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Stretch shorten cycle performance enhancement through flexibility training

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Stretch shorten cycle performance enhancement through flexibility training

Abstract

Sixteen experienced male powerlifters served as subjects in a training study designed to examine the effect of flexibility training on: (i) the stiffness of the series elastic components (SEC) of the upper body musculature and (ii) rebound and purely concentric bench press performance. Nine of the subjects participated in two sessions of flexibility training twice per week for 8 wk. Prior to and after the training period the subjects' static flexibility, SEC stiffness, rebound bench press (RBP), and purely concentric bench press (PCBP) performance were recorded. The flexibility training induced a significant reduction in the maximal stiffness of the SEC. Furthermore, the experimental subjects produced significantly more work during the initial concentric portion of the RBP lift, enabling a significantly greater load to be lifted in the post-training testing occasion. The benefits to performance achieved by the experimental group consequent to flexibility training were greater during the RBP lift as compared with the PCBP lift. The control subjects exhibited no change in any variable over the training period. These results implied that the RBP performance enhancement observed consequent to flexibility training was directly caused by a reduction in SEC stiffness, increasing the utilization of elastic strain energy during the RBP lift.
... Additionally, Mann and Jones (1999) related long-term DS with enhanced balance, kinesthetic, proprioception, and pre-activation abilities, all of vital importance for any sports activity. Moreover, long-term DS seems to decrease the energy cost of exercise (Weber and Kraus, 1949), while encouraging the reuse of the elastic strain energy (Wilson et al., 1992). According to Shellock and Prentice (1985), DS elevates muscle temperature by inducing rapid, dynamic, and explosive muscle contractions during the jumps. ...
... Regarding the aforementioned results, similar findings were noted in the SS and control groups. It is argued however, that stretching exercises reduce the risk of injury (Wilson et al., 1992) and have been proposed to increase the range of motion about a joint, and therefore they are preferred to no stretching, despite the results herein. Moreover, the DS group results were superior to the SS ones, however the total DS stretching time was equal to that of the SS protocol used within this study. ...
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In the literature, a limited number of trials have examined the long-term effects of static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) protocols on the physical performance, while their results appear to be ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the longitudinal effects of a SS and a DS protocol, on the jumping ability of recreational male volleyball athletes. A total of 50 adult male recreational volleyball players, apparently healthy volunteers, were randomized into three intervention groups: a) the first implemented a SS protocol 3 times/week, b) the second followed a DS program in the same frequency, while c) the third one formed the control group, refraining from practicing in any stretching exercises. All groups participated in a 6-week intervention and the baseline and final countermovement jump field tests. Eight participants were excluded from the final sample due to injuries or other problems, thus, the final sample consisted of 42 athletes (14 in each group). Greater post-test jump heights were noted in the DS group (p0.025, d=0.678) in comparison to the pre-test values. A large height × group interaction was observed in the jump tests (p0.028, η 2 =0.651), with the DS group values being greater post-intervention in comparison to the baseline, while no differences were pointed out in either the SS or the control group. Therefore, the implementation of a 6-week DS intervention, at a frequency of 3 sessions/week, is efficient in improving the countermovement jump height of recreational male volleyball players, under the same circumstances, as determined in the protocol herein.
... This in-cludes moist heat packs, ultrasonic therapy, constant passive motion, stretching, MET, or a combination of these methods. 22,23,24 The stretching technique used and widely accepted proved to be beneficial in increasing flexibility 22 . Similarly, athletes used the stretching to elongate the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) at the end range of motion and holding that stretch for up to one minute before relaxing, and then repeated this stretch several times. ...
... While osteopaths and other manual therapists use MET extensively, there is insufficient research aiding and validating its theories and use to explain the effects of MET. 24,30 Furthermore, many studies have reported on the effectiveness of MET and the contract-relax technique in increasing flexibility of the hamstring muscle. [31][32][33][34] The results of the above-mentioned studies are more or less conflicting, so this study aims to establish the effectiveness of MET and static stretching in increasing the muscle flexibility of the triceps surae and also to investigate which technique is more effective. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to observe the influence of two manual techniques in improving the flexibility of the triceps surae muscle in working females wearing high heels. Methods: This study is based on a pretest-posttest experimental control group design, which included forty-five working females wearing high heels. All the participants were assigned randomly into three groups A, B and C. Group A received a hot pack treatment for 20 minutes followed by a Muscle Energy Technique (MET) which was repeated four times (10-second contraction, 5-second relaxation). Group B received a hot pack intervention for 20 minutes followed by static stretching which was repeated five times (30-second hold, 15-second rest between each repetition). Group C received only a hot pack intervention for 20 minutes. Active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADFROM) on day 1 pre-intervention (baseline) and post-intervention on Day 1, 3, 5 and 8 was taken as an outcome measure. Results: For the variable ADFROM, the data analysis showed insignificant differences (p<0.05) between and within the groups at Day 1 post-intervention and when comparing the scores at Day 1 post-intervention with baseline scores respectively. Additionally, both experimental groups A and B showed a significant difference (p>0.05) against control group C, though an insignificant difference (p<0.05) between them at Day 5 post-intervention and the Day 8 follow-up, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that both manual techniques are equally effective in improving the flexibility of the triceps surae muscle in working females wearing high heels. Key Words: Flexibility, Muscle Energy Technique, Static stretching, Triceps surae muscle. Footwear, Manual therapy
... Por último, la inclusión del entrenamiento de la flexibilidad en los programas de acondicionamiento se soporta en la creciente evidencia de sus beneficios múltiples, incluyendo, mejora de la amplitud del movimiento articular y su función 237,238 y para mejorar el rendimiento muscular [239][240][241] . Además, aunque hay una falta de estudios aleatorizados, los ensayos clínicos controlados, han definido los beneficios de aplicar la flexibilidad en la prevención y el tratamiento de lesiones musculoesqueléticas y los estudios observacionales se extienden en ambas de estas aplicaciones 242,243 . ...
