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Thirty stands were sampled in forests dominated by Olea ferruginea during summer in 2008. Phytosociological attributes like relative frequency, density, basal area and absolute values such as density ha-1 and basal area m2 ha-1 of stands and species are presented. Based on importance values and floristic composition following 10 communities were recognized. 1, Olea- Punica community 2, Olea- Ficus community 3, Platanus-Morus communities 4, Olea– Ailanthus community 5, Morus-Celtis community 6, Olea-Acacia community 7, Olea- Morus community 8, Olea- Monotheca community 9, Olea- Quercus community 10, Pure Olea community. Most of these showed similar floristic composition with different quantitative values. Though no significant relation between density/basal area, elevation/density and elevation/basal area was obtained, however trends of these possible relations are described. Structure of Olea ferruginea and associated tree species in each stand is presented. Due to unbalanced forest structure and continuous disturbance, no future trends could be predicted for these forests.
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Pak. J. Bot., 41(6): 2683-2695, 2009.
Laboratory of Dendrochronology and Plant Ecology, Botany Department, Federal Urdu
University of Arts, Science and Technology, Gulshan-e-Iqbal, Karachi 75300, Pakistan.
*Government Degree Science/Commerce College Landhi/Korangi, Karachi 74900.
Thirty stands were sampled in forests dominated by Olea ferruginea during summer
in 2008. Phytosociological attributes like relative frequency, density, basal area and
absolute values such as density ha-1 and basal area m2 ha-1 of stands and species are
presented. Based on importance values and floristic composition following 10
communities were recognized.
1, Olea- Punica community 2, Olea- Ficus community 3, Platanus-Morus
communities 4, Olea– Ailanthus community 5, Morus-Celtis community 6, Olea-Acacia
community 7, Olea- Morus community 8, Olea- Monotheca community 9, Olea- Quercus
community 10, Pure Olea community. Most of these showed similar floristic
composition with different quantitative values. Though no significant relation between
density/basal area, elevation/density and elevation/basal area was obtained, however
trends of these possible relations are described. Structure of Olea ferruginea and
associated tree species in each stand is presented. Due to unbalanced forest structure and
continuous disturbance, no future trends could be predicted for these forests.
Olea ferruginea, a native broad leaved tree species of sub continent is distributed from
500 to 2000m in sub tropical, dry temperate and moist temperate regions of Pakistan. It was
recorded from Afghan border, Western hills of Baluchistan, Dir, Chitral, Salt range, lower
hills of Azad Kashmir, Waziristan, Swat and Murree hills (Baquar, 1969; Sheikh, 1993).
This frost and drought resistant species has adapted 250mm to 1000mm per year
precipitation and – 10oC to 40oC temperature, therefore can easily be planted on wide areas
of arid, semi arid and dry temperate regions of Pakistan with minimum input. This way,
watershed, microclimatic, environmental and edaphic conditions of the area can be
improved through plantation of this tree. In addition its leaves, fruit and wood may be
utilized as fodder, oil, fuel and construction respectively. A lot of quantitative
phytosociological work has been published from various areas of Pakistan, however, little
attention is paid to include single tree species or forest dominated by a single tree species.
Beside some work of Cheema & Qadir (1973) on Acacia senegal, Beg & Khan (1984) on
dry oak forests of Swat, Ahmed et al., (1990a 1990b, 1991 and 2008) on Juniper forest of
Rodhmallazi, Juniper Track of Ziarat, Pinus gerardiana forest of Zhob District, Baluchistan,
Cedrus deodara forest respectively and Siddiqui et al., (2009) on Pinus roxburghii of
subtropical region of Pakistan have been reported. No comprehensive studies were carried
out in Pakistan on Olea ferruginea. Considering environmental, economical and ecological
importance of Olea ferruginea, detailed vegetation study was carried out at 30 different
locations of Dir District. It is hoped that present studies would increase our knowledge in
terms of its community and association.
Since graveyards are considered least disturbed locations of any area (Hussain et al.,
1993, Chaghtai et al., 1983, 1984), during summer 2008, 30 graveyards were sampled
quantitatively in the various places of Lower Dir District. Point Centered Quarter method
(PCQ) of Cottam & Curtis (1956) was used to evaluate the quantitative vegetational
composition of these forests. At each sampling point, in each of four quadrants, the
nearest tree species (>6cm dbh) was located and point to plant distance and diameter at
breast height (dbh) were recorded. At each sampling stand, 20 PCQ points were taken at
25 meter interval. To increase the sample size for relative density, a second nearest tree
(Ahmed, 1984) was also recorded. The distance was not measured for this tree but dbh
was recorded. Density, frequency and basal area of each species were calculated
following Mueller – Dombois & Ellenberg (1974). Species were ranked according to
their importance value (Brown & Curtis, 1952) and the species with the highest
importance value in the stand was considered the dominant species of the stand. Species
were identified with the help of flora of Pakistan (Nasir & Ali, 1972).
