanmaktadır. Bu çalışmada eserin incelenmesi yapılarak iş sağlığı ve güvenliği alanındaki önemine vurgu yapılmıştır.
... He defined job satisfaction as employees' feelings with environmental factors in both psychological and physical aspects, that is, the subjective response of employees to the work situation (Hoppock, 1935). Many scholars have done related research on job satisfaction, such as factors affecting job satisfaction in different industries, the impact of job satisfaction on job performance, etc. (Spector, 1985;Judge et al., 2001). Nurses' job satisfaction has a certain impact on nurses, patients, and medical units. ...
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Purpose The study aimed at investigating the state of psychiatric nurses’ job satisfaction, job burnout, and the moderating effect of family support between them in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods Online self-report questionnaires were distributed and 212 psychiatric nurses participated in the research. Pearson correlation analysis, multiple stepwise regression analysis, and simple slope test were used for data analysis. Results The results showed that the status of their job satisfaction (53.67 ± 10.72) and burnout (33.62 ± 13.84) did not reach a satisfactory level and job satisfaction had a significant negative impact on job burnout. Meanwhile, family support played a negative moderating role between the two variables. Conclusion Psychiatric nurses suffered from job burnout in China during the COVID-19. Family support could have a counterproductive effect when the nurses were experiencing decreasing job satisfaction. It gave suggestions to the medical institutions and the government to improve the psychological well-being of the psychiatric nurses and even of all the medical staff.
... The Gallup a twelve-question survey is a specific questionnaire of Employee engagement that has been widely used. Rewards were measured through satisfaction items of Job Satisfaction Survey which was developed by Spector (1985). To measure level of enthusiasm of the respondents on job characteristics and growth and development opportunities, researcher adopted items relating to these variables from the Job Diagnostic Survey by Hackman and Oldham (1974) and these have been adapted and modified by the researcher to suit the requirements of study in hand and the local environments. ...
Article
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This research is an attempt to identify the impact of job related factors on employee engagement in the Banking Industry in Sri Lanka. The design of the research was hypothesis testing, as it explains the nature of certain relationships and to explain the variance in the dependent variable. The target population consists of all employees in the private sector commercial Banking institutions in Sri Lanka. For the purpose of the study the researcher selected only three leading commercial banks. The study population was the executive level employees in these three commercial banks in the Colombo district, convenience sampling technique has been used as only 03 banks have been surveyed for limitation of time and resources. The main objective of the study was to find out the impact of job related factors, Rewards, Growth & Development opportunities and Job Characteristics on Employee engagement in the private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka.-125-HRM Perspectives 2015 Derived from this main objective, there were three specific objectives in this study and those are to find out the correlation between Rewards and Employee Engagement, correlation between Growth & Development opportunities and Employee Engagement, and finally to find out the correlation between job characteristics and Employee Engagement. And also, there is an additional sub objective to find out whether the demographic factors of employees (Age, Gender and Experience) make any significant difference in the employee engagement in the private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka. In order to achieve the above objectives, several hypotheses were used based on the previous literature. The first hypothesis was there is a positive relationship between rewards and employee engagement in private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka. The second hypothesis was there is a positive relationship between growth and development opportunities and employee engagement in private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka and the third hypothesis was there is a positive relationship between the job characteristics and employee engagement in private sector commercial banks in Sri Lanka. These hypotheses were tested using correlations analytical tool and according to the results of the analysis it has been noted that all three hypotheses associated with rewards, growth and development opportunities and job characteristics were accepted. The results and findings of this study can use to bridge the gap between identifying the "right" way/s to increase the level of engagement in commercial sector banks in Sri Lanka.
Article
The purpose of this research was to carry out a systematic review of the existing scientific information on job satisfaction as perceived by workers or professionals in sports organisations. This systematic review followed the considerations established by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The present systematic review included published research papers whose subject matter was related to the job satisfaction of the worker or professional in the field of sport and especially in municipal sports services. After an initial papers analysis of 168 articles, we excluded those that did not meet the inclusion criteria (n = 147); thereby, we obtained the final selection of 18 articles. The results of this systematic review seem to indicate that the job satisfaction of workers or professionals in sports organisations is fairly moderate and that there may also be differences depending on gender, type of work and the sector (public or private) to which they belong. Furthermore, the results analysed in this systematic review show that there is no uniformity in the evaluation systems for measuring workers' job satisfaction.