... Estudios han sugerido que los ejercicios de estiramiento puede mejorar el rendimiento muscular [239][240][241] . Además, de la relación directa entre la baja flexibilidad y las consiguientes lesiones en las unidades musculotendinosa, como tendón de aquiles 248 , la fascia plantar 249 y los tendones isquiotibiales 250,251 . ...
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EFECTOS EN LA CONDICIÓN FÍSICA DE LA POBLACIÓN QUE ASISTE AL PROGRAMA “NEIVA ACTIVA E INCLUYENTE” – COLOMBIA Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en la condición física de la población que asiste al Programa “Neiva Activa e Incluyente”. Métodos: La investigación tuvo un enfoque cuantitativo con un diseño cuasi - experimental con pretest – postest y grupo de control. La variable independiente fue el Programa de Acondicionamiento Físico y las variables dependientes fueron los componentes de la condición física (a. composición corporal: peso corporal, índice de masa corporal, índice de cintura cadera y porcentaje de grasa; b. Aptitud cardiorrespiratoria: Pulso en reposo, Tensión arterial sistólica, Tensión arterial diastólica, Consumo máximo de oxigeno, Percepción del esfuerzo y Porcentaje de recuperación; c. Resistencia de la musculatura abdominal; y, d. Flexibilidad). Al grupo experimental se le realizaron tres valoraciones, una inicial, otra a la 4ª semana de haber iniciado el programa y una final a la 8ª semana; mientras al grupo control se le efectuaron dos, el inicial y un postest a la 8ª semana. Es importante subrayar, que el grupo experimental se dividió en tres subgrupos a quienes se les aplicó el mismo programa de acondicionamiento físico pero a diferente intensidad, de la siguiente manera: Grupo Experimental 1 (GE1), quienes trabajaron a una intensidad entre el 50% al 64% de la Frecuencia Cardiaca Máxima (FCmáx) (n=265); Grupo Experimental 2 (GE2), intensidad entre el 65% al 74% de la FCmáx (n=264); y el Grupo Experimental 3 (GE3), intensidad entre el 75% al 90% de la FCmáx (n=243). El programa se llevó a cabo con una Frecuencia de 5 días a la semana; con 8 semanas de Duración del programa y de 60 minutos cada sesión. La muestra fue representativa no probabilística y estuvo compuesta por 972 sujetos (772 sujetos fueron del grupo experimental y 200 del grupo control; dicha muestra tuvo un Nivel de confianza el 95% (t=1,96); Probabilidad positiva (P=52%); y Error relativo del 6% (Ɛ=0,03) y estuvo conformada por hombres y mujeres entre 18 y 75 años de edad que asistían por primera vez al programa “Neiva Activa e Incluyente”. Al llegar a la valoración los sujetos ingresaban al consultorio previamente acondicionado para este fin, y esta incluyó una toma de datos generales (anamnesis y ficha de registro; y ya luego se hacía la toma de la frecuencia cardiaca con un Monitor de Ritmo Cardiaco (Polar F11 o Polar – E.U.); tensión arterial, con un equipo electrónico semiautomático (OMRON 75CP – E.U.); para la valoración antropométrica se utilizaron las técnicas de medición recomendadas por la Sociedad Internacional para el Avance de la Cineantropometría (Internacional Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry – ISAK), registrando un total de 20 medidas; la valoración físico – funcional, incluyó el test de resistencia cardiovascular (Test de Rockport); se evalúo la percepción del esfuerzo mediante la Escala de esfuerzo percibido; la resistencia musculatura abdominal (Test de Abdominales en 1min); y por último, se evalúo la Flexibilidad (test de sit and reach). Para el análisis de datos utilizó el programa SPSS Versión 17; se aplicó un estadístico para comparar la medición inicial de las variables dependientes con respecto a los grupos (experimental – control) donde se pudo evidenciar el rechazo o no de la hipótesis nula para todas las variable mediante la Prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), se realizó una comparación al grupo experimental con la prueba T2 de Hotelling multivariada pareada a la cuarta semana (Test 1 y Test 2) y otra a la octava semana, al grupo experimental y control (Test 1 y Test 3); se corroboran los resultados con pruebas individuales de Bonferroni, comparando en cada caso el efecto producido con el grupo experimental a la cuarta semana y luego se incluye el grupo control para comparar el efecto producido a la octava semana; posteriormente se compararon en la