Results and Discussion
Ecological characteristics of sampling sites, total density and basal area of each stand
are presented in Table 1. The stands are distributed at lower hills from 685m to 1580m on
fairly flat surface. The sampling area fall under the dry temperate broadleaved forest
(Champion et al., 1965, Ahmed et al., 2006). Stand density ranged from 56 to 1089 tree
ha-1 while stand basal area was recorded from 6.62 to 37.90 m2 ha-1. Olea ferruginea and
associated species had diversity of density and basal area from site to site and within a
stand (Table 2).
Relationship between density/basal area, elevation/density and elevation/basal area
are shown in Fig. 2. Density/basal area relation was found negative, non significant with
wide variance. Low basal area is associated with higher density stands, due to a large
number of young trees, while small density stands contained large sized trees in the study
area. Ahmed et al., (1990b) found highly significant relation between these variable, in
Juniper forests of Ziarat, Baluchistan, while Ahmed (1984) and Ahmed et al., (1990b)
found no relation in Agathis australis forests in New Zealand and Juniper forests of
Rodhmallazi, Baluchistan, respectively. A non significant trend was also observed from
elevation/density regression analysis. This trend showed that density decreases with
higher elevation. This species has restricted elevation range for its distribution and closed
to its upper limit, its number gradually decreases. Elevation and basal area indicated
positive but non significant relation with wide variance. Low density stands are located at
higher elevation (elevation/density regression) and higher basal area is associated due to
the presence of large trees in these stands. Density and basal area values greatly varies
from site to site and no significant relation was found in between these variable of Olea
ferruginea forests, therefore no proper conclusion could be made, however, as above,
general trends may be described.
Table. 1. Ecological characteristics of sampling sites. Absolute density per hectare and basal
area meter square per hectare of stands are also presented.
No. Location Latitude
N Longitude
E Elevation
in (m) Den.
ha-¹ B.A
(m² ha-¹)
1 Goron Khur 34 º 44 71 º 49 724 219 7.50
2 Bandagie 34 º 45 71 º 50 750 170 8.74
3 Utala Dushkel 34 º 45 71 º 50 814 130 28.91
4 Bagh 34 º 43 71 º 48 1090 154 14.74
5 Kattan Pahjron 34 º 43 71 º 48 1106 93 9.29
6 Anzoro Dushkhel 34 º 43 71 º 48 1320 158 5.66
7 Dera Kambar Meiden 34 º 57 71 º 49 1079 586 24.82
8 Manyal Meiden 34 º 57 71 º 47 1096 619 8.65
9 Khazana (Klurra) 34 º 45 71 º 50 685 724 10.23
10 Shamsabad (Kolalano Shah) 34 º 57 71 º 47 1157 175 6.62
11 Sher Khan (Meidan) 34 º 54 71 º 49 939 1089 15.01
12 Kotow Hajiabad 34 º 53 71 º 46 930 374 5.92
13 Kat Kala 34 º 43 71 º 56 938 697 14.18
14 Sarai Bala 34 º 43 71 º 56 966 163 10.20
15 Rahmanabad Talash 34 º 44 71 º 54 915 500 10.74
16 Mazuab Baba 34 º 39 72 º 02 719 266 16.39
17 Gambat Ziarat Talash 34 º 44 71 º 52 904 400 8.46
18 Ghurgi Yar Khan Banda 34 º 47 71 º 51 1088 177 7.53
19 Miayan Banda 34 º 55 71 º 71 804 196 22.04
20 Navagie 34 º 47 71 º 68 1350 211 37.90
21 Said Shah Baba 34 º 48 71 º 47 1385 85 29.80
22 Zakho Baba 34 º 49 71 º 50 1415 78 18.48
23 Qari Said Mula 34 º 50 71 º 49 1440 108 19.92
24 Mula Momen 34 º 53 71 º 48 1370 109 22.73
25 Tormang Baba 34 º 53 71 º 75 1580 101 18.88
26 Derie 34 º 46 71 º 43 950 88 25.96
27 Soghalie 34 º 45 71 º 47 970 90 34.05
28 Bagham Dara 34 º 43 71 º 52 826 101 22.68
29 Ghurgae 34 º 47 71 º 61 1135 56 11.19
30 Paito Dara 34 º 47 71 º 50 853 79 20.93
Note: Den. ha-¹ = density per hectare, B.A (m² ha-¹) = basal area meter square per hectare
Olea ferruginea is the most abundant and widely distributed species. Out of 30 sites,
it is absent in only Mazuab Baba area (Table 2) which may be due to cutting. The other
widely distributed species, Morus alba was recorded from 13 location while Monotheca
buxifolia and Punica granatum is distributed in 10 and 9 stands respectively. Out of 14
tree species recorded in sampling area, Quercus ilex, Ailanthus alltissima, Acacia
modesta and Ficus palmata were found in 5 to 7 locations. Celtis australis was
distributed in three stands, while Prunus armeniaca, Salix tetrasperma, Melia azedarach,
Platanus orientalis and Juglans regia were rarely recorded from one or two locations.
Phytosociological attributes indicates that Olea ferruginea occupied 100% of
importance value forming a pure stand in 5 stands. In these stands its density ranged from
90 to 1089 ha-1 while basal area ranged from 9 to 38 m2 ha-1. However in mixed stands its
density ranged from 7 to 425 individuals ha-1 while basal area from 0.7 to 26.51 m2 ha- 1.
