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Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale (Rosc.)

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  • The Foundation for Medical Research
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Antidiarrhoeal activity of Zingiber officinale (Rosc.)

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Zingiber officinale (ginger) was studied for its antimicrobial profile and effect on virulent features of diarrhoeal pathogens, viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production of enterotoxins. Z. officinale showed no antimicrobial activity. Although it inhibited the production of cholera toxin, it had no effect on the action of this toxin. It also had no effect on the production and action of E. coli heat labile and heat stable toxins. However the bacterial colonization of HEp-2 cells was reduced. The results indicate that in the absence of antimicrobial action, Z. officinale exhibits its antidiarrhoeal activity by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism. The present study reports a novel mechanism of action by Z. officinale in infectious diarrhoea.
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... (p<0.001) and 12.71 respectively (Table 4). When calculating percentage of inhibition (Section 2.7), it was observed that the values were increased as the dose had been increased i.e. pre-treatment with ME of Z. rubens leaves (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) induced a significant delay in the onset of diarrhea (33,35 and 47% respectively, relative to the vehicle) as shown in Table 2 and Figure 1. Thus, the higher the dose of the extract (400 mg/kg), the better effect was observed compared to any of the groups. ...
... Thus, the higher the dose of the extract (400 mg/kg), the better effect was observed compared to any of the groups. The result was in concord with two other species of same family; aqueous extract of rhizome powder of Z. officinale possesses good antidiarrheal activity which support the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of diarrhea 35 . Also, diethyl ether extract of Z. chrysanthum rhizome demonstrated potent anti-diarrheal drug 36 . ...
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Zingiber rubens Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) has been traditionally used against diarrhea, fever, cold, infection, etc. in human. The present study was aimed to investigate phytochemical screening, antidiarrheal, thrombolytic and antibacterial effect of methanol extract of leaves of Z. rubens. Phytochemical screeing was performed according to common phytochemical tests. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by castor oil-induced diarrhea method at three different concentrations in mice. Five different concentrations were used for in vitro clot lysis assay of human blood and antibacterial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion assay at five different concentrations against two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Phytochemical screening showed presence of reducing sugars, anthraquinones, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. In case of antidiarrheal activity, the extract asserted evacuation indices (EI) of 16.14, 15.57 (p<0.001), 12.71 for 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml of extract respectively where loperamide showed 5.14 (p<0.001). Percentage of clot disruptions were 47.21 (p<0.05), 39.59 (p<0.05), 35.31, 32.24 (P<0.01), 24.88 (p<0.05) and 55.93 (p<0.001) for 10, 8, 6, 4, 2 mg/ml extract and streptokinase respectively. The extract did not possess any activity against bacteria. Based on the phytochemical and results from in vivo and in vitro activities, the leaves of Z. rubens was found to be a potential source of new antidiarrheal and thrombolytic agents but it was found to have no antibacterial activity.
... Medicinal plants bearing tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, reducing sugars, steroids, and terpenoids have been shown to have antidiarrheal effects [52]. For herbal products, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, and flavonoids are clearly the main chemical components that have been shown to have a broad range of activities, including antidiarrheal effects due to their anti-motility and anti-secretory effects [53]. ...
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Background Natural products have been utilized by human beings for thousands of years to relieve a variety of ailments, including diarrhea. Conventional antidiarrheal drugs are associated with multiple adverse effects and contraindications. Traditionally, Rumex nepalensis by crushing the root, mix with water and then drunk the juice is extensively used for treating diarrhea. However, no scientific research has been done yet to support its antidiarrheal efficacy and safety. Hence, the aim of the study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity and safety profile of the plant in mice. Methods The hydro-methanolic extract was extracted through a cold maceration technique using 80% methanol. Castor oil-induced diarrheal, gastro-intestinal transit, and enteropooling models have been employed to assess the antidiarrheal activity of the test extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg. Results The crude root extract caused no mortality at a single limit test dose of 2 g/kg throughout the first 24 h and for the rest of the 14 days. In a castor oil-induced diarrheal model, the hydro-methanolic extract markedly delayed the onset of diarrhea, reduced the weight of wet and total feces at 100 (P<.05), 200 (P<.01), and 400 mg/kg (P<.001) test doses. Meanwhile, at 200 (P<.01) and 400 mg/kg (P<.001) doses, the plant extract considerably lowered the weight and volume of intestinal contents. In the gastro-intestinal transit model, however, a dramatic inhibition in the charcoal meal travel was noticed at 100 (P<.05), 200 (P<.01), and 400 mg/kg (P<.001) test doses. The peak antidiarrheal index was exhibited at the highest dose of the test extract. Conclusion The study speculated that Rumex nepalensis root extract possesses antidiarrheal activity, which could be owing to its inhibitory effect on both gastro-intestinal motility and fluid secretion.