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Job Satisfaction as a Mediating Variable Between Ethical Climate and Human Resources Sustainability An applied study on The Egyptian Commercial Banks Summary The research objective is to identify the role of ethical climate in achieving human resources sustainability, while Job satisfaction is used as a mediator, The study population was represented in the employees of the main branches of the commercial banks registered in the Stock Exchange, and the survey list was used as a main tool for data collection, and the study sample reached 383 individuals and the researcher's desire to increase the proportion of the sample's representation of the research community, he increased it to 405 individuals, and the analysis program was used Statistician (SPSS) to enter, process and analyze data and test hypotheses, and this can be achieved through a number of goals, which include the following: - Determining ethical climate dimension among commercial banks employees, and identifying the differences between these banks according to bank type of ownership. - Identifying job satisfaction dimension among workers in commercial banks, and determining the differences between these banks according to bank type of ownership - Revealing human resources sustainability dimension among employees in commercial banks, and identifying the differences between these banks according to bank type of ownership - Assessing the influence of ethical climate dimension on job satisfaction, by identifying ethical climate dimension variables that have the most impact on job satisfaction. - Determining the impact of ethical climate dimension on human resources sustainability, and identifying the ethical climate variables that have the most impact on human resources sustainability. - Determining the impact of job satisfaction dimensions on human resources sustainability. Also, determining job satisfaction dimensions that have the most impact on human resources sustainability. - Assessing the impact of both the ethical climate and job satisfaction on human resources sustainability. In addition, identifying the variables that have the most impact on human resources sustainability. • This study reached a set of results, the most important of which are: - The results revealed that there is a significant impact of ethical climate dimension on job satisfaction. The results showed a positive correlation between them. The greater the ethical climate, the greater the job satisfaction. - The results also showed a positive correlation between job satisfaction and human resources sustainability. The greater the job satisfaction, the greater the of human resources sustainability. - They also showed that ethical climate dimension has a positive effect on human resources sustainability. In addition, there are significant differences between respondents’ opinions about human resources sustainability dimension based on different banks ownership types. • The study presented a set of recommendations: - More effort should be done in improving the ethical climate in the Egyptian banking sector, as this will have a positive effect on human resources sustainability. - Building ethical codes. They act as a guideline for managers and employees. - Linking wages and rewards to ethical behaviors, and the impact of these behaviors on sustainability. - Setting clear and announced rules for job promotion. Key Words: Ethical Climate, Job Satisfaction, Human Resource Sustainability
Article
Objective: Australian aged care workforce surveys offer limited information about those who engage in online dementia education regarding their occupational health and well-being. A salutogenic approach was applied to an aged care context to quantitatively assess both positive and negative aspects of health at work to inform the development of workplace interventions tailored to those interested in self-development. Methods: Physical, psychological and occupational health were measured in an online cross-sectional survey of general health, chronic conditions, psychological distress, positive and negative affect, job satisfaction, access to workplace amenities and turnover intentions of aged care workers undertaking an online dementia course in October 2014. Results: Participants (N = 662) rated their general physical health as good and a minority experienced chronic conditions such as obesity. Overall, workers had average levels of positive and negative affect and low distress. However, 25% were likely to have a mental health condition. While most were employed on a permanent basis (80%) and reported moderate job satisfaction, 18% were likely to leave their job. There were some gaps in workplace amenities to support health and well-being: for example, 13% reported no access to lunch break areas. Conclusions: Results suggest precarious resilience in aged care workers enrolled in an Australian online dementia course. Workplace interventions that focus on preventative health strategies are required to address the health risks associated with higher than national averages of obesity and mental health, and reduce exposure of workers to physical and psychological harms.
Article
Purpose As teachers are considered “knowledge workers,” the present study explores teacher performance in schools. A particular emphasis is given to assessing the performance of female teachers in the rural part of South India. Design/methodology/approach After collecting data from 563 female teachers from four blocks in Nilgiris District (Ooty, Kotagiri, Coonoor and Gudalur) consisting of 37 government schools in the southern part of India, all the female teachers were surveyed, and the data were analyzed after checking the instrument's psychometric properties by performing confirmatory factor analysis. Hierarchical regression was employed to test the hypotheses. Findings The findings revealed that (1) empowerment, organizational communication and work–life balance (WLB) and recognition and rewards are positively and significantly related to teacher performance; (2) recognition and rewards moderate the relationship between (a) empowerment and performance, (b) organizational communication and performance, (c) WLB and performance, (d) organizational culture and performance and (e) quality of work-life (QWL) and performance. Research limitations/implications As with any survey research, common method bias and social desirability bias may be potential limitations. However, proper care is taken to minimize these biases. The findings from this study contribute to the growing literature on education and training. In addition, the study highlights the importance of creating a climate for empowerment, recognition and rewards to foster teacher performance. Practical implications The study helps administrators and policymakers to understand the antecedents of teacher performance and take necessary steps to motivate the teachers for superior performance. Originality/value The conceptual model the authors developed and tested is, according to the authors' knowledge, the first of the model's kind. A clear understanding of the predictors of teacher performance may guide the administrators and teaches in fostering performance in schools. The exclusive focus on female teachers is considered in this study because of the several problems the female teachers encounter in rural areas. Despite the disadvantages, female teachers perform well and contribute to students and the country as a whole.
Article
The relevance of the study is determined by the expansion of theoretical findings in the field of sociology of work, in particular, in the study of job satisfaction of arbitration managers under the State Duma’s consideration of the draft law No. 1172553-7 “On Amendments to the Federal Law ‘On Insolvency (Bankruptcy)’ and Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation”. To assess the level of job satisfaction of arbitration managers, the authors conducted an analysis of the features of their professional activities with an expert survey - to reveal their opinions on the state of the institution of insolvency (bankruptcy), its upcoming reform, and the level of their job satisfaction. Unlike most studies in this field, in which the emphasis is made on the social-legal status of arbitration managers, the authors consider the main social-psychological criteria for their job satisfaction, including remuneration, additional benefits and working conditions in the field of insolvency. The information base of the study includes a secondary analysis of the statistics of insolvency procedures in 2016-2020 and an expert survey (25 active arbitration managers with more than three years of experience were interviewed). The authors conclude that arbitration managers have a low level of job satisfaction, which is explained, first of all, by the extremely high workload and responsibility (including the risk of disqualification for three years for committing formal offenses that do not pose a danger to public relations and do not lead to violations of the rights of creditors, the debtor and society), conflict of procedures, lack of sociallabor guarantees, the variability of legislation, and several ‘control centers’ with opposing interests. These factors reduce interest in the profession of arbitration manager, which may lead to a crisis in the insolvency industry due to a shortage of highly qualified specialists.