Table 2. Summary of Phytosociology studies and absolute density and basal area of
different species in various sampling stands and communities.
Community Stand No. Name of species IVI Den.ha-¹ B.A.m²ha-1
1 9
Olea ferruginea
Punica granatum
Ficus palmata
Olea ferruginea 78.5 140.3 6.16
Punica granatum 6.55 8.8 0.14
2 10
Ficus palmata 14.95 26.3 0.32
Olea ferruginea 21.97 32.4 3.57
Morus alba 25.76 42.1 3.31
Monotheca buxifolia 8.72 13 0.54
Platanus orientalis 40.11 36 21.33
3 3
Salix tetrasperma 3.44 6.5 0.16
Olea ferruginea 56.61 41 16.84
Morus alba 17.33 12 1.13
Monotheca buxifolia 6.39 4 0.76
4 30
Ailanthus altissima 19.67 22 2.19
Morus alba 66.85 192.6 12.36
Ailanthus altissima 9.28 19.9 0.75
5 16
Celtis australis 23.88 53.1 3.29
Olea ferruginea 85.49 171 21.5 6 19
12 Acacia modesta
Olea ferruginea
Ficus palmata
Acacia modesta
Olea ferruginea 62.58 153.1 4.67
Morus alba 26.36 49.2 2.16
Punica granatum 2.97 5.5 0.06
Juglans regia 5.04 5.5 0.53
Ficus palmata 3.05 5.5 0.08
Olea ferruginea 59.33 127.2 3.43
Morus alba 37.58 38.1 4.99
Punica granatum 3.1 4.2 0.05
Olea ferruginea 45.79 69.2 7.88
Morus alba 29.96 46.2 4.73
Monotheca buxifolia 7.83 7.7 1.09
Punica granatum 3.9 7.7 0.17
Juglans regia 9.45 19.2 0.7
Prunus armeniaca 3.08 3.8 0.18
14 Olea ferruginea 37.04 65.1 3.58
Morus alba 28.78 36.6 4.47
Punica granatum 5.65 8.1 0.4
Ficus palmata 11.13 20.3 0.5
Ailanthus altissima 17.4 32.5 1.25
Olea ferruginea 49.8 229.8 3.08 17 Morus alba 50.2 169.8 5.39
Olea ferruginea 52.93 48 15.82
Morus alba 18.09 19 2.06
Monotheca buxifolia 6.63 7 0.74
Celtis australis 5.9 7 0.18
Platanus orientalis 16.5 7 7.16
Table 2. (Cont’d.).
Community Stand No. Name of species IVI Den.ha-¹ B.A.m²ha-1
Olea ferruginea 64.43 61 20.15
Morus alba 23.7 25
Ailanthus altissima 11.88 15 1.63
Olea ferruginea 76.95 72.3 8.44
Monotheca buxifolia 16.81 16.3 0.74
Punica granatum 6.24 4.7 0.11
6 Olea ferruginea 61.37 106.4 3.62
Monotheca buxifolia 24.4 31.5 1.52
Acacia modesta 14.24 19.7 0.52
15 Olea ferruginea 78.38 424 8.97
Morus alba 8.53 37.5 0.51
Ficus palmata 3.32 12.5 0.09
Monotheca buxifolia 9.77 25 1.18
Olea ferruginea 19.18 33.2 0.72
Morus alba 6.89 11.1 0.77
Punica granatum 4.44 7.4 0.06
Monotheca buxifolia 62.28 117.9 5.28
Melia azedarach 7.2 7.4 0.69
Olea ferruginea 71.73 60 26.51
Morus alba 3.05 2 0.12
Monotheca buxifolia 25.21 23 3.17
Olea ferruginea 21.69 7 4.12
Monotheca buxifolia 55.9 38 5.32
Ailanthus altissima 15.33 7 1.39
Celtis australis 7.09 4 0.36
Olea ferruginea 47.35 296.3 7.81
Punica granatum 4.23 34.9 0.3
Acacia modesta 15.88 122 1.91
Quercus ilex 32.53 244 4.15
Olea ferruginea 38.8 27 8.26
Acacia modesta 9.16 8 0.31
Quercus ilex 52 43 9.91
Olea ferruginea 41.1 35 9.55 23 Quercus ilex 58.91 73 10.37
Olea ferruginea 64.29 66 18.83
Acacia modesta 6.55 8 0.24
Quercus ilex 29.16 35 3.66
Olea ferruginea 30.76 27.9 8.03
Ficus palmata 2.79 2.5 0.06
Ailanthus altissima 6.89 7.5 0.39
Quercus ilex 48.44 58 7.14
Platanus orientalis 11.13 5 3.26
7 Olea ferruginea 100 586 24.82
8 Olea ferruginea 100 619 8.65
11 Olea ferruginea 100 1089 15.01
20 Olea ferruginea 100 211 37.9
27 Olea ferruginea 100 90 34.05
Note: IVI = Importance value index, Den.ha-1 = Density per hectare, B.A.m²ha-1 = Basal area
meter square per hectare.