octava semana, el grupo experimental (considerando los 3 subgrupos – los cuales ejecutaron el programa de acondicionamiento físico a una intensidad diferente) y el grupo control con una MANOVA, para observar las diferencias significativas en el grupo experimental y el grupo control, lo que permitió establecer en cual subgrupo se observaron los mejores resultados del programa de acondicionamiento físico. En cada uno de los ensayos se controló la varianza con la prueba de Levene y la prueba de Esfericidad con el fin de dar seguridad de los supuestos sobre las técnicas aplicadas y resaltando claramente los efectos de interés sin ningún sesgo. Resultados: Se evidenciaron diferencias significativas en el grupo experimental a la 4ª y 8ª semana post ejecución del programa en comparación con el grupo control en las variables de composición corporal y somatotipo, al comparar los resultados obtenidos con el programa de acondicionamiento físico en diferentes intensidades, se optó por la prueba de comparación de Hotelling con nivel corregido por Bonferroni la cual determinó que los mejores resultados en las variables que hacen parte de la composición corporal y somatotipo se presentaron en el GE1. Las variables de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria (Pulso en reposo; Tensión Arterial Sistólica (mmHg); Tensión Arterial Diastólica (mmHg); VO2máx. (ml•kg-1•min-1); Esfuerzo Percibido y el Porcentaje de Recuperación) a la prueba individual de Bonferroni mostró diferencias significativas en todas ellas, entre los test 1 y test 2; y en el test 1 y el test 3 a excepción del pulso en reposo, mientras la prueba de comparación de Hotelling con nivel corregido por Bonferroni determinó que los mejores resultados en las variables que hacen parte de la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria se presentaron en el GE3. La resistencia de la musculatura abdominal arrojó diferencias significativas en el grupo experimental a la cuarta y octava semana post ejecución del programa de acondicionamiento físico, siendo los mejores resultados los del GE3 que trabajo con intensidades del 75% al 90% de la FCmáx. La flexibilidad evidenció diferencias significativas en el grupo experimental a la octava semana post ejecución del programa de acondicionamiento físico, siendo los mejores resultados los del GE3. Conclusiones: Como primera conclusión se resalta la selección de las rutinas y actividades que a pesar de su sencillez, conservaron el rigor cientifico para la implementación del programa correspondiente a este tipo de estudio, además de responder a aspectos contextuales de la ciudad e idiosincrasia de los usuarios del programa; se encontraron diferencias significativas (p<0,05) en los parámetros de la condición física de la población que asiste al programa “Neiva Activa e Incluyente” entre los valores del pretest y postest; sin embargo es relevante encontrar en el estudio, que componentes de la condición física como la aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, resistencia muscular y flexibilidad obtuvieron una notable mejoría utilizando intensidades altas, y por el contrario la composición corporal y el somatotipo mejoraron con intensidades leves y moderadas. Lo cual contrasta con recomendaciones de instituciones de evidente rigor investigativo como la ACMS dada la pertinencia de sus investigaciones en la sociedad americana y el recurso científico a su disposición. El hallazgo del presente estudio es un aporte que permite de manera segura prescribir actividades en el programa de acondicionamiento físico siguiendo principios del entrenamiento deportivo que eran considerados pertinentes sólo para la élite del alto rendimiento y cuestionados para la gran masa de la población en programas de promoción y protección de la salud. Palabras clave: Actividad física, condición física, salud, valoración.
... Concerning other chronic flexibility treatments, such as static stretch training, previous studies report conflicting results on performance parameters. While some report no significant changes [12,13,[36][37][38], others report an increase in performance parameters [15,[39][40][41][42][43]. However, in most of the studies which reported an increase in performance, either an inactive population was used as a sample [39], or a high volume or high intensity stretching protocol was applied [14,15]. ...