Article
Purpose Pressure to achieve or exceed performance goals accompanies many sales positions in business-to-business (B2B) organizations. Sales supervisors experience pressure from executives to hit sales targets, exceed quotas, and increase market share. Such pressures may result in supervisor adoption of a bottom-line mentality (SBLM). When this occurs, supervisors tend to focus solely on achieving bottom-line results. When supervisors manage the sales force with this mentality, it may cause their salespeople to experience mental and emotional stress. Individual salespeople are likely to cope with the stress induced by SBLM by employing dysfunctional decision-making behaviors. Ironically, the dysfunctional decision-making techniques used to alleviate the stress engendered by SBLM may actually increase salesperson emotional exhaustion. In this stressful and results-driven environment, salespeople may direct their efforts toward obtaining certain goals at the expense of other priorities, such as their emotional well-being. When salespeople experience emotional exhaustion, various negative outcomes may result. In the present study, we investigate whether emotional exhaustion affects salesperson cognitive and emotional engagement and intentions to seek alternative employment opportunities. Essentially, this study assesses the potential trickle-down effect of performance pressure from organizational executives down organizational channels to sales supervisors and the sales force. Empirically, we examine how SBLM affects salesperson decision making, emotional exhaustion, job engagement, and turnover intention. Methodology A theoretical model of our hypothesized relationships is presented and tested using a sample of 274 business-to-business (B2B) salespeople. The sample was obtained through Qualtrics Panels, and a project manager was utilized to conduct an initial cleaning of the data to improve objectivity during data collection and analysis. Survey respondents were subjected to multiple screening questions and attention checks to enhance data quality. All constructs used in the survey were adapted from previous research and were measured using 7-point likert scales. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess the measurement properties of all constructs, and structural equation modeling (i.e. AMOS 26) was utilized to test the hypothesized relationships in our model. Findings The results highlight multiple negative repercussions of the hypothesized trickle-down effect of organizational performance pressure on sales supervisors and the sales force. Specifically, our findings show that (1) performance pressure from organizational executives incites SBLM, (2) SBLM encourages hypervigilant decision making in salespeople, (3) hypervigilant decision making is a strong predictor of emotional exhaustion, and (4) emotionally exhausted salespeople have lower levels of both cognitive and emotional job engagement and higher intentions to seek alternative employment. Interestingly, while salespeople with lower levels of emotional engagement tend to have greater turnover intentions, salesperson cognitive engagement is not significantly related to turnover intentions. Practical Implications The findings from this study have important implications for B2B sales organizations. Sales executives and supervisors need to understand how the “sell, sell, sell” mentality may harm the overall emotional well-being of their salespeople. The present research highlights how the organizational environment influences the behaviors and emotional welfare of the sales force and provides empirical evidence showing that the organizational context has the potential to influence salesperson behaviors and organizational outcomes. Persistently emphasizing bottom-line goals may put the long-term vitality of the sales force at risk. Therefore, organizational executives and sales supervisors should be mindful of how they communicate desirable performance outcomes to avoid SBLM and overwhelming individual salespeople. Essentially, organizational executives must be careful not to overemphasize the desire for increased performance goals to sales supervisors, and sales supervisors must avoid continuously highlighting the attainment of bottom-line outcomes when communicating with individual salespeople. Instead, sales managers should consider reducing outcome-based measures (e.g. sales volume) and using behavior-based measures (e.g. effectively communicating with and servicing customers) to assess salesperson performance. Additionally, sales managers should strive to create an authentic, open partnership with individual salespeople and avoid a paternalistic management style. Establishing professional relationships characterized by mutual respect may enable managers to achieve an appropriate balance between attaining bottom-line results and building a mature, confident, and competitive salesforce. Originality/Contribution To our knowledge, this is the first article to introduce a form of dysfunctional decision-making (i.e. hypervigilant decision making) to the sales literature. This research is also one of the first to examine SBLM in a sales context. Understanding the impact of SBLM is an emerging research interest in the management literature but considering it through a sales lens is unique. Our findings emphasize the importance of SBLM in B2B organizational environments and provide fruitful avenues for future research in this area. The present study contributes to the sales literature by examining the impact of SBLM on salesperson hypervigilant decision making and the impact of hypervigilant decision making on emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, this study adds to existing research on salesperson engagement and emotional exhaustion by showing how emotional exhaustion negatively affects both the emotional and cognitive engagement of B2B salespeople. Our findings also reinforce previous research by corroborating the inverse relationship between salesperson engagement and turnover intentions.
Article
Student teams have become a very popular pedagogical learning tool in management education courses. However, these teams vary widely in their ability to accomplish their objectives. Moreover, students often report varying levels of learning as a result of teams, as well as overall satisfaction with team members. In this research, we assess the effectiveness of a prospective hindsight technique, known as the premortem exercise, in student teams. The premortem exercise requires team members to picture a potential future where their team project has failed and asks members to discuss critically the reasons for the failure. The premortem technique requires student teams to identify and codify mechanisms that will prevent these project failures from occurring. Instructions for facilitating the premortem exercise are provided, along with a preliminary analysis indicating how the premortem technique can move teams towards more successful processes and outcomes. We find that student participation in the premortem intervention leads to reports of increasing perspective taking throughout the semester, with no change in their prosocial motivation. Team satisfaction decreased immediately following the exercise, but improved to the highest levels at the semester's end, suggesting the premortem technique was beneficial to students' team experiences.
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Purpose To provide evidence-based recommendations on the types of leader behaviors organizations should target for a better return on leader training investment the authors draw on the destructive and constructive leadership behavior model and the bad is stronger than good proposition to examine the following question: Compared to constructive leader behavior, does destructive leader behavior have a greater effect on follower outcomes or is something more nuanced occurring? Design/methodology/approach The authors used Qualtrics online panels to collect data ( N = 211 and N = 342) from full-time office-based participants. They used multivariate latent regression and dominance weights analyses to examine the relative strength of destructive versus constructive leader behaviors on followers' satisfaction with leader, and task performance. Findings Across both samples, leader hypocrisy and leader social undermining had relatively stronger effects on follower satisfaction with leader. Leader knowledge hiding had a relatively strong effect on follower task performance. Leader ethical conduct had the strongest association with follower satisfaction with leader in both samples. Hence, the authors' results were aligned with the bad is stronger than good proposition. Originality/value The authors' show that white-collar organizations can benefit from improved follower attitudes and performance by reducing leader hypocrisy and social undermining (destructive behavior) while simultaneously promoting leader ethical conduct (constructive behavior).
