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Impact of Digital Technology on Education

Conference Paper

Impact of Digital Technology on Education

Abstract

Traditionally education is centred on sources such as schools, teachers and print media. The learners reached the information sources by enrolling with schools, teachers and libraries. Prior to the digital era, information was not accessible by the majority of people, and even those accessed were unable to obtain current information with respect to today’s context. The modern society wants to know the information as it happens and when it happens, and the world is moving from an information society to a knowledge society. Thus education is given the highest priority and brainpower is becoming the most valuable asset of an organisation. Advances in digital technology have opened up many avenues of learning. Technology has made information accessible / transmittable from anywhere and by / to all groups of people. Education has reached most parts of the world and ICT has become an integral part of human life. This paper describes the process of generation, creation and acquisition of knowledge through the technology. The use of ICT to manage and organise explicit knowledge is highlighted. The paper also describes how technology is used to access and apply such knowledge. The paper relates how these technologies have been used in education and its impact in general. Using examples the paper highlights some of the changes that has taken placed in the Sri Lankan education sector.
Impact of Digital Technology on Education
G.N. Wikramanayake
University of Colombo School of Computing
E-mail: gnw@ucsc.cmb.ac.lk
ABSTRACT
Traditionally education is centred on sources
such as schools, teachers and print media. The
learners reached the information sources by
enrolling with schools, teachers and libraries.
Prior to the digital era, information was not
accessible by the majority of people, and even
those accessed were unable to obtain current
information with respect to today’s context.
The modern society wants to know the
information as it happens and when it
happens, and the world is moving from an
information society to a knowledge society.
Thus education is given the highest priority
and brainpower is becoming the most valuable
asset of an organisation.
Advances in digital technology have opened up
many avenues of learning. Technology has
made information accessible / transmittable
from anywhere and by / to all groups of
people. Education has reached most parts of
the world and ICT has become an integral part
of human life.
This paper describes the process of
generation, creation and acquisition of
knowledge through the technology. The use of
ICT to manage and organise explicit
knowledge is highlighted. The paper also
describes how technology is used to access
and apply such knowledge. The paper relates
how these technologies have been used in
education and its impact in general. Using
examples the paper highlights some of the
changes that has taken placed in the Sri
Lankan education sector.
1. TRADITIONAL EDUCATION
In Sri Lankan context, formal education was
traditionally centred on schools and pirivenas
at village level while non-formal education
was centred in libraries at central places in the
form of newspapers and books. Teachers
delivered the formal education either following
a textbook or notes prepared using books and
their experiences. The learners enrolled and
visited the places that offered formal
education. The libraries offered supplementary
reading material to enhance their learning as
well as reference facilities.
A teacher has to be well educated and
knowledgeable to be able to educate others.
Also they have to acquire the skills of retaining
student’s attention and deliver content in an
effective way. Thus teaching is an important
profession and people respected them as they
guided and assisted the learners to be useful
citizens of the country. Due to the respect
earned by the society teaching was one of the
social service activities. Also most activities
people then used to do were centred at village
level and teaching too was carried out at
villages where small populations used to live.
With emerge of industrial and commercial
cities people have moved out of villages to
these cities for various forms of employment.
When the population increased the demand for
learning also goes up and thus the traditional
schools or pirivenas could not cope with the
demand. Thus new schools had to be created
and existing schools had to be expanded, and
new teachers were required to deliver
education. To meet the demand inexperienced,
under qualified and under trained personnel
were used and thus the profession has changed
from a social service to a commercial business.
Business is governed by remuneration and
when it is lower the capable people tends to
seek other employment offering higher
remunerations. Past governments used this
sector as an employment creation section thus
contributing towards the deterioration of the
sector.
1.1 Electronic and Digital Era
Electronic era commenced with the use of
wireless electronic communication over 100
years ago. Transmitting telegraph messages
and the radio are among the important
applications of this technology. The messages
were passed through the air, invisibly, on radio
waves. Since then the technology use has
moved from radio, to recordings, to movies, to
television, to computers, to CDs, CD ROMs &
the Internet [11].
This technology was very useful to convey
instant urgent messages and well as to make
people be aware current local and international
news. This has become an informal but
effective form of education.
The transformation of analogue signals to
digital emerged a new technology that was
capable of eliminating transmission errors and
performing the same task some efficiently.
Digital technology has been around for over 50
years with the wide use of the technology for
computers and other electronic equipment.
Since early 1960s educators and computer
scientist began using computers for teaching
purposes. Initially it was used as reading and
typing text to provide instructions of how to
use the computer due to its low-level
interaction with users and later to solve some
time consuming problems. However with the
invention of affordable microcomputers and
the integration of text, graphics and colour
there was a rapid spread of computers in
business, educational institutes and homes [1].
Computers first came to Sri Lanka in the late
1960’s and around the same time computing
was introduced to the curriculum of University
of Colombo. Learning about computers grew
from understanding how computer works, to
programming it to perform specific tasks, to
use of it to perform daily activities.
Computers also evolved from manipulation of
text and numbers to interaction via text,
graphics, voice and pointing devices. The
ability to network many computers to share
information and resources was another step
forward. With all these advances there has
been a steady and dramatic decrease in cost of
a computer. Along with these courseware and
better integration of text, graphics and colour
appeared making education material more
effective.
Graphical power and use of mouse on a par
with keyboard made the most impact with
respect to attracting laypeople to use
computers. The growth of the Internet from a
small group of academics and government
officials exchanging textual material into a
world wide resource, with millions of people
using it for diverse activities such as shopping,
banking, researching, forums, exchanging and
sharing information, access to digital libraries
and of course e-learning have already made an
impact to the society. This has and will
transform everything we do.
2. SUPPORTING
TECHNOLOGIES AND
APPLICATIONS
There are a number of technology components
available to built knowledge management
systems [2]. Local area networks, Internet and
Intranets are the backbones. They provide
transparent speedy transfer of knowledge
among people and applications. Internet
applications built using software and tools
allow collaborative intelligent access to
knowledge. Appropriate access and
authentication layers ensure the security aspect
of such systems. Data and document bases act
as the repositories to generate the knowledge.
2.1 Organisation of Explicit
Knowledge
Organisation and managing explicit knowledge
includes generation, creation or acquisition of
knowledge. Such activities could be performed
through tools such as RDBMS and EDMS.
2.1.1 RDBMS
One of the most commonly used tools to
manage information is a relational database
management system (RDBMS). RDBMS have
been used by IT applications to manage
operational data. The same technology is now
been used for knowledge management.
RDBMS traditionally managed text and
primitive data types such as numbers and date.
Knowledge has to be represented using beyond
the traditional data types such as character
strings and numbers. Thus other forms of
representations such as images and videos are
required. Multimedia databases have
immerged to manage such data.
Operational data of educational management
system are managed using this technology.
Student registration data, evaluation results
and their performances are recorded using
student information systems. In Sri Lanka use
of such systems is restricted to a handful and
they too do not fully exploit the facilities on
offer. In most cases only few ad hock activities
involving a handful of employees are
performed using technology. Lack of capable
and willingness employees at operational level
have hampered the use of information systems
for daily activities. Also the inability to take
necessary actions at the management level has
contributed towards this fallback.
2.1.2 EDMS
Electronic Document Management System
(EDMS) is a rapidly developing technology
and is considered as the solution for
organizations that needs a way to manage the
information efficiently. EDMS applications
focus on the control of electronic documents
throughout their entire life cycle, from creation
to eventual archiving. Its functions include
document creation, storage and retrieval,
management, version control, workflow and
multiple-delivery formats [7].
EDMS allows managing the documentation of
an entire process. With respect to education
this task is achieved through an enhanced and
more effective process called e-learning.
Although some organisation in Sri Lanka uses
systems for their daily activities, most are not
looking at these possibilities. When
considering educational institutes in Sri Lanka
the use of e-learning has been around for the
last two years. The BIT external degree
programme of University of Colombo School
of Computing (UCSC) has allowed private
institutes to expose their students to e-learning.
2.2 Media for Explicit Knowledge
Explicit knowledge could be represented using
different media. Text, graphics, animation,
sound and video are the media to represent
them [3]. Unlike the traditional media in forms
of books information stored digitally can be
preserved without any forms of distortion and
they can be accessed easily and quickly from
any part of the world.
2.2.1 Text
Text is one of the most effective components
of representing knowledge. The words
embodied as text, convey a powerful message
and this has been widely used in handwritten
and print media. Most data and information is
represented through this medium. It is
impossible to convey an unambiguous
message without text. To convey a message
effectively the message should be specific,
definite, concrete and precise. Selection of
suitable fonts and size is important for
legibility and aesthetic effects.
Learning is concerned, summarised text is
used to identify the important points and
detailed descriptions are for explanations and
subsequent supplementary reading.
2.2.2 Graphics
Text and graphics are the basic components of
multimedia systems. Text without graphics
will fail to retain person’s attention as well as
long-term retention.
Bitmaps (paint) graphics and vector (draw)
graphics are two basic forms of still graphics.
Each type has its own characteristics and
satisfies different needs. Bitmaps stores the
graphics as seen on screen while vector
graphics stores the instructions of how the
graphics is created.
Colour is an important component of a picture.
However when producing graphics colours
should be chosen carefully to ensure effective
and pleasing displays. Human eye react to light
intensity and to the three colours red, green
and blue. Like in the case of fonts and sizes of
text, the choice of colour composition has
immediate aesthetic impact.
2.2.3 Animation
Animation adds impact to a presentation.
Unlike text and graphics these are dynamic
time based media. The visual impact of
animation is to harness the learning process.
Animations usually take forms like moving an
object across the screen, user-controlled
movement of an object, bitmap flipping and
full animation files. Authoring tools are used
to create such objects.
2.2.4 Sound
All forms of verbal communication use sound.
Technology has been used to transmit sound
across the universe. Teacher’s voice has been
the primary focus in delivering knowledge.
Sound could be represented using computers,
and MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital
Interface) and digital audio are the two basic
file types used in multimedia systems. A
multimedia system requires the use of speech,
music or special sound effects. When used for
education, speech should be short, manageable
and integrated with other media. It should be
used as a complementary to text.
2.2.5 Video
Video occupies the most disk space and
bandwidth when used over the network. Hence
video can be integrated with other media only
through use of edited segmented video clips
each conveying a specific message.
2.3 Accessing Explicit Knowledge
RDBMS and EDMS manage the explicit
knowledge. They are accessed using various
technologies such as Internet, Intranet, Search
Engines and workflow tools [2].
2.3.1 Internet
Internet provides a cost effective global
network backbone. It connects users from
anywhere, as long as they have access to the
web. This has allowed users to host
information on their computers and make them
available for others. Such computers need to
be dedicated for that purpose as users will be
searching for information at different times.
These sites are called web sites and they are
connected to the web on 7x24. This technology
intends to provide unrestricted access to
information. An educational institute will
publish all information relevant to the public
through their web sites. This technology has
made information accessible as it happens and
people access them at any time they want to do
so.
2.3.2 Intranet
Intranet is used only within an organisation,
thus restrict access to information from outside
the organisation. The appropriate security
measures (e.g. firewalls) implements such
requirements. These web sites allow
employees and authorised users to access
information while protecting the same from
others. This technology is used to share
confidential information within an
organisation. Teachers and administrators
could monitor the overall status of a student
and hence take appropriate actions promptly.
Teachers can also make their learning material
and exercises available through them. Some e-
learning systems runs on these networks with
login accounts created for its users.
2.3.3 Search Engines
Search Engines are very effective powerful
tools that allow text based information
retrieval. Web based search engines deploy
different types of navigation strategies. Meta
searching, hierarchical searching, attribute
searching and content searching are among
them. This facility is now widely used by most
users of the Internet. This has helped
researchers, teachers and students to reach the
required information and acquire the
knowledge.
2.3.4 Workflow
Workflow Tools allow documents and other
forms of information to be routed among
individuals and applications according to
predefined processes. Workflow tools allow
setting up the workflow environment in terms
of users, types of information, processes,
timing constraints and alternatives. These tools
are used in some organizations, but not yet
exploited by the education sector. Teachers
could use these tools to effectively
communicate with their students. We see e-
learning systems gradually incorporating some
of these characteristics.
2.4 Using Explicit Knowledge
The explicit knowledge that was accessed
should be able to use effectively. For this it is
necessary to ensure that the information
gathered is presented in a useful manner. Tools
such as Decision Support Systems (DSS), data
mining and data warehousing are available for
such purposes. These tools are just lying
around for use by most users and education
sector is no exception.
2.4.1 Decision Support System (DSS)
DSS are software products that transform
operational data into useful information such
as statistical models and trend analysis for
used by the management for decision-making.
They summarise internal and external data into
graphs, charts and simple reports.