Fig. 1. Map of sampling sites of Olea ferruginea stands in Lower Dir. For site name and location
refer to Table.1
Some other density and basal area values are available from different forests of Olea
communities. It was recorded at Tukht-e-Sulaiman range from 1950 to 2130 meter with a
co-dominant species Pistacia Khinjuk under dry temperate broad leaved forest. Density
of this species was 200 ha-1 with 28 m2 ha-1 basal area. In subtropical and moist temperate
ecotonal zone, density of Olea was recorded 378 ha-1 with 16 m2 ha-1 basal area, in
Quercus incana community under Broad leaved forest. Ahmed et al., (2006) also
reported this species on lower elevations of Murree Road, Malakand and Marghzar area
occupying density ranged from 92 to 620 ha-1 with 10 to 26 m2 ha-1 basal area. In these
areas Olea was associated with Acacia modesta and Pinus roxburghii. It is suggested that
density and basal area of present study is within the range of other studies in Pakistan.
Since importance values show the relative ecological importance of each species in a
stand (Brown & Curtis 1952), species were ranked accordingly and since sampling was
restricted to dense populations of Olea ferruginea consequently Olea had the highest
importance value in most of the sampling sites, with exception of one stand. Therefore on
the basis of importance value index (IV1), floristic composition and co-dominant species,
10 different communities are recognized in this area. Olea ferruginea communities were
defined by their co-dominant species as follows.
Fig. 2. Relation between density ha-1 and basal area m2 ha-1, elevation and density ha-1 and elevation
and basal area m2 ha-1.
1. Olea – Punica community: The sampling area stands in Khazana (Klurra) at 685m
elevation. Olea ferruginea comprised 64% of IV1 while Punica granatum and Ficus
palmata had 19 and 17% IV1 respectively (Table 2). Stand density of these species
ranged from 90 to 488 individual ha-1 with basal area ranged from 1.44 to 7.14 m2 ha-1.
2. Olea – Ficus community: The community was distributed on 1157m elevation at
Shamsabad (Kolalano Shah). As far as the floristic composition is concerned there is no
difference between this and previously described community. Olea ferruginea had 78%
IV1with lower density (140 ha-1) and basal area then previous community. The 2nd
dominant species Ficus palmate have 26 individual ha-1 while Punica granatum attained
only 7% of the total IV1 with a low density and basal area.
3. Platanus – Morus community: This community is located on 814m elevation at Utala
Dushkhel. Monotheca buxifolia and Salix tetrasperma were associated with fairly low
density and basal area. Co-dominant species of this community also occupied leading
(community No. 5) and co-dominant position in community No. 7.
4. Olea – Ailanthus community: Paito Dara with 853m elevation was supporting this
community and Olea ferruginea occupied 57% of the total importance value. Its 41 ha-1
trees showed comparatively higher (17 m2 ha-1) basal area. Ailanthus alltissima was
associated as a co-dominant species occupied only 20% of the total importance value
with 22 trees and 2.19 m2 h
-1 basal area. Morus alba (3rd dominant species) and
Monotheca buxifolia were associated with low density and basal area.
5. Morus – Celtis community: The sampling site was on 719m elevation at Maguab
Baba. The importance value of Morus abla was recorded 66% with 193ha-1 density and
12 m2 ha-1 basal area, while 24% importance value with 53ha-1 density and 3.29 m2 ha-1
were recorded for Celtis australis. Another tree species, Ailanthus altissima was present
with low density and basal area values. The co-dominant species of community 3-7 and
3rd dominant species of community 4 (Morus alba) appeared as a leading dominant
species in this community. Similarly Ailianthus alltissima of this community was the co-
dominant species of community number 4, showing floristic similarities among various
communities. Absence of Olea ferruginea in this location may be due to the cutting of
this species for fuel purposes.
6. Olea – Acacia community: This community was distributed at Miayam Banda and
Kotow Hajiabad on 804m and 930m elevation respectively. Olea ferruginea attained 85%
important value, 171 ha-1 density and 21.5 m2 ha-1 basal area at first location while from
second location 51% importance value, with 206 ha-1 density and fairly low 2.95 m2ha-1
basal area were recorded. Ficus palmata was also associated at second sampling site. It
appeared as a 3rd dominant (in community No. 1), and co-dominant (in community No. 2
and in various stands of Olea ferruginea.
7. Olea – Morus community: This community was recorded at 7 locations (Table 2)
from 724m to 1090m elevation, during the sampling. In these stands Olea ferruginea
occupied from 37% to 64% importance value, 48 to 230 density ha-1 and 3.08 to 20 m2
ha-1 basal area. Importance values ranged from 17 to 50% and density ranged from 19 to
170ha-1. Basal areas ranged from 2 to 5 m2 ha-1 were recorded for co-dominant Morus
alba. Other associates of the community were Punica granatum, Juglans regia, Ficus
palmata (Goron Khur), Monotheca buxifolia, Prunus armeniaca (at Bagh), Ailianthus
alltissima (Sarai Bala), Celtis australis, Plantanus orientalis (Derie) with low values.
8. Olea – Monotheca community: Kattan Pahjron, Anzaro Dushkhel, Rahmanabad
Talash, Said Shah Baba and Ghurgi Yar Khan Banda and Ghurgae were located from
915m to 1385m elevation. These sites were supported by this community on the basis of
floristic composition of species, however on the basis of importance value, at last two
locations Monotheca buxifolia appeared as a leading dominant species. Highest
importance value (78% and 62%) of Olea ferruginea and Monotheca were recorded from
stand number 15 and 18 respectively. Panica granatum (stand 5), Acacia modesta (Stand
6), Morus alba, Ficus palmata (stand 15), Media azedarch (stand 18) were the associated
species with low values.
9. Olea – Quercus community: From 938m to 1370m elevation at Kat Kala and Mula
Momen, Olea ferruginea appeared as a leading dominant species while at higher
elevations from 1415m to 1580m at Zakho Baba, Qari Said Mula and Tormany Baba,
Quercus ilex occupied the leading position on the basis of importance value. However on
the basis of floristic composition, all stands may be considered as a one community.
Highest density of Olea ferruginea (296 ha-1) and Quercus ilex (244 ha-1) were recorded
from stand number 9 and 13 while highest amount of basal area (18.8 and 10.4 m2 ha-1) of
these two species were recorded from stand 24 and stand 23 respectively. A considerable
higher density (122 ha-1) of Acacia modesta was recorded in stand 13 at low elevation,
while at higher elevation (stand 22+24) is associated with fairly low density. Punica
granatum (stand 13), Ficus palmata, Ailianthus alltissima and Plantanus orientalis (stand
25) were the other associates of this community with low values.
10. Olea community: Sampling stands of these monospecific broad leaved forests were
located at Sher Khan, Soghalie, Dera Kambar Meiden, Manyal Meiden and Navagie from
939m to 1350m elevation (Table 1, 2). Highest density (1089 ha-1) with comparatively
low basal area (15 m2 ha-1) was recorded from Sher Khan (stand 11) while highest basal
are (37.90 m2 ha-1) with low (211 ha-1) Olea ferruginea density was calculated from
monospecific stand of Navagie. No other tree species exist in these stands.
It is evident that in most cases the co-dominant species of any particular community
is also prominent in other communities and much overlap in species composition exists.
When the floristic composition was the only criterion, the numbers of communities were
reduced, further more if the basal area and density was taken into account, due to big
difference between Olea ferruginea and other associates all communities might be
considered to all under one “pure olea” stand or forest. Ahmed (1984, 1988) and Ahmed
& Ogden (1991) discovered the same results while working on Agathis australis Salisb
forests of New Zealand.
Size class structure: Size structure diagrams for Olea ferruginea and associated tree
species were prepared for each stands. Fig. 3 indicated that all the stands are composed of
mosaic and mixed size classes and in some stands many individuals are found in young
classes with a gradual decrease in number in higher bigger size classes. In many stands
the size class distribution is highly skewed. Some sites have similar number of Olea
ferruginea individual ha-1 but show different size structure. Several stands show one or
Fig. 3. Density size classes of each species in different stands of sampling area. Class interval =
10cm DBH. Species are shown by different colours.
Note: Oc= Olea ferruginea, Ma= Morus alba, Pg= Punica granatum, Jr= Jugleus regia, Fp= Ficus
pamata, Mb= Monotheca buxifolia, Po= Plantanus orientalis, St= Salix tetrasperma, Pm= Prunus
armeniaca, Am= Acacia modesta, Aa= Ailianthus alltissima, Ca= Celtis australis, Mz= Melia
azedarach, Qi= Qurcous ilex.
Fig. 3. Cont’d.
DBH Classes DBH Classes
Fig. 3. Cont’d
more gaps due to an absence of trees of the particular size classes. These gaps have been
frequently reported by various workers in the population structure of many tree species
(Ahmed et al., 1990a,b, 1991; Wahab et al., 2008). In Pakistan the cause of these gap has
never been studied and most of the conclusions are based on the study of disturbed
forests. It is suggested that gaps in the middle, may result from tree fall by storm or
cutting while in the beginning at sapling stage, these gaps may be due to the grazing of
young seedling. In many stands, smallest size class showed no or very small number of
trees. This situation could be controlled by promoting regeneration in these stands. Fig. 2
also hypothesized that in some stands Olea ferruginea may be replaced by some associate
species and in future a new dominant species may appear, (stand No. 3, 4, 23, 25, 26, 28
and 29). For example, Olea ferruginea is completely replaced by Morus alba from stand
No. 16. Monotheca buxifolia (stand 18, 29) and Quercus ilex (stand 23, 25) would
probably eliminate Olea ferruginea in future. It is also evident from Fig. 2 that no
associated species is distributed with a balanced population structure. This may be due to
overgrazing or removal of certain species in the past. It is suggested that due to
unbalanced structure of Olea ferruginea and continuous anthropogonic disturbances no
conclusion could be made about the future trend of these forests.
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(Received for publication 2 February 2009)
... Numerous phenolic compounds, especially secoiridoids and iridoids, are extracted from olive plants [13]. In addition, its leaves, berries, and wood may also be used as fodder, oil, fuel, and building materials [14]. The antibacterial, hemagglutination, and insecticidal activities of O. ferruginea roots were investigated in the current work. ...