Purpose Principally, this study aims to test a conceptual framework of the moderating influence of fear of COVID-19 on the following hypothesized relationships (1) quality of work life and bankers' commitment, (2) the mediating spillover effect of job satisfaction in the quality of work life (QWL) and affective commitment relationship. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative cross-sectional research design is adopted on 318 bankers chosen from four prominent Indian cities. The mediation model is tested through SPSS, PROCESS macro, and AMOS. Conditional process modeling is also administered to test the moderating effect of fear of COVID-19. Findings The results suggest that the positive effect of QWL on commitment is completely mediated through job satisfaction. Further, the fear induced by COVID-19 negatively moderated the positive direct relation of QWL with commitment and the positive mediating spillover effect of job satisfaction. Originality/value The present research is virtually the first to introduce fear of COVID-19 as a psychological construct, to test a moderated mediation model for implications to organizational behavior and human psychology theory and practice. In coalescence of the need satisfaction, spillover, and COR theories, the authors postulate that as spillover between the domains of an individual's life (work, social, financial, personal, and overall life satisfaction) occurs, such effect is calibrated (augmented or attenuated) by the degree of risk/threat/depletion of their resources in the quest for attaining higher valued resources (overall life satisfaction). The moderated mediation mechanism is suggested for replication in other avenues for greater generalizability.
Article
Retaining staff remains a challenge for public and private child welfare organizations, and current research does not explain the underrepresentation of workers of Color in leadership and supervisory positions. This study used data from a multi-site survey of child welfare staff to compare factors associated with intention to remain employed between caseworkers of Color and White caseworkers using path analysis. Factors associated with job satisfaction, the strongest predictor of intention to remain employed for both groups in our path analysis, differed slightly between workers of Color and White workers. Age and job stress were significantly more influential for workers of Color, while work related burnout was more more influential for White workers. For workers of Color, perception of leadership was significantly more influential on workers’ of Color intention to remain employed, compared to White workers, and having an MSW was a significant predictor of intent to remain employed for White workers, but not for workers of Color. Implications for agency practice and policy, including suggested strategies to address retention of workers at the caseworker level, are discussed.
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This study examined the relationship of perceived social support and its supposed mediating function in psychological distress to job satisfaction. Research was done through the utilization of K-10 Psychological Distress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and Job Satisfaction Survey employed to 139 college faculty members of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Based on the findings, it was revealed that respondents were suffering from moderate psychological distress (mean=25.95, SD = 7.71). Also it was indicated that the overall mean of perceived social support of the respondents was 4.67 which signified that most college faculty members had moderate level of social support from their families, colleagues, and significant others. Among these, social support from colleagues got the highest mean which was 5.31 (SD=1.29), followed by significant others of 4.82 (SD=1.58) and lastly, the family with 3.90 (SD=1.32). In addition, results indicated that the overall mean of job satisfaction was 3.47 which mean that most of the faculty members were only moderately satisfied in their teaching job. Among the subdimensions, the highest were supervision (mean=4.00, SD=0.64), Co-workers (mean=3.98, SD=0.67), and Nature of work (mean=3.96, SD=0.56). However, the lowest scores were noted on: Pay (mean=3.23, SD=0.66), Fringe Benefits (mean=3.03, SD=0.51) and lastly, the operating conditions (mean=2.87, SD=0.56); while results showed that psychological distress was negatively correlated in terms of the subdimensions such as: fringe benefits (r =-1.77, p < .05) to teacher job satisfaction ; (r=-0.170, p=0.05), while contingent incentives have a large but weak negative link with psychological distress (r=-0.234, p=0.01). Other subdimensions were reported to insignificant. Lastly, results revealed that perceived social support did not mediate the relationship of psychological distress to job satisfaction. The indirect effect was tested using the Sobel test and was found to be insignificant (B = 0.78, SE = 0.01, p = 0.43). This research will serve as the foundation for a set of recommendations that will encourage and promote a safe work environment and several interventions that will ensure teaching employee satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic by implementing a wellness program.
Article
Aim: To examine the intrapersonal and organizational factors that contribute to pathogenic and salutogenic psychological outcomes in Australian nurses and midwives. Design: The conceptual framework Factors associated with Salutogenic and Pathogenic Outcomes in Australian Midwives and Nurses was used as a guide for this exploratory, cross-sectional study. Method: Participants were recruited from public, private, and community settings throughout Australia. Six hundred and fifteen participants completed an online survey assessing job satisfaction, professional quality of life, ways of coping, resilience, psychological distress, and the impact of the worldwide coronavirus pandemic on psychological health and well-being. Results: Analyses showed that workplace environmental factors were strong predictors of Secondary Traumatic Stress, and Burnout. Results also showed that workplace factors and adaptive coping were predictive of the salutogenic outcomes of compassion satisfaction and resilience. Conclusion: Adopting a salutogenic approach, focused on maximizing individual and organizational contributors to psychological health and wellbeing, provides a new way for organizations to develop strategies to decrease adverse psychological outcomes, promote well-being and better equip nurses and midwives to cope with the challenges of the healthcare environment. Impact: The findings will be of interest to Chief Nurses, Midwifery Officers, healthcare organizations, and universities to target workplace, individual and interpersonal factors that promote health and wellbeing amongst nurses and midwives.
