Breeding, embryonic development and salinity tolerance of Skunk clownfish Amphiprion akallopisos

Journal of King Saud University - Science 01/2011; 24(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.jksus.2011.03.005


Breeding and rearing some of the clownfishes most commonly used in the aquarium
trade actually represent an economical and ecological tool for broadening development. Cul-ture of clownfish species in low-saline water is still in its infancy. Salinity of the culture envi-ronment is one of the more relevant parameters affecting fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The objective of this study was to breed skunk clownfish ( Amphiprion akallopisos ) in aquarium condition, document the embryonic development, determine the upper and lower lethal salinities of juveniles, tolerance of five dif-ferent salinities (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt) and their effect on the survival rate of larvae. Higher (53–55 ppt) and lower (3–6 ppt) salinities produced loss of appetite and movement, finally leading to mortality in juveniles. In a ninety six hour experiment, larvae showed 100% survival at the salinities of 30 (control) and 35 ppt and 88% survival in 40 ppt salinity and 76% survivals in 20 and 25 ppt. In conclusion juveniles of A. akallopisos exhibit satisfac-tory rates of survival and no signs of stress in high (up to 53 ppt) and low saline (up to 6 ppt) waters. These results demonstrate that using such salinities, which can reduce the incidence of diseases and mortality, does not produce significant physiological alterations in this species. In addition, descriptive studies on embryonic developmen t and mass scale larval rearing were also carried out during the present study.

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    • "Growth analysis of cinnamon clownfish at salinities of 34 ppt, 25 ppt, 15 ppt, and 10 ppt indicated that A. melanopus could survive at salinities as low as 10 ppt over a period of 90 days. The result is similar to that of skunk clownfish A. akallopisos with high survival rates under the condition of salinities up to 53 ppt and tolerance up to 6 ppt of salinity [10]. Lower survival rates of A. melanopus at lower salinities were inconsistent with the previous studies examining the relationship between growth and salinity in juvenile black bream [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Prolactin (PRL) is a key hormone for osmoregulation in fish. Levels of PRL in the pituitary gland and plasma ion composition of clownfish seem to change to regulate their hydromineral balance during adaptation to waters of different salinities. In order to understand osmoregulatory mechanism and its association with growth performance and PRL in fish, the gene encoding PRL and its expression level in cinnamon clownfish Amphiprion melanopus upon acclimation to low salinity was analyzed. Results The PRL gene of A. melanopus encoded a protein of 212 amino acid residues comprised of a putative signal peptide of 24 amino acids and a mature protein of 188 amino acids. Analysis of growth performance under different salinities of 34, 25, 15, and 10 ppt indicated that cinnamon clownfish could survive under salinities as low as 10 ppt. A higher rate of growth was observed at the lower salinities as compared to that of 34 ppt. Upon shifting the salinity of the surrounding water from 34 ppt to 15 ppt, the level of the PRL transcripts gradually increased to reach the peak level until 24 h of acclimation at 15 ppt, but decreased back as adaptation continued to 144 h. In contrast, levels of plasma Na+, Cl-, and osmolality decreased at the initial stage (4–8 h) of acclimation at 15 pt but increased back as adaptation continued till 144 h. Conclusion Cinnamon clownfish could survive under salinities as low as 10 ppt. Upon shifting the salinity of the surrounding water from 34 ppt to 15 ppt, the level of the PRL transcripts gradually increased during the initial stage of acclimation but decreased back to the normal level as adaptation continued. An opposite pattern of changes - decrease at the beginning followed by an increase - in the levels of plasma Na+, Cl-, and osmolality was found upon acclimation to low salinity. The results suggest an involvement of PRL in the processes of osmoregulation and homeostasis in A. melanopus.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Aquatic Biosystems
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    • "There are 30 species of clownfishes including two inter generic hybrids between Amphiprion and Premnas (Fautin and Allen, 1992; Allen et al., 2008, 2010; Mebs, 2009). There are many reports on the successful rearing of various species of clownfishes from different parts of the world (Hoff, 1996; Wilkerson, 1998; Gopakumar et al., 1999; Ignatius et al., 2001; Ajith Kumar and Balasubramanian, 2010, Dhaneesh et al., 2011). The number of marine ornamental fishes reared in captivity today is more than 84 species, which come under the groups such as clowns, damsels, gobiids, cardinals and pseudochromids (Gopakumar, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to evaluate the changes in the morphometric characteristics and survival rate of clownfish Amphiprion percula larvae with respect to different initial feeding times. The larvae started their initial feeding at 12 hr showed maximum survival (42%) and no survival was observed at 8th day when larvae started initial feeding after 24, 36 and 48 hr. Morphometric parameters such as Total length (TL), Weight (W), Head depth (HD), Body depth (BD) and Eye diameter (ED) were significantly higher in larvae which started their initial feed at 12 hr. The present study thus suggests that the first feeding of the clownfish A. percula larvae can be initiated before 12 hr, for better growth and survival.
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    ABSTRACT: Sebae anemonefish, Amphiprion sebae, is currently one of the most demanded marine ornamental fish species in tropical countries. The development of controlled larval rearing procedures are required for the sustainable culture of these valuable fish. In the present study, the suitability of the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis as a starter food for larviculture of A. sebae was investigated. After the yolk absorption, the larvae were stocked in 250-l fibreglass reinforced plastic tanks under different feeding conditions: clear water rearing conditions with rotifers Brachionus plicatilis, 8–10 ml −1 for 10 days (R), green water conditions (Chlorella sp., 1.1–2.6 × 10 5 cells/ml) with rotifers (8–10 ml −1) offered for 10 days (C+R), green water conditions (Chlorella sp., 1.1–2.6 × 10 5 cells/ml) for 3 days followed by clear water in combination with rotifers (8–10 ml −1) feeding for 7 days (3C+7R), and clear water conditions with Artemia nauplii offered for 10 days (4–6 ml −1). After the 10-day feeding, all groups received Artemia nauplii up to 35 days post-hatching. Larval survival was counted at day 10 and at the end of the 35-day rearing experiment. At day 35, a significant survival difference was noted between the groups where rotifers were supplemented with algae versus only Artemia. At the end of the experiment, the highest survival rate (68.2 ± 2.3%) was obtained with larvae receiving only algae in the first 3 days of feeding. Lowest survival rate (23.9 ± 10.3%) was obtained with larvae receiving only Artemia for 35 days. This indicates that smaller preys are essential for clownfish larvae at first feeding. Larval length and wet weight were measured at the time of mouth opening, at days 7, 10, and 21, and at the end of the experiment (day 35). On day 35, mean length of the larvae varied significantly between the treatments. However, the final wet weight of the larvae did not vary significantly between the treatments.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2011 · ScienceAsia
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