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Foam rolling (FR) is a new and popular technique for increasing range of motion. While there are a few studies that demonstrate increased performance measures after an acute bout of FR, the overall evidence indicates trivial performance benefits. As there have been no meta-analyses on the effects of chronic FR on performance, the objective of this systematic meta-analytical review was to quantify the effects of FR training on performance. We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science for FR training studies with a duration greater than two weeks, and found eight relevant studies. We used a random effect meta-analysis that employed a mixed-effect model to identify subgroup analyses. GRADE analysis was used to gauge the quality of the evidence obtained from this meta-analysis. Egger’s regression intercept test (intercept 1.79; p = 0.62) and an average PEDro score of 6.25 (±0.89) indicated no or low risk of reporting bias, respectively. GRADE analysis indicated that we can be moderately confident in the effect estimates. The meta-analysis found no significant difference between FR and control conditions (ES = −0.294; p = 0.281; I2 = 73.68). Analyses of the moderating variables showed no significant differences between randomized control vs. controlled trials (Q = 0.183; p = 0.67) and no relationship between ages (R2 = 0.10; p = 0.37), weeks of intervention (R2 = 0.17; p = 0.35), and total load of FR (R2 = 0.24; p = 0.11). In conclusion, there were no significant performance changes with FR training and no specific circumstances leading to performance changes following FR training exceeding two weeks.
... Improvements in range of motion have also been associated with reductions in MTU stiffness (Wilson, Elliott and Wood, 1992). In theory, football players tested clinically possessing a lower range of motion may be stiffer and spend on average more time in lengths past optimal during sprint related football tasks, increasing the strain injury risk. ...
Thesis
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Despite efforts to intervene, hamstring muscle injuries (HMI) continue to be one of the largest epidemiological burdens in professional football. The injury mechanism takes place dominantly during sprinting, but also other scenarios have been observed, such as overstretching actions, jumps, and change of directions. The main biomechanical roles of the hamstring muscles are functioning as an accelerator of center-of-mass (i.e., contributing to horizontal force production), and stabilizing the pelvis and knee joint. Multiple extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been identified, portraying the multifactorial nature of the HMI. Furthermore, these risk factors can vary substantially between players, portraying the importance of individualized approaches. However, there is a lack of multifactorial and individualized approaches assessed for validity in literature. Thus, the overarching aim of this doctoral thesis was to explore if a specific multifactorial and individualized approach can improve upon the ongoing HMI risk reduction protocols, and thus, further reduce the HMI risk in professional football players. This was done following the Team-sport Injury Prevention model (TIP model), where the target is to evaluate the current injury burden, identify possible solutions, and intervene. The thesis comprised of three themes within professional football, I) evaluating and identifying HMI risk (completed via assessing the current epidemiological HMI situation and the association between HMI injuries and a novel hamstring screening protocol), II) improving horizontal force capacity (completed via testing if maximal theoretical horizontal force (F0) can be improved via heavy resisted sprint training), and III) developing and conducting a multifactorial and individualized training for HMI risk reduction (completed via introducing and conducting a training intervention). The conclusions from theme I were that the HMI burden continues to be high (14.1 days absent per 1000 hours of football exposure), no tests from the screening protocol were associated with an increased HMI risk when including all injuries from the season (n = 17, p > 0.05), and that lower F0 was significantly associated with increased HMI risk when including injuries between test rounds one and two (~90 days, n =14, hazard ratio: 4.02 (CI95% 1.08 to 15.0), p = 0.04). For theme II, the players initial pre-season level of F0 was significantly associated with adaptation potential after 11 weeks of heavy resisted sprint training during the pre-season (r = -0.59, p < 0.05). The heavy resisted sprint load leading to a ~50% velocity loss induced the largest improvements in sprint mechanical output and sprint performance variables. For theme III, no intervention results could be presented within this document due to the Covid-19 pandemic leading to the intervention being postponed. However, a protocol paper was published, describing in detail the intervention approach that will be used outside the scope of the thesis. In future studies, larger sample size studies are needed to support the development of more advanced HMI risk reduction models. Such models may allow practitioners to identify risk on an individual level instead of a group level. Furthermore, constant development of more specific, reliable, and accessible risk assessment tests should be promoted that can be frequently tested throughout the football season. Finally, based on the results of theme II, individualization of a specific training stimulus should be promoted in team settings.
... Although, stretching will not decrease the incidence of all-cause injuries (Behm et al., 2016;McHugh and Cosgrave, 2010;Pope et al., 1998;Shrier, 1999), it has been reported to decrease the prevalence of musculotendinous injuries (Behm et al., 2016;Smith, 1994). Furthermore, chronic stretching has been shown to improve (Lima et al., 22019a;2019b;Mizuno, 2019;Nelson et al., 2012;Wilson et al., 1992;Yahata et al., 2021), impair (Barbosa et al., 2020) and have no significant effect on strength measures (Sato et al., 2020). Similarly, stretch training research also demonstrates either improvement (Handrakis et al., 2010;Lima et al., 2019a;2019b) or no significant change (Bazett-Jones et al., 2008;Donti et al., 2021;Gunaydin et al., