Article

Psychiatric Epidemiology of an Indian Village

Department of Psychiatry (UHN-79), Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201-3098.
Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease (Impact Factor: 1.69). 02/1992; 180(1):33-9. DOI: 10.1097/00005053-199201000-00008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

This 1988 study reports the point and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders, using DSM-III-R criteria, of a sample (approximately 25%) of adult members of an Indian village previously studied in 1969. The basic instrument was the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, augmented by available medical information and administered by experienced psychiatrists. Subjects were interviewed and results were weighed for the age- and sex-distributed population. The results indicated a high point prevalence of alcohol dependence (32.8%), with a lifetime prevalence of 72.8%, among males. The lifetime prevalence of affective disorders among women was also high (36.8%), but less so among men (19.3%). When compared with the DSM-III-R diagnoses of the 1969 study, the point prevalence rates of alcohol dependence and abuse disorders fell from 39% to 21%. Also, fewer subjects were judged to be psychiatrically impaired. Even though the prevalence of psychiatric disorders was lower in the current study, the rates for alcohol disorders and affective disorders were still far higher than those reported in Epidemiologic Catchment Area studies. Alcohol dependence (especially among young men) and affective disorder (among women) were major problems.

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    • "As reported previously, Indians in this sample have high rates of alcohol (65% in men 54% in women) and cannabis (32.3%) dependence and antisocial personality disorder (9.8%), but not higher rates of major depressive disorder (8.7%) or anxiety disorders (9.02%) [13,14,48,54,55]. Our finding of high rates of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence is consistent with the findings of investigators working in several other native communities [6-9]. The identification of biomarkers that may represent endophenotypes in Indian populations may aid in genetic studies seeking to identify inherited factors that may contribute to the high rates of substance dependence in these populations. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence for a high degree of heritability of EEG alpha phenotypes has been demonstrated in twin and family studies in a number of populations. However, information on linkage of this phenotype to specific chromosome locations is still limited. This study's aims were to map loci linked to EEG alpha phenotypes and to determine if there was overlap with loci previously mapped for alcohol dependence in an American Indian community at high risk for substance dependence. Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview using the Semi Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. Bipolar EEGs were collected and spectral power determined in the alpha (7.5-12.0 Hz) frequency band for two composite scalp locations previously identified by principal components analyses (bilateral fronto-central and bilateral centro-parietal-occipital). Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 micro-satellite polymorphisms in 410 members of multiplex families using SOLAR. Sixty percent of this study population had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores, for the EEG alpha power phenotype, revealed two loci that had a LOD score of 3.0 or above for the fronto-central scalp region on chromosomes 1 and 6. Additionally, 4 locations were identified with LOD scores above 2.0 on chromosomes 4, 11, 14, 16 for the fronto-central location and one on chromosome 2 for the centro-parietal-occipital location. These results corroborate the importance of regions on chromosome 4 and 6 highlighted in prior segregation studies in this and other populations for alcohol dependence-related phenotypes, as well as other areas that overlap with other substance dependence phenotypes identified in previous linkage studies in other populations. These studies additionally support the construct that EEG alpha recorded from fronto-central scalp areas may represent an important endophenotype associated with alcohol and other substance dependence.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · BMC Medical Genetics
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    • "Para Niewiadomski (2004) o alcoolismo , frequentemente, aparece relacionado com ações delituosas como homicídios, delitos sexuais, maus-tratos, entre outros. M. L. P. Souza (2005) informa que a literatura internacional (Berlin, 1987; Kraus & Bufler, 1979) tem associado o uso de álcool por populações indígenas ao incremento das mortes por causas externas, bem como ao aumento do uso de drogas ilícitas entre adolescentes indígenas a partir dos 12 anos de idade (Federman, Costello, Angold, Farmer & Erkanli, 1997) indicando também maiores taxas de prevalência de problemas relacionados ao uso de álcool nesta população (Albuquerque & Souza, 1998; Coimbra Jr. et al., 2003; Howard, Walker, Suchinsky & Anderson, 1996; Leung et al., 1992; Souza, J. A. & Aguiar, 2001). As conseqüências do abuso de álcool para as comunidades indígenas podem ser constatadas nos estudos relacionando-o especificamente: à violência social (Oliveira, 2003; Pauletti, Schneider & Mangolim, 1997; Simonian, 1998; Souza, J. A. & Aguiar, 2001), à continuidade de uma saúde precária, e a altas taxas de suicídio em certas comunidades, tais como as dos Kaiowá/Guarani e Tikúna (Erthal 1998, 2001) e Kaingángs (Ministério da Saúde, 2001; Oliveira, 2001, 2003; Oliveira & Kohatsu, 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: RESUMO: Este estudo aborda centralmente a relação entre alcoolismo e violência em etnias indígenas do Brasil. São descritos e analisados os principais estudos epidemiológicos sobre alcoolismo realizados no país, constatando-se a escassez e também a necessidade imperativa de mais pesquisas, que permitam um melhor dimensionamento do pro- blema e uma maior visibilidade da caracterização das especificidades culturais de cada etnia. Aponta-se a importância do entendimento do significado peculiar do processo de alcoolização, para que sejam possíveis abordagens preventivas e intervenções efetivas. Conclui-se pela urgência da superação do quadro encontrado, postulando-se uma íntima cola- boração entre líderes comunitários e esforços conjugados para a mobilização e organização de quadros funcionais competentes das entidades assistenciais, governamentais e não-governamentais, e da comunidade acadêmica. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: alcoolismo; violência; indígenas brasileiros; etnopsicologia. ALCOHOLISM AND VIOLENCE IN INDIGENOUS ETHNIC GROUPS: A CRITICAL VIEW OF THE BRAZILIAN SITUATION ABSTRACT: This study mainly addresses the interface between alcoholism and violence in Brazilian indigenous people. Principal epidemiological studies on alcoholism are described and analyzed. This analysis demonstrates that, in our country, studies on this matter are rare, with the need to carry out more studies so to improve our knowledge on the extension of this problem, acknowledging the specific cultural characteristics of each ethnic group. It indicates the importance of understanding the peculiar significance of the process of alcoholization, making it possible to under- take preventive actions and effective interventions. It concludes the need to urgently overcome the current situation, proposing a close collaboration among community leaders, government and non-government assistance organizations and the academic community to engage efforts in mobilizing and organizing competent personnel.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2007 · Psicologia & Sociedade
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    • "Para Niewiadomski (2004) o alcoolismo , frequentemente, aparece relacionado com ações delituosas como homicídios, delitos sexuais, maus-tratos, entre outros. M. L. P. Souza (2005) informa que a literatura internacional (Berlin, 1987; Kraus & Bufler, 1979) tem associado o uso de álcool por populações indígenas ao incremento das mortes por causas externas, bem como ao aumento do uso de drogas ilícitas entre adolescentes indígenas a partir dos 12 anos de idade (Federman, Costello, Angold, Farmer & Erkanli, 1997) indicando também maiores taxas de prevalência de problemas relacionados ao uso de álcool nesta população (Albuquerque & Souza, 1998; Coimbra Jr. et al., 2003; Howard, Walker, Suchinsky & Anderson, 1996; Leung et al., 1992; Souza, J. A. & Aguiar, 2001). As conseqüências do abuso de álcool para as comunidades indígenas podem ser constatadas nos estudos relacionando-o especificamente: à violência social (Oliveira, 2003; Pauletti, Schneider & Mangolim, 1997; Simonian, 1998; Souza, J. A. & Aguiar, 2001), à continuidade de uma saúde precária, e a altas taxas de suicídio em certas comunidades, tais como as dos Kaiowá/Guarani e Tikúna (Erthal 1998, 2001) e Kaingángs (Ministério da Saúde, 2001; Oliveira, 2001, 2003; Oliveira & Kohatsu, 1999). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study mainly addresses the interface between alcoholism and violence in Brazilian indigenous people. Principal epidemiological studies on alcoholism are described and analyzed. This analysis demonstrates that, in our country, studies on this matter are rare, with the need to carry out more studies so to improve our knowledge on the extension of this problem, acknowledging the specific cultural characteristics of each ethnic group. It indicates the importance of understanding the peculiar significance of the process of alcoholization, making it possible to under-take preventive actions and effective interventions. It concludes the need to urgently overcome the current situation, proposing a close collaboration among community leaders, government and non-government assistance organizations and the academic community to engage efforts in mobilizing and organizing competent personnel.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Psicologia & Sociedade
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