2.4.2 Data Mining
Data mining is a process to discover new
knowledge from existing databases. Here,
sophisticated data searching techniques and
statistical algorithms are used to discover
patterns and correlations in vast quantities of
data.
2.4.4 Data Warehousing
Many organisations have several databases
existing within their organisation. A data
warehouse attempts to unify all these
databases. The technology aggregates the data
from different databases and cleans the data in
the process of attempting to increase the
quantity of the data. Effective data mining
could then be performed. The paper in [5]
described one such an attempt with respect to
the education sector in Sri Lanka.
2.5 Sharing Knowledge
Knowledge sharing is done among a network
of people. Communication among people
could be done through paper mail, fax and
telephone. However these techniques are
synchronous and less effective across
geographical boundaries. IT provides more
effective solutions through the use of e-mail,
video conferencing, virtual meeting, and
document collaboration [1, 2].
Combined use of knowledge sharing
techniques will allow reaching them beyond
geographical boundaries and performing
businesses and services more effectively.
2.5.1 E-mail
E-mail allows sharing knowledge
asynchronously. An individual could share
knowledge with a community by sending a
message to a group of people. Distribution list
eliminate the need for everyone to remember
the names of the community and also ensure
everyone gets the message.
Creating student groups, teachers and well as
students share knowledge and this is practised
to some extent in Sri Lanka as well. At UCSC
we use distribution lists to communicate with
current and past students.
2.5.2 Video Conferencing
Telephone allowed voice communication
among distant personnel. This has evolved not
only to view a live video of the person but also
to connect to a number of people. Although the
technology is costly it is been used for
scheduled meetings involving people
internationally. Universities having campuses
spread over a larger geographical locations
have their staff meetings through such
technology. This saves travel time of
individual. If the time saved and it is used
effectively the organisation and society will
benefit in the long run.
Some universities use this technology for
teaching as well. Students ask questions by
posting them to the teacher using the
technology. Such systems require each student
to have their individual computer with the
ability receive and interact with the system.
We witnessed use of such technology at the
Multimedia University in Malaysia. Although
the facility to use video conferencing is
available among universities such as Colombo,
Moratuwa, Peradeniya and Ruhuna it is yet to
be used on regular basis. However, many
events involving these universities and well as
some local and overseas institutions have
already made use of this facility. Video
conferencing facilities are also available in
other places such as distant learning centre.
2.5.3 Virtual Meeting
Virtual meetings allow people from different
locations connect with each other to conduct
meetings and share knowledge as if everyone
were in the same room. Applications such as
presentation graphics, spreadsheets and word
processing can be shared in real time. Such
activities are being used in Sri Lanka and the
extent of it varies among users.
Stock exchange has reached beyond Colombo
due to use of technology and the same is
required for education. We see many students
from Galle, Kandy, Kegalle, Kurunegala,
Ratnapura districts coming to Colombo on
daily basis in search of good education. Such
needs could be reduced if similar facilities
could be made available in these districts.
Good resource personnel are reluctant to travel
out of Colombo due to the long travel hours.
However if through Vishwa Grame Kendra
project [4] access to technology is made
available people from Colombo could reach
them remotely and country will benefit in the
long run. Officials from public services
including education, travel to Colombo for
regular meetings. Planned organised virtual
meetings could save time and effort of these
people.
Educational Institutions created to deliver
knowledge have yet to adopt technology for
this purpose. Universities, technical education
centres should use them on regular basis. In
developed countries computers has become a
day-to-day tool like a radio and a television.
However developing countries such as Sri
Lanka are way behind in order to provide the
required technology, as the infrastructure does
not support an affordable solution beyond the
city of Colombo.
2.5.4 Document Collaboration
Document collaboration lets team members’
work together with many other participants
with documents or information in real time.
Everyone can manage and use information in
real time.
Documents in digitised form can be
transmitted to a remote place in the exact form
and reproduced any number of times. Digital
information leads to tremendous saving of
space, time and maintenance, while providing
easy access, storage, management and retrieval
of information. Chances of non-availability,
losing or misplacing of documents is rare and
documents that fall under this category are
accessible even after many years of isolation.
Those who use technology have been able to
reduce their printing and postal cost
dramatically. At UCSC we no longer post
notices and application forms to our external
students. They access / download them at any
time they want.
3. CHANGES TAKEN PLACED
Availability of vast amount of information on
the web has provided access to all types of
learning material. The teacher’s lecture notes
are no longer the primary focus of a learning
process, and the teacher’s role and the
student’s learning process is changing [10].
3.1 Paradigm Shift
Paradigm shifts in today’s world have
identified the Machine / Industrial era being
replaced by Technology / Information era.
Similarly production process has moved from
Products to Knowledge, Workplace has moved
from Physical to Virtual and its focus has
changed from Worker to Customer [8].
In terms of education this means we should
create Knowledge that is accessible virtually
with the focus on the student. Virtual access is
achieved through Internet / Intranets.
Techniques such as e-mail, web notices,
discussion forums and video conferencing
allow a student to access information without
visiting the physical location of delivery. A
typical interactive e-learning system will have
these characteristics and thus demonstrates the
paradigm shift.
3.2 Classroom Level
Use of technology at classroom level was not
possible until the teachers delivery
mechanisms were aided with technology.
Originally delivery mechanism was through
verbal communication and then through the
introduction of written media such as
blackboards. Later through overhead projectors
teachers were able to do the writing in advance
and project them directly. Use of overhead
transparencies allowed them to reuse written
material but without improving them. With the
invention of projection through a computer, a
teacher can easily update his material as well.
The same material can also be printed and the
students are able to obtain it without having to
copy them. This technology has now evolved
not only to project text and figures, but also
animations, video clips etc.. Thus the teachers
are now equipped with tools to teach
effectively. Figure 1 summarises these options.
Method Teacher Student
Verbal
explanations
Dictate Listen and
copy
Writing
during class
Blackboard /
whiteboard &
Chalk / Pen
Copy notes
Pre-written
transparencies
Overhead
Projector
Copy notes
Pre-prepared
slides
Multimedia
projector &
computer
Printed
material
e-learning Provide
learning
material
Learn
through
participation
Figure 1: Classroom Facilities
3.2.1 Teacher’s Role
In the modern global learning environment
teacher’s role shifts from "dispenser of
information" to "facilitator of learning" as he
has only to guide the active students who are
involved in using the e-learning material.
Classrooms have been fully equipped with
permanent multimedia projectors and
computers and the facilitator needs to access
the e-learning system through the Intranet.
Teachers should not control the learning
process as well as they should allow students
to perform collaborative work and make some
decisions on their own.
The changes that are happening in teaching
and learning were discussed in [10] with the
aid of two case studies. The key technologies
and practices of e-learning at University of
Western Sydney were highlighted there and it
was compared with the activities of the
external degrees program at UCSC.
3.2.2 Student’s Role
Some classrooms are equipped with computer
access to all students. In such cases students
interactively participate in the learning
process. Now the student’s focus is totally on
the learning process than on copying note as
the learning material can be accessed at a
future time.
Teachers should ensure that knowledge and
skills are not presented to students directly, but
are constructed by them in response to
information and learning tasks. Teachers need
to consider how these learning experiences
could be encouraging to students who are
performing this type of mental work.
Thus student who used to learn facts and skills
by absorbing the content presented by teachers
and media resources should move towards
creating personal knowledge by acting on
content provided by teachers, media resources,
and personal experiences. The focus should be
on acquiring higher order skills like problem
solving and critical thinking.
3.2.3 Curriculum Characteristics
In order to change the teacher’s and student’s
role the curriculum also needs to be revised.
Traditional curriculum would focus on
fragmented knowledge and disciplinary
separation. However now we should focus on
multidisciplinary themes as future generation
will need the ability to move through several
different jobs. Thus establishment of basic
literacy and focusing heavily on job specific
skills is pointless, as one has to change jobs or
manage many jobs by themselves. Therefore it
is important to emphasise on thinking skills,
knowledge integration and application. Depth
of understanding will be required than breath
of knowledge [6].
3.2.4 Assessments
With changes to the learning process the
assessment methods should also change.
Instead of measuring a student on fact
knowledge and discrete skills, assessments
should focus on application of knowledge.
This will allow testing of problem solving
skills of a student. Students should also be
given tasks to demonstrate understanding and
creativity.
3.3 Language Barriers
Most Sri Lankan learner’s first language is not
English. Hence some find it difficult grasp the
concepts through reading. Hence there is a
need for supplementary material in native
languages. This could be supported through
Unicode.
Learning computing has now been introduced
at schools as well. Currently it is targeted only
at advanced level students. However with time
this facility should be available for students at
the ordinary level like in the western countries.
3.4 Society
Using computers for public services is
gradually wide spreading. Although these
benefits are currently enjoyed by a small
fraction of the population the availability will
encourage others to join and enjoy the benefits
of technology.
For example, some banks have moved towards
providing most of their services through the
web. This includes managing their accounts,
placing standing orders and settlement of bills.
This allows the customer to make a virtual
visit to his bank at anytime he wish and obtain
the required service. Other services such as
withdrawing cash, depositing cheques etc. can
be done through the teller machines which are
also accessible at anytime.
Wireless local area networks allow users to
access shared information without looking for
a place to plug in their laptops. This
technology is being made available in some
public places and organisations. Educational
centres such as Universities and Libraries
should have such facilities, as future
generation will be carrying mobile equipment
to access facilities. Information users now
carry their laptops, PDA, smart phones, CDs,
thumb drives with them for fast and precise
access to their day to day material.
A public library is a knowledge centre [9]. To
provide services through technology it should
not only allow members to view available
books, but should also allow viewing of
content pages and abstracts. In the case of
research papers the facility to download
papers, journals and thesis is provided. User
must also have a facility to interact with the
librarian, suggest procurements, interact with
publishers, receive alters on outstanding
books, late fees and collection of books
reserved.
3.5 Infrastructure Facilities
Educators confront with the issue of equity
when they consider introducing technology to
learn. To develop a country and provide
everybody equal facilities is impossible with
the existing free education system and the
policy implementation processors. Trying to
solve the equity problem and introduce
technology at classroom level will result in the
country going backward compared to others as
well as encourage migration as people are
always looking for better learning
opportunities and living standards.
Every student must have computer access to
successfully implement above ideas. Thus
student to computer ration must increase. It is
recommended that all education institutions
must have computers with a minimum ratio of
1:5 with those teaching computing with a
minimum ratio of 1:3. All teachers must be
provided with unlimited computer access so
that they could prepare their educational
material.
Word processing is the most frequently
reported application. The most frequently
mentioned categories of use are word
processing, Internet research, and CD-ROM
research. Thus the percentage of schools with
Internet access needs to be raised and
ultimately all users should have access to the
Internet. Lower Internet bandwidth and high
usage cost is a bottleneck.
The education system has been producing
graduates without any exposure to computers.
When these graduates take teaching
assignments they are not equipped to use
technology for education. Technology and
educational reforms has to be done taking
these into consideration.
4. CONCLUSION
Over the last five years computers have been
introduced to most educational institutes
although its ratio to a student is very high. By
making the educators aware of the available
technology and some taking initiatives to
implement them, some forms of reforms may
take place.
Whatever Sri Lanka do with respect
technology requirements the world will be
flooded with information and some people will
use them effectively. They would be the
people who have developed their skills to the
level of finding problem-relevant information
and interpreting and applying them in solving
of problems.
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... G.N. Wikramanayake [9] describes the process of the project Generation, Development and Acquisition Knowledge in technology. Usage of the ICT to be treated and clearly organized knowledge has been revealed. ...
... The distinction between the two groups i.e. creative teachers and instrumental teachers has implications for both the way in which courses are taught and the way in which students experience them Yoon et al . [7] Digital learning (or e-learning) growth and creation of technological technologies, such as Internet-based training, web-based training or on-line learning, network learning, distance learning G.N. Wikramanayake [9] Usage of the ICT describe how technology is being used to bind to and extend your knowledge to you Table 1: Overview of work done by Author"s. ...
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... Darling-Hammond, 2000). Our contemporary and technologically oriented society, educators in schools and higher education are expected to regularly incorporate digital technologies into their teaching and their students' learning(Ng, 2015). The need to establish the value of technology to education remains important, particularly where there is an emphasis on standards-based accountability and also because of the substantial cost of implementing technology innovation in the classroom (Becta, 2009) Digital technology helps the students to increase learner effectiveness or performance gains, increase their efficiency, greater learner engagement and satisfaction andmost importantly positive attitude towards learning (Becta, 2009). ...
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  • Cindy Grabe
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  • H S Waydande
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The Vishwa Grama Fund: An Innovative Funding Mechanism to Overcome Rural ICT Infrastructure Bottlenecks
  • De Silva
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  • Biswajit Saha
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