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Olea ferruginea has been used to treat skin ailments, as well as kidney and ocular problems for a long time. The current study was designed with the aim of investigating and scientifically validating its widespread use. Chloroform, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate were used to assess the antibacterial, hemagglutination, and insecticidal properties of O. ferruginea roots. Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were among the bacterial strains selected for assessing antibacterial activity. The results showed that ethyl-acetate (EtOAc) extract (56%) and chloroform (CHCl3) extract (56%) showed the widest zone of inhibition against K. pneumonia, while n-hexane extract (13.4%) had the lowest zone of inhibition against P. aeruginosa. All three extracts remained inactive against M. luteus. During hemagglutination activity, the CHCl3 and EtOAc extracts, when used at different concentrations, only agglutinated the AB−ve and O+ve blood groups, respectively, while the n-hexane extract strongly agglutinated the A−ve and B−ve blood groups at different concentrations. The plant extracts were also checked for insecticidal activity against Rhizopertha dominica. The results also revealed the high mortality rate of CHCl3 extract (70%) against R. dominica as compared to other extracts. The aforesaid activities suggest that the roots of O. ferruginea have excellent medicinal viability and contain a wide variety of agglutinins and lectins, as shown in this study.
... -1 . From Ghora gali, this community type was recorded by Siddiqui et al., (2009) and Ahmed et al., (2009). The community observed only at lower elevation with higher density of Pinus roxburghii species and relatively lower density and co dominant Pinus wallichiana trees. ...
This paper focuses on growth pattern of seedlings from tree-ring proxies and their performance at different altitudes under high disturbance regime. The disturbance is predominately anthropogenic. Four conifer species found during investigations, namely, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburghii, Cedrus deodara and Abies pindrow. The parameters chosen for assessment of regeneration potential were age and growth rate. In addition, edaphic and topographic characteristics of thirty disturbed forest stands were also determined. The stands were deterministically selected because these were deteriorating with respect to tree population, biodiversity and degradation of soil. Seedling density varied in the order: P. wallichiana > Pinus roxburghii > C. deodara > Abies pindrow while the growth rate was exhibited in the order Pinus roxburghii > P. wallichiana > Abies pindrow > C. deodara. These findings suggest that Pinus roxburghii is the most suitable species (sub tropical species) at lower elevations (~1600–1900 a.s.l.) with regard to its regenerative ability and consequently potentially useful for the conservation of these forests. P. wallichiana showed highly significant (P < 0.01) correlations with PC1 (primarily controlled by total dissolved salts and water holding capacity) only whereas Abies pindrow was highly correlated (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) with PC1 and PC2 respectively (function of oxidative-reductive potential and water holding capacity) while C. deodara and Pinus roxburghii did not show correlation with any of the PCA components. In the light of current findings, Pinus roxburghii was found to be effectively adapted to the environment of the study area. Growth rate of species steadily decreased in response to unfavorable conditions. The other pine species i.e. P. wallichiana (moist temperate species) also showed some degree of adaptability under the influence of predefined environmental attributes. Hence pines are most likely the species that can be able to retain forest cover in future and are the best choice for restoration of these forests. However, the other conifers i.e. C. deodara and Abies pindrow are also able to withstand the physiographic characteristics and the extent of perturbation and persisting possibly beyond their tolerance limits but they need to be preserved and retained in these forests. Conifers are still giving positive response with respect to growth rate and their adaptive compatibility to such an extent that this forest can recover if management and conservation strategies are implemented. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that seedlings and saplings should be conserved to assure future forest cover.
... Different directions, slope and elevation support various plant communities in the Chour Valley. Ahmad et al. [48], during research work on the Lower Dir's Olea ferruginea forest reported similar results. ...
The study was designed to document the phytodiversity and vegetation dynamics of Chour Valley, Hazara Division, Pakistan during 2018–19. Sum of 115 plant species belonged to 48 families were documented. The leading family was Rosaceae with 14 plant species followed by Asteraceae (11 species). The data were analyzed for classification through two way indicator species Analysis and ordination through CCA and DCA to find differences in directories of plants communities and their habitats kind. Five plants communities were identified including, Abies-Pinus-Rheum, Picea-Cyperus-Oxalis, Rumex-Urtica-Cyperus, Picea-Betula-Viburnum and Berberis-Clematis-Potentilla communities. It was observed that the distribution of species and community structure was directly correlated to altitude, slope aspect and soil characteristics. It was also noticed that forest in the study area are continuously degraded and will go in vanishing, until conservation and restoration measures are adopted in priority basis.
... This species is listed as highly threatened due to excessive cutting. During their explorations, many different analysts have identified the adverse anthropogenic activities in the area with regards to this tree, such as collecting for fuelwood, overgrazing and burning, which are responsible for the significant destabilizing influence in the forests (Ahmed et al. 2009;Beg and Mirza 1984;Hussain 2013). ...