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Introduction: In recent years, with the increase in growth of Information Technology (IT) companies and diversified workforce, there is an increased research on Work\family conflict and occupational future. Objective: The objective is to study about the work\family conflict relation with occupational future with the effect of environmental support (support from organization and family) as moderator. Methodology: The data is gathered from 392 Information Technology employees working in different Information Technology companies in India. The data is analyzed with hierarchical regression and correlation Results: The outcomes of the study divulged a positive relation between work\family conflict and occupational future. And also, the results showed that every environmental item does not moderate between work family conflict and occupational future. Conclusion: Therefore work and occupational future is significant for the existence of IT industry, provide practical awareness of employee welfare and improve balanced life which might differ under certain specific conditions.
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Human relations experts have shown tremendous interest in determining the variables that enhance workers' satisfaction and their loyalty to organisation because only committed and qualified personnel can facilitate the organization to attain statures of effectiveness. The present research is performed to study job satisfaction, organisational commitment, and climate as predictors of organisational effectiveness wherein job commitment is studied as mediator in this relationship. Using structured questionnaires on seven-point Likert scale, data were obtained from 581 respondents using convenient sampling method from IT sector. Results indicated that both job satisfaction as well as organisational climate is positively associated with effectiveness. The association between job satisfaction and effectiveness is completely mediated by commitment and organizational climate and effectiveness. This research has implications for decision makers in the IT sector for attaining higher effectiveness and issues related to employee job satisfaction and favourable climate may also be addressed.
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المستخلص يتمثل الهدف العام للبحث في التعرف على دور المناخ الأخلاقي في تحقيق استدامة الموارد البشرية من خلال توسيط الرضا الوظيفي، وتمثل مجتمع البحث في العاملين بالفروع الرئيسية بالبنوک التجارية المسجلة ببورصة الاوراق المالية، وتم استخدام قائمة الاستقصاء کأداة رئيسية لجمع البيانات، وبلغت عينة البحث 383 مفردة ورغبة من الباحث في زيادة نسبة تمثيل العينة لمجتمع البحث فقد قام بزيادتها لتصبح 405 مفردة، ولقد تم استخدام برنامج التحليل الإحصائي (SPSS) لإدخال ومعالجة وتحليل البيانات واختبار الفرضيات. وتوصل هذا البحث إلى مجموعة نتائج أهمها: وجود تأثير ذو دلالة إحصائية لبعد المناخ الأخلاقي على الرضا الوظيفي، اي ان هناک ارتباط إيجابي بينهما کلما زاد تهيئة المناخ الأخلاقي زاد الرضا الوظيفي، کما يوجد تأثير ذو دلالة إحصائية لبعد الرضا الوظيفي على استدامة الموارد البشرية، وجاء معامل الانحدار موجب اي هناک ارتباط إيجابي کلما زاد الرضا الوظيفي زادت استدامة الموارد البشرية ، يوجد تأثير إيجابي ذو دلالة إحصائية لبعد المناخ الأخلاقي على استدامة الموارد البشرية، وجود اختلافات ذات دلالة إحصائية بين أراء المستقصي منهم حول ابعاد استدامة الموارد البشرية حسب نوع ملکية البنک. وقدم البحث مجموعة من التوصيات أهمها: العمل على تحسين المناخ الأخلاقي بالقطاع المصرفي المصري لما لذلک من ارتباط معنوي إيجابي في تحقيق استدامة الموارد البشرية، الاهتمام ببناء مدونات اخلاقية بحيث تکون بمثابة المرشد والموجه لقرارات المديرين وسلوک العاملين في البنک نحو الاعتبارات الأخلاقية، ربط الأجور والمکافأت بمدى التزام العاملين بالسلوکيات الأخلاقية، وتطبيقهم لمعايير الاستدامة، ضرورة بناء هيکل للأجور يقابل الجهد المبذول من جانب العاملين بالشکل الذي يعزز الرضا الوظيفي لدى العاملين من خلال اشعارهم بأهمية العمل الذي يقومون به وبما يحقق رضائهم الوظيفي، وضع قواعد واضحة ومعلنة للترقي الوظيفي وبالتالي أجوراً وحوافز أعلى مما يحقق لهن معدلات اعلى من الرضا الوظيفي مما ينعکس أثره على خلق مناخ أخلاقي جيد وتحقيق استدامة العنصر البشرى، رفع کفاءة وتطوير سياسات إدارة الموارد البشرية بالشکل الذي يمکنها من القيام باختيار أفضل العناصر من اجل تحقيق استدامة الموارد البشرية. الكلمات الرئيسية المناخ الأخلاقي؛ الرضا الوظيفي؛ استدامة الموارد البشرية
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Work role stress is one of the major problems that influence family role conflict of Information Technology (IT) professionals. The purpose of the paper is to examine the relationship between work role stress and family role conflict among married employees in IT sector. The data is collected from 227 married IT professionals employed in different IT companies across India. The data is analysed with the help of descriptive statistics, correlation, factor analysis and multiple regression through SPSS 21.0 software, AMOS for Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis. The results of the study revealed that all the determinants of work role stress does not effect on family role conflict of married IT professionals. Determinants such as work load and work schedules influence on family role conflict. In addition, the study findings bring out the relation between the determinants of work role stress and family role conflict. This study is important to IT companies as it helps to provide useful insights in managing family role conflict of married IT professionals.
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The purpose of this study to present the relationship between personality traits and job satisfaction among the Software developers and Engineers in WSO2 Information Technology (IT) Company in Western Province. Quantitative approach was utilized in this study. Variables namely; openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism were used as the independent variables to predict the job satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of 249 respondents using structured questionnaire. The results of the analysis show that the relationship between personality traits and job satisfaction is in the moderate level. Most of the employees believe that the job satisfaction depends on other factors too than the personality traits. Further, personality traits contributes significantly to job satisfaction (F= 53.432; P < 0.05) with the prediction of 37.8 percent of variation. Further openness, conscientiousness, extroversion and agreeableness contributes significantly to job satisfaction rather than neuroticism. This study is limited to the sample of IT employees and Engineers and the environmental factors, economic issues and fiscal and monitoring portfolio which are not examined in this research.