... Anti-diarrhoeal Activity: Poonam G. Daswani et al, (2010), the decoction of Zingiber officinale Rosc reduced the bacterial colonization of Hep-2 cells and disclosed its anti-diarrhoeal action by affecting bacterial and host cell metabolism 58 . ...
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Atisaar is a very commonly found disease in all age groups. It is colloquially called diarrhoea, a prevalent clinical feature of acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The line of treatment depends on the type and stage of the disease. In Ayurveda, Atisaar is classified based on the vitiation of Dosha, while in modern medical science, it is based on the type of causative organism. There are so many formulations used to treat diarrhoea in Ayurvedic texts. Lipid-based formulations of Shadanga Ghrita include ingredients such as Kutaj (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC), Pippali (Piper longum Linn), Shunthi (Zingiber officinale Rosc), Katuka (Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth), Laksha (Laccifer lacca Kerr.) and Go-ghrita. Different fractions of extracts of each drug and isolated phytochemicals have potent anti-bacterial and anti-diarrhoeal activities, as proven by many studies. Thus, a literary survey helps to understand the mode of action of this formulation and might be helpful in the calculation of dose for pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.
... In Table 4 Effect of jujube honey on plasma SOD, and catalase activities, CRP, WBC and NO in castor oil-induced diarrhea general, flavonoids have been reported to have several pharmacological activities, including antidiarrheal activity, which has been attributed to antisecretory and antimicrobial action effects. 39 Phytochemical screening of jujube honey performed by Zerrouk et al. 17 revealed presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids. ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of jujube honey on experimentally castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice by using different testing models (diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility). Methods: The mice intragastric administration castor oil was post-treated after 30 min with jujube honey, diluted jujube honey and loperamide or vehicles in different experimental groups. The onset and number of wet defecation on the absorbent paper was recorded for each animal for 4 h. Plasma was examined for C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) for clinical inflammation evaluation. The oxidative stress was investigated by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels. Results: The diluted jujube honey exhibited an important antidiarrheal activity manifested by significant delay in onset of diarrhea (P < 0.05), loss in number of wet stools (P < 0.001), total number of stools (P < 0.001) and total stool weight of fecal output (P < 0.001) in 4 h in castor oil-induced diarrheal groups. The inhibition of intestinal transit of charcoal meal (P < 0.01) is a most likely mechanism that may account for antidiarrheal effect of jujube honey. It also significantly increased SOD and catalase levels (P < 0.001) and significantly decreased CRP and NO in plasma diarrheic mice (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results of this research reveal that the jujube honey contains pharmacologically active compounds with antidiarrheal properties. However, diluted honey is more effective in the treatment of diarrhea and imbalance of intestinal motility. In conclusion, these findings illustrated the antidiarrheal activity effect of jujube honey and which has the strongest evidence supporting its use in the treatment of diarrhea in traditional medicine.
... Group 5 rats received 4 mg/kg of loperamide, followed by 1 mL of castor oil orally. Thirty minutes following administration of castor oil orally, each rat was sacrificed as previously described (19). The small intestine was excised, intestinal content expelled into a graduated measuring cylinder and its volume was determined using the formula. ...
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Introduction: The roots of Salacia lehmbachii are used in Nigerian folklore medicine without scientific basis. The present study was aimed to investigate the antidiarrheal and antimicrobial activities of the ethanol extract of S. lehmbachii root bark. Methods: The antidiarrheal activity was examined using castor oil induced diarrhoea method. The ethanol root bark extract effects on intestinal transit time and enteropooling were also evaluated in rats, while antimicrobial activity was conducted on selected microorganisms. The acute toxicity test and phytochemical screening of the extract were also carried out. Results: The extract produced significant ( P < 0.05) dose dependent protection on rats against castor oil induced diarrhoea. The extract inhibited intestinal transit time and caused significant dose related inhibition of castor oil induced enteropooling in rats, comparable to the standard drug, atropine ( P < 0.05). The root bark extract significantly and dose dependently delayed the onset of castor oil induced diarrhoea, reduced the frequency of defecation and decreased the severity of diarrhoea in rats. S. lehmbachii ethanol root bark extract significantly and dose dependently decreased the volume of intestinal fluid accumulation in the castor oil induced enteropooling. The extract also significantly inhibited the growth of test organisms. The acute toxicity test produced no lethality in rats, whereas the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, resins and balsam. Conclusion: The results of this study confirm the ethnomedicinal use of S. lehmbachii root bark as a valuable natural agent for the treatment of diarrhoea and microbial infections.
... In the fundamental edition by S. Baumler [15] some other clinically proven properties of ginger are summarized: hepatoprotective, cholagogic and diuretic properties; positive effects for irritable bowel syndrome, dysbiosis after antibiotic therapy, colds (expectorant, bronchodilatory effect), the ability to improve metabolism and normalize the intestine microflora; facilitate weight normalization; dilate peripheral blood vessels, lower blood pressure, platelet aggregation properties and improve blood rheological properties; antiinflammatory, analgesic, inotropic properties [21]. It is noted that ginger remedies are effective for functional dyspepsia in all ages from childhood to old age; gastritis with reduced secretory activity, loss of appetite of any origin, nausea caused by intracerebral disorders, chemotherapy, anaesthesia, "traveller's disease", osteochondrosis, gout [2,9,12,19]. In all scientific publications it is pointed out that the use of ginger as a spice is well tolerated, it can be used in various dishes (soups, garnishes, meat dishes, salads, jams, with tea, wine, beer) in the form of powder or raw root. ...
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Actuality. The rapid growth of morbidity, age-related poly- and comorbidity complicate and increase the cost of the treatment process of such patients, leading to the search for prophylactic and therapeutic agents of multisystem and diverse metabolic action. Aim of the Research. Coverage of modern scientific advances in the studies of therapeutic and prophylactic properties of ginger as a spice and source of drugs, as well as justification for its wider use under different conditions of the human body. Materials and Methods. Information search in printed and electronic publications, search databases; methods of analysis, comparison and generalization of data. Results. The healing properties of ginger have been proven on the basis of historical and modern data. Thus, it posesses hypolipidemic, antisclerous, disaggregating, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, vasodilating properties, and the ability to regulate secretory and motor disorders of the digestive system. Gastro-, hepato-, cardio-, neuro-, arthroprotective features of ginger products are indisputable, as well as the effectiveness of their application for the diseases of the digestive, cardiovascular, bronchopulmonary systems, musculoskeletal system and prospects for their use for endocrine diseases, in neurology, oncology , immunology. Conclusions. Ginger as a universal spice and a source of drugs of prophylactic and therapeutic action with multisystem and diverse metabolic properties should be used more widely in patients with age related poly-and comorbidity, which can improve their rehabilitation outcomes and increase economic efficiency. Key Words: ginger, properties, poly- and comorbidity, application, prophylaxis.
... In vivo anti-diarrheal activity of methanol extract of Streblus asper leaves has been shown in Swiss albino rats, the activity being attributed to decrease of gastrointestinal motility by the extract [39]. The plant was used by the Mandai tribe in a polyherbal formulation for treatment of stomach ache and diarrhea. ...