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Gul J, Saeed S, Ahmed A, Leghari SK, Basit A, Rehman A, Khan MZ. 2021. Genetic diversity and morphological variation of Pinus gerardiana along the environmental gradient from Zhob, Balochistan, Pakistan. Nusantara Bioscience 13: 121-128. Pinus gerardiana, an evergreen gymnosperm, is an economically-and ecologically valuable tree found in the Takhte Suleman Mountain Range, Zhob northeastern edge of the Balochistan, Pakistan. The present study is based on the assessment of the impact of environmental gradients with special reference to altitudinal gradient and soil variables on morphological, phytochemicals and genetic variation of P. gerardiana. A total of 27 genotypes of P. gerardiana were collected from the three elevation zones ranging from 2000-3500 m above sea level. The genetic diversity was assessed by combined markers, the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and the Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR). Polymorphic bands analyzed the data to generate a dendrogram, based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA). Morphological characters assessed the morphological characters. Phytochemicals were investigated; the total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents were estimated and compared amongst all accessions. Our results revealed variations along altitudinal gradients and related to soil characteristics. The populations at the Middle altitude zone have greater diversity than populations at lower and higher altitudes. The resulting altitudinal variation can be attributed to various geographical and environmental conditions. These results can help in conservation and cultivation of this economically important tree.
... Olea ferruginea forest structure was studied using the Point Centered Quarter method in lower Dir and it was found that the study sites' density and basal area ranged from 56-1089 trees/ha and 6.62-37.90 m 2 /ha, respectively [16]. Quercus forests of Chitral were assessed and the total tree density and basal area were estimated, ranging from 166.42-351.55 per ha and 12.11-30.13 ...
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Climate change is acknowledged as a global threat to the environment and human well-being. Forest ecosystems are a significant factor in this regard as they act both as a sink and a source of carbon. Forest carbon evaluation has received more attention after the Paris Agreement. Pakistan has 5.1% forest cover of its total land area, which comprises nine forest types. This study covers the studies conducted on above-ground biomass and carbon stock in various forest types of Pakistan. Most of the studies on biomass and carbon stock estimation have been conducted during 2015–2020. The non-destructive method is mostly followed for carbon stock estimation, followed by remote sensing. The destructive method is used only for developing allometric equations and biomass expansion factors. The information available on the carbon stock and biomass of Pakistan forest types is fragmented and sporadic. Coniferous forests are more important in carbon sequestration and can play a vital role in mitigating climate change. Pakistan is a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol and still lacks regional and national level studies on biomass and carbon stock, which are necessary for reporting under the Kyoto Protocol. This study will help researchers and decision-makers to develop policies regarding Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of forest carbon stocks
... Only non-temporal data on the status of plant species in least disturbed Murree is available (Siddiqui, 2011;Ahmed et al., 2006Ahmed et al., , 2009Hussain & Illahi, 1991). Changes in vegetation diversity in highly disturbed Murree forest may provide a useful indicator for changes in vegetation diversity in similar areas of Pakistan. ...
Trees, shrubs, and 43 herbs were recorded from various graveyards which were classified into five major communities from the graveyards, namely, (1) Ficus-Bougainvillea-Chenopodium, (2) Acacia-Datura-Convolvulus, (3) Ziziphus-Vitex-Abutilon, (4) Acacia-Lantana-Salsola, and (5) Melia-Rhazya-Peganum. Regarding the conservation role of graveyards, Populus euphratica, Capparis decidua, Salvadora oleoides, and Herniaria hirsuta were plant species only conserved inside graveyards rather than outside these areas. Low electrical conductivity, age of graveyards, higher chlorine concentration, low anthropogenic pressure, calcium-magnesium concentration, higher nitrogen, and sandy soils were strong environmental variables which play a key role in graveyard plant cover, its associated indicators, and species dispersal patterns. This phenomenon could be used further to initiate the role of climatic and edaphic factors, identification of indicator species, and conservation/management practices of other places.
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This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical, phytochemical, in vitro antidiabetic and anticancer potential of Olea ferruginea R bark. After extraction using Soxhlet, in vitro antidiabetic and cytotoxic activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells was assessed by nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin assay, alpha-amylase inhibition assay, glucose uptake by yeast cells, and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, respectively, and gene expression via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Primary and secondary metabolites were present in the extractants; polyphenols (35.61 ± 0.03) and flavonoids (64.33 ± 0.35 ) in the chloroform; and polysaccharides in the ethanol (268.75 ± 0.34), and glycosaponins (78.01 ± 0.07) in the methanol. The chloroform extract exhibited maximum antidiabetic potential, showing inhibition of nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin (65%), and alpha-amylase inhibition (32%) with maximum percent glucose uptake by the ethanol extract (78%). Only the ethanol extract had dose-dependent cytotoxic potential against the HepG2 cells. After 24-h exposure to the ethanol-extract, the expression of protein kinase B (Akt) remained unchanged, while the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) and BCL2 associated X (BAX) changed significantly. After 48-h exposure, the expression of Akt decreased significantly, while that of BCL2 and BAX increased significantly. Olea ferruginea R bark possessed in vitro antidiabetic potential and anticancer/cytotoxic effects, attributable to the decline in the prosurvival signals of the Akt signaling pathway.
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A quantitative sampling of 25 mature kauri stands, throughout the species natural limits, was carried out. Each kauri stand is described in terms of its phytosociological attributes (frequency, density and basal area) for kauri and associated canopy and subcanopy species. A species list of plants under 10cm dbh is also given with their relative frequencies in each stand. In all stands kauri comprises most of the basal area. It is associated with 10 different co-dominant species. However, most of the forests have a similar species composition. It is suggested that all these kauri forest samples belong to one overall association.