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Researchers examining efficacy of alternative measures of job facet satisfaction have generally assumed overall job satisfaction to be an additive function of weighted facet scores. This paper considers the linear compensatory model implied by such an assumption as well as two nonlinear alternatives. It is found that conjunctive and disjunctive models predict overall job satisfaction about as well as does the linear compensatory model. Further, simulated general satisfaction scores are used to examine the extent to which aggregation of data across individuals using differing combinatory models may lead to systematic bias in favor of a particular model. The results suggest that while use of the linear compensatory model may be justifiable on the basis of mathematical simplicity, conclusions drawn by researchers using that model should be tempered by the recognition that alternative models with sharply differing theoretical bases and practical implications may have equivalent descriptive ability.
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Research on employee turnover since L. W. Porter and R. M. Steers's analysis of the literature reveals that age, tenure, overall satisfaction, job content, intentions to remain on the job, and commitment are consistently and negatively related to turnover. Generally, however, less than 20% of the variance in turnover is explained. Lack of a clear conceptual model, failure to consider available job alternatives, insufficient multivariate research, and infrequent longitudinal studies are identified as factors precluding a better understanding of the psychology of the employee turnover process. A conceptual model is presented that suggests a need to distinguish between satisfaction (present oriented) and attraction/expected utility (future oriented) for both the present role and alternative roles, a need to consider nonwork values and nonwork consequences of turnover behavior as well as contractual constraints, and a potential mechanism for integrating aggregate-level research findings into an individual-level model of the turnover process. (62 ref)
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After discussing the importance of job satisfaction, this paper presents data concerning current levels and sources of job satisfaction in community mental health centers. Data came from a survey completed by 164 staff members working in 22 different programs located in Michigan. The return rate was 94%. Results indicated that compared to workers in other occupations, the staff were about average in satisfaction with co-workers and supervision, but low in satisfaction with the work itself. The two major sources of job satisfaction reported by staff were the level of accomplishment experienced in the work and the degree of clarity in organizational goals and policies. The paper concludes by suggesting ways in which job satisfaction in community mental health could be increased.
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The propositions are tested that (a) the more unstructured the task, the more positive the relationships between leader initiating structure and subordinate job satisfaction and performance, and (b) the more unstructured the task, the less positive the relationship between leader consideration and subordinate job satisfaction and performance. The correlations do not support the first proposition.
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This paper deals with the relationship between job satisfaction and length of employment in a particular job. The hypothesis that the change in job satisfaction with job seniority resembles a "U"-shaped curve is confirmed. It is suggested that intrinsic satisfaction is a major contributor to changes in the overall satisfaction of employees over time.
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A taxonomic review of 29 studies reveals that the popular belief that job dissatisfaction is a major cause of absence from work has doubtful empirical basis. In an attempt to resolve the anomalies of method, findings, and interpretation used in past studies, a systematic investigation of the relationship between job dissatisfaction and absence from work was carried out using 3 absence measures (time lost, frequency, and attitudinal indexes) and 5 job-satisfaction scales (a modified form of the Job Descriptive Index). Data were gathered from 1,222 male and female blue-collar production workers in 16 separate organizations in 4 contrasting technologies (clothing manufacture, foundries, continuous process, and bus companies). Results show that in most instances job dissatisfaction and absence from work were unrelated and that the lack of relationship was not attributable to artifactual or extraneous influences. It is concluded that the job-dissatisfaction theory of absenteeism is empirically unsupportable, and alternative conceptualizations of attendance motivation and potentially fruitful future research strategies are discussed. (47 ref)
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Mental health professionals working in community agencies give much of themselves in aiding clients to live more productive and satisfying lives. Consideration should now be given to assist these mental health professionals in meeting their own job-related needs. Industrial and organizational job satisfaction literature is reviewed to aid mental health agencies in their efforts to express and act on a greater concern for the job satisfaction (work morale) of agency staff. It is encouraged that ways of maintaining or increasing job satisfaction be investigated.
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Critically examines research over the past 10-12 yrs concerning factors related to turnover and absenteeism in work situations. On a general level, overall job satisfaction was consistently and inversely related to turnover. In an effort to break down the global concept of job satisfaction, various factors in the work situation were analyzed as they related to withdrawal behavior. 4 categories of factors, each representing 1 "level" in the organization, were utilized: organization-wide factors, immediate work environment factors, job-related factors, and personal factors. Several variables in each of the 4 categories were found to be related fairly consistently to 1 or both forms of withdrawal. An attempt is made to put the diverse findings into a conceptual framework centering around the role of met expectations. Methodological considerations and future research needs are also discussed. (83 ref.)
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"This paper advocates a validational process utilizing a matrix of intercorrelations among tests representing at least two traits, each measured by at least two methods. Measures of the same trait should correlate higher with each other than they do with measures of different traits involving separate methods. Ideally, these validity values should also be higher than the correlations among different traits measure by the same method." Examples from the literature are described as well as problems in the application of the technique. 36 refs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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How do management perceptions of need satisfaction and importance vary by level of management? 139 supervisors and middle management individuals in 3 companies were sent a questionnaire constructed to measure needs in a hierarchy compared to one described by Maslow. Middle managers fulfilled, more often than did bottom managers, needs for esteem, security, and autonomy. "The highest-order need of self-actualization is the most critical need area of those studied, in terms of both perceived deficiency in fulfillment and perceived importance to the individual, in both bottom and middle management." From Psyc Abstracts 36:02:2LI01P. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews 9 operational definitions of job satisfaction. Data are reported for 208 employees of an eastern telephone company on the relationship between each of these definitions and observational and questionnaire measures of overall job satisfaction. Some operational definitions did not yield empirically comparable measures of satisfaction, although several correlated with an overall rating of job satisfaction and with absenteeism. Convergent and discriminant validity matrix analysis suggests that it is possible to validly measure people's satisfaction with different facets of their jobs. Implications for the development of a theory of job satisfaction are discussed. (39 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed and tested a conceptual framework specifying the conditions under which jobs will facilitate the development of internal motivation for effective performance. Ss were 62 supervisors and 208 telephone company employees who worked on 13 different jobs. Primary independent variables were (a) a measure of strength of desire for the satisfaction of higher order needs (e.g., obtaining feelings of accomplishment, personal growth); and (b) descriptions of jobs on 4 core dimensions (variety, autonomy, task identity, feedback). It was predicted and found that when jobs are high on the 4 core dimensions, employees who are desirous of higher order need satisfaction tend to have high motivation, have high job satisfaction, be absent from work infrequently, and be rated by supervisors as doing high quality work. A number of supplementary analyses are reported. (48 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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DEVELOPMENT AND NORMATIVE DATA ARE PRESENTED FOR THE MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE, A MEASURE OF JOB SATISFACTION. EXTENSIVE NORMATIVE DATA ARE INCLUDED FOR THE 21-SCALE LONG FORM, AND ADDITIONAL DATA ARE GIVEN FOR THE 3-SCALE SHORT FORM. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY DATA AND SCORING INSTRUCTIONS FOR BOTH FORMS ARE INCLUDED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared 3 approaches to the prediction of turnover in a sample of National Guard members. Assessments of components of M. Fishbein's (1967) behavioral intention model, job satisfaction, and L. Porter's (1974) organizational commitment model, combining elements of both satisfaction and intention, were obtained. All 3 models predicted enlistment behaviors during the 6 mo following attitude assessments with a high degree of accuracy. Based on a sample of 252 Guard members with an enlistment base rate of 50%, Fishbein's behavioral intention model had a multiple correlation of .65, job satisfaction had a multiple correlation of .55, and organizational commitment had a correlation of .58 with actual enlistment behavior. Implications for organizational retention and attitude–behavior relations are discussed. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) which is intended to (a) diagnose existing jobs to determine whether (and how) they might be redesigned to improve employee motivation and productivity and (b) evaluate the effects of job changes on employees. The instrument is based on a specific theory of how job design affects work motivation, and provides measures of (a) objective job dimensions, (b) individual psychological states resulting from these dimensions, (c) affective reactions of employees to the job and work setting, and (d) individual growth need strength (interpreted as the readiness of individuals to respond to "enriched" jobs). Reliability and validity data are summarized for 658 employees on 62 different jobs in 7 organizations who responded to a revised version of the instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Interviewed a national random sample of 911 employees in the solid waste management industry concerning their job attitudes. While white-collar employees were more satisfied with their jobs than were blue-collar employees, both the latter and the secretarial employees were more satisfied than were employees at the same job levels in other types of work. These differences are attributed to pay and work differences between solid waste management and other occupations. White-collar employees were more likely to derive satisfaction and dissatisfaction from intrinsic sources and less likely to derive them from extrinsic sources than were blue-collar workers. F. Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory of attitudes was not supported by the data. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
80 counselors completed the Vocational Preferences Inventory (VPI) and Job Satisfaction Blank, and their job performance was evaluated by their supervisors and by 3 clients. The strong correlation between client and supervisor ratings of counselor effectiveness suggests that client ratings should be used in the evaluation of counselors, and the low job satisfaction of the "ineffective" group and the lack of correlation of their VPI results with J. L. Holland's (1977) environmental code for counseling suggests that there may be a basic "mismatch" between the ineffective counselor and his/her profession. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Data obtained from a national probability sample of 1533 American workers were used to assess the validity of ten methods of weighting job satisfaction ratings by importance ratings. The methods varied systematically in terms of the input they employed, scale treatment, and the types of mathematical operations used for weighting. Each method was evaluated with data from two subsamples of workers who differed in terms of the magnitude of their intraindividual correlations between satisfaction and importance ratings. The four criterion variables used to evaluate the weighting methods were measures of overall job satisfaction, job-related tension, likelihood of leaving one's present job, and mental health. The data not only failed to support the hypothesis that the validity of job satisfaction ratings may be increased by weighting them by importance ratings but indicated, on the contrary, that importance-weighting actually reduced the validity of satisfaction ratings. This reduction was attributed to several statistical problems, principally the failure of satisfaction and importance ratings to meet the demanding scaling assumptions of weighting models. An inconsistency was pointed out between the research activities necessary for providing an ideal test of a weighting model and those necessary for developing a generally useful measure of job satisfaction based on the model.
Article
Reviews the administrative practices that affect job satisfaction and describe the practices of one operational psychosocial rehabilitation agency. Comparisons are made between the job satisfaction levels of 85 employees of the agency described and those of other agencies. Results show a higher level of job satisfaction for the employees of the agency described than for those at other agencies. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Argues that the selection of response categories for summated rating (Likert) scales is often made arbitrarily; however, the equal interval properties of the response continuum is assumed even though this assumption may in fact, be false. To avoid the problems that unequal intervals might cause, it is suggested that equal interval categories be used. To this end, 3 lists of commonly used categories (agreement, evaluation, and frequency) were scaled, using data from 107 undergraduates. The scale values are presented to aid the researcher in choosing response categories; however, it is suggested that separate scale values be derived for each population sampled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested the turnover model of W. H. Mobley et al (see record 1979-29973-001). Data from 120 employees of a mental health facility were collected on several variables contained in the model, including perceived job characteristics (Job Diagnostic Survey and Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire), personal employee characteristics, job satisfaction (Job Satisfaction Inventory), perceived alternative employment opportunities, intention of quitting the job, and turnover. Two variables were added to those in the model--confirmation of preemployment expectancies and organizational commitment (as measured by the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire). Results of path analyses are consistent with the model, although with some modifications. Specifically, perceived alternative employment opportunities added nothing to the model as a direct cause of intention to quit or turnover, or as a moderator. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved). NOTE: See erratum to correct correlation table: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/216443657_'Causes_of_Employee_Turnover_A_Test_of_the_Mobley_Griffeth_Hand_and_Meglino_Model'_Correction_to_Michaels_and_Spector
Article
This study was a test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino turnover model. Data from employees of a mental health facility were collected on several variables contained in the model, including perceived job characteristics, personal employee characteristics, job satisfaction, perceived alternative employment opportunities, intention of quitting the job, and turnover. Two variables were added to those in the model-confirmation of preemployment expectancies and organizational commitment. The results of path analyses were consistent with the model, although with some modifications. Specifically, perceived alternative employment opportunities added nothing to the model as a direct cause of intention to quit or turnover, or as a moderator. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Applied Psychology is the property of American Psychological Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
The study looks at the prediction of turnover by employee job attitudes and intent to remain with the company, among 911 salesmen. Intent to remain was highly correlated with actual turnover, both short term and long term. During the 18 months after attitudes were surveyed, turnover for men who stated they intended to remain was 9% versus 30% of those who were less committed. Employees' expressed intent was a better predictor of turnover than were other job attitudes. An examination of static and dynamic correlations showed that employees' intent to remain is most closely tied to feelings about the work itself and about the company as a place to work. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Organizational Behavior & Human Performance is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Article
This paper summarizes a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, is called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). Based on a series of studies among 2563 employees in nine divergent organizations, satisfactory test-retest reliabilities and internal consistency reliabilities were found. In addition, cross-validated evidence of acceptable levels of predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity emerged for the instrument. Norms for males and females are presented based on the available sample. Possible instrument limitations and future research needs on the measurement and study of organizational commitment are reviewed
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67361/2/10.1177_000276427501800303.pdf
Article
Job satisfactions of technicians were assessed in three medium to large public residential facilities using the Job Descriptive Index. Technicians in a fourth, much smaller facility provided separate reliability and validity data on the Job Descriptive Index. In general, the job satisfactions of technicians as measured by this scale were lower than those of workers in industrial settings, particularly with respect to pay. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationship between client characteristics and satisfaction scores. Staffing patterns did, however, affect technician satisfactions in several areas.
Article
Relocation of professional staff in a community mental health center provided a setting in which to evaluate the effects of physical environment on job satisfaction. Two mental health teams moved from an old, drab central clinic building to new satellite clinics while a third team remained in the old building. Relocated staff reported significant increase in satisfaction with physical surroundings as compared to staff that did not move. Furthermore, satisfaction with physical surroundings had some impact on overall satisfaction ratings. Physical surroundings in a community mental health center may be a mediating variable for staff morale and effectiveness.
Article
Three agencies which evidenced different strategies for providing services to retarded clients were examined. Employees of an agency which had implemented a community-oriented strategy demonstrated the highest levels of job satisfaction and task involvement. Significant differences were found on four of eight job-design variables; however, methodological difficulties made interpretation of these differences difficult. The results were viewed as consistent with the hypothesis that different service delivery strategies are associated with differences in jobs, satisfactions, and task involvement.
Article
The work satisfactions of individuals employed by three agencies serving retarded persons were examined. The results contradicted the view held by most administrators that the individual's level of overall satisfaction is determined principally by his attitudes concerning employment in the field of mental retardation. Rather, the data suggest that satisfaction with the specific agency is the chief determinant of overall satisfaction. Extensive contact with clients and the perceived lack of client progress were found to be important sources of staff dissatisfaction. Finally, client-related dissatisfactions were often attributed to agency or staff deficiences. Implications for altering administrative practices were discussed.
Article
This article examines the job satisfaction of 297 direct care workers in relation to residents' levels of functioning and treatment progress in twenty-two wards of three long-term psychiatric institutions. Employees' satisfaction with work was significantly associated with residents' progress in community adjustment potential, but not with residents' change in pathology or behavior on the ward.
Article
This study examined the relationship of psychiatric nurses' job satisfaction to perceived therapeutic climate on their wards. Job satisfaction was measured with the Employee Attitude Survey published by Science Research Associates. Therapeutic climate was measured by Moos' Ward Atmosphere Scale. Wards were rated as the nurses perceived them (Real) and as they thought they should be (Ideal). Job Satisfaction scores were correlated with Ward Atmosphere Real and Ideal-Real discrepancy scores. The perceived degree of Practical Orientation was strongly related to nurse morale. Program Clarity, Order and Organization, Support, and Involvement were also notably related. A similar pattern of relationship was found between morale and Ward Atmosphere Ideal-Real discrepancies. As would be expected, System Maintenance factors were important to the nurses but so too were Therapeutic and Communication dimensions reflecting a balanced view of nursing care.
Comparative examination of three approaches to the prediction of turnover Meta-analysis: Cumulating research findings across studies
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Unpublished data set
  • C E Michaels
A mental health management training program
  • H A Marlowe
  • R B Weinberg
Intervention and change on a mental hospital wardThe planning of change
  • M S Schwartz
  • G T Will
Analysis of relationships among leader behavior, subordinate job performance and satisfaction: a path-goal approach
  • Downey