Preprint
Diarrhea and dysentery along with other gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract) disorders are fairly common throughout Bangladesh because of lack of quality drinking water, poor sanitation facilities, and somewhat unhygienic mode of living among the poorer but majority sections of the population. Modern medical facilities are largely unavailable to the rural population, and more so among the different tribal population scattered throughout the country. Previous surveys have indicated that the tribal population relies heavily on phytotherapeutic treatment of GI-tract disorders, the tribal medicine (TM) treatment being administered by their own tribal medicinal practitioners (TMPs) similar to folk medicine (FM) and folk medicinal practitioners (FMPs). In this review, we analyze the plants used against several GI-tract disorders by TMPs of three different tribal populations of the country, namely the Chakma tribe residing in Rangamati district in the southeast, the Mandai tribe living largely in Tangail district in the center, and the Santal tribe living in Rajshahi district in the northwest part of the country. It can be seen clearly that the three tribes used different plants for treatment of the same disorder. The review analyzes possible causes for the observed differences. The number of plants available to treat a particular disorder highlights the richness of the floral species of Bangladesh enabling the various TMPs to select different plants or combination of plants. Overall, it can be stated that the plants present rich potential for not only discovery of new drugs but also which can be used as effective and affordable herbal medicines against several GI-tract disorders.
... Sunthi Anti-diarrhoeal activity [31] Daswani PG, BrijeshS, Tetali P et al. 2010 ...
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Many ayurvedic formulations are available in the mark without any proper scientific evidence for its therapeutic effect. On this issue the Satpala ghrta was identified from the Indian Ayurvedic Formulary 2003, for which there were no scientific evidence to prove its efficacy in-order to standardize the formulation. Each ingredient possesses a unique therapeutic activity.
Chapter
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT), one of the essential organs of the human body is susceptible to various diseases. GI disorders such as constipation, diarrhea, GI reflux disease, gastric ulceration, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), also in addition to some other functional disorders, have become prevalent in a large part of the world population. Majority of the world’s population relies on herbal medicines nowadays for the management and treatment of GI diseases. However, the use of herbal medicines in various manifestations are traditionally derived, and further controlled trials suggest certain benefits of using ginger in nausea and vomiting, extract of licorice in peptic ulcers, Chinese herbal medicine in IBS, opium derivatives in diarrhea, and senna and ispaghula in constipation. The presence of various bioactive components in herbal preparations makes them suitable for potential therapeutic effects in GIT problems. In this chapter, we have discussed a number of single herbal formulations or herbal combinations for the treatment of different types of GIT ailments.
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Актуальність. Стрімке зростання захворюваності, вікова полі- і коморбідність ускладнюють, здорожчують лікувальний процес таких хворих, зумовлюючи пошук профілактично-лікувальних засобів поліорганної та різнопланової метаболічної дії. Мета. Висвітлення сучасних наукових досягнень щодо лікувально-профілактичних властивостей імбиру як спеції та джерела ліків, а також обґрунтування більш широкого його застосування за різних станів організму людини. Матеріали і методи. Джерела інформаційного пошуку в друкованих і електронних виданнях, пошукових базах, методи аналізу, порівняння і узагальнення інформаційних даних. Результати. За історичними і сучасними даними доведено цілющі властивості імбиру. Так, він володіє гіполіпідемічними, протисклеротичними, дезагрегантними, гіпоглікемічними, антиоксидантними, протизапальними, болетамувальними, судиннорозширювальними властивостями, здатністю регулювати секреторно-моторні розлади системи травлення. Гастро-, гепато-, кардіо-, нейро-, артропротективні якості засобів з імбиру безперечні, а також ефективність їхнього застосування при захворюваннях травної, серцево-судинної, бронхолегеневої систем, опорно-рухового апарату та перспективи використання при ендокринних захворюваннях, в неврології, онкології, імунології. Висновок. Імбир як універсальну спецію і джерело ліків профілактично-лікувального спрямування поліорганної та різнопланової метаболічної дії необхідно ширше застосовувати у пацієнтів із вікозалежною полі- і коморбідністю, що може сприяти покращенню результатів їхньої реабілітації. Ключові слова: імбир, властивості, полі- та коморбідність, застосування, профілактика.
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The pharmacological effects of crude drugs and other plant extracts on the contractile responses to serotonin (5-HT) in isolated guinea pig ileum were examined. The acetone extract of giner was found to possess an anti-serotonergic effect. The extract was further fractionated by column chromatography and results showed that [6]-, [8]- and [10]-gingerol were the active components exhibiting anti-5-HT action.