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Phytosociological sampling, structure, age and growth rates studies were carried out in 5 places of Dangam District of Afghanistan. Vegetation compositions of non tree species were also presented. On the basis of floristic composition and importance value index of tree species, two monospecific and one bispecific communities were recognized in the study area. It is shown that in Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss., Dbh, age and growth rates are not significantly correlated. Lack of tree seedlings indicate poor regeneration status of the forests.
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A phytosociological study of Pinus roxburghii was undertaken in Lesser Himalayan and Hindu Kush range of Pakistan during summer 2005. Thirteen stands were sampled at five different locations i.e., Mansehra, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Swat and Lower Dir ranging from 750 - 1700 meters elevation. P. roxburghii was forming pure vegetation in 12 stands but in one location, it was associated with some angiospermic tree species. Quantitative attributes viz. relative density, relative frequency and relative basal area and absolute values were calculated. Circular plots were used to assess the vegetation association on the forest floor. Pine seedlings were recorded in nine stands. The common angiospermic species were found in association with Chir pine like Dodonaea viscosa, Punica granatum, Erodium cicutarium, Medicago denticulate and Vicia sativa. The most rare species encountered were Ailanthus altissima, Daphne mucronata, Melia azedirach, Potentilla nepalensis, Urtica dioica and Olea ferruginea. It was also observed that the studied forests are unstable and degraded and would be vanished if not maintained properly.
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A quantitative phytosociological survey was conducted in 184 sampling stands in various climatic zones of Himalayan forests of Pakistan. Based on floristic composition and importance value, 24 different communities and 4 monospecific forest vegetations were recognized. Quantitative description and their population structure are presented. Many communities show similar floristic composition, however, differ in quantitative values. Vegetation of forests ground flora is also presented.
60 monospecific stands of Juniperus excelsa were sampled at four locations in Balouchistan. Density, basal area and height of individuals were recorded. Soils were analysed for selected physical and chemical characteristics and the degree of disturbance due to logging and burning was noted.The density of juniper trees (> 6 cm dbh) ranged from 56 to 332 stems / ha (average 174 stems / ha). Higher densities were recorded for relatively undisturbed stands and on west facing slopes. Density of seedlings and saplings (< 6 cm dbh) was strongly correlated with tree density and tree basal area. Among the edaphic variables CaC03 was correlated with juniper density and basal area. Diameter distributions within stands were mostly skewed and unimodal with gaps appearing in large size classes. The male to female ratio was close to 1.Cross-sections of 16 trees were used to determine age and growth rate. Number of rings in trees with 20 to 30 cm dbh ranged from 95 to 221 (x = 160 ± 38). Diameter and age were not related. Mean annual diameter increment ranged from 6 to 16 yr / cm x = 10 ± 3 yr / cm). It is concluded that size class gaps and low seedling / sapling densities are the consequence of anthropogenic disturbance.
44 forest stands, including 42 stands with Pinus gerardiana Wall, ex Lamb dominant and two stands with broad-leaved trees, were sampled in the Suleiman Range in Balouchistan. Density oi Pinus gerardiana trees ranged from 24 to 930 trees / ha with a mean of 266 individuals / ha; the average basal area was 25.5 m2 ha-1.Adequate recruitment of Pinus seedlings was observed; higher seedling density is recorded from east-facing slopes, while tree density was higher on west-facing slopes.The average growth rate was estimated as 0.08 cm / yr radial growth. However, trees on high elevations and cooler slopes grow faster.Soil variables showed no correlation with density, basal area or importance values. It is suggested that the present degraded stage of the forests in the study area is of anthropogenic origin.
Acacia senegal (L) Willd. is a small sized tree species of Tropical arid region of Southern West Pakistan. It is well-known for producing gum arabic. Fruits from dry streams with loamy sand soil type were of bigger size whereas seed output per pod and seed weight were higher in hilly regions. The seeds possess external dormancy (seed coat), which can be broken by mechanical and chemical scarification, water (cold and boiling) and dark treatments. Seeds gave high percentage of germination in fine sand in pot culture. Germination percentage was high in May–July. The growth rate of seedlings both in pot culture and field conditions was high in April, May, June and July. Seeds collected from different localities showed considerable variation in germination capacity. Percentage and rate of germination increased with the lapse of time. Correlation of growth and abundance ofAcacia senegal was found with topography, soil texture, soil structure, soil consistence, maximum water holding capacity, wilting coefficient (sub-surface soil), soil carbonates (surface soil) soil pH (surface soil) and community associates. The plant can be propagated by shoot cuttings. Smaller and thinner cuttings are easily propagated. The plant is infested by Buffaloe tree hopper and is also infected byCladosporium herbarum. Occasionally seedlings are attacked byFusarium sp. The relative turgidity of branches was found to be high throughout the study period, but the leaves showed considerable variation.
Multivariate analysis of forests dominated by Agathis australis Salisb, in New Zealand
  • M Ahmed
Ahmed, M. 1988. Multivariate analysis of forests dominated by Agathis australis Salisb, in New Zealand. Pak. J. Bot., 20(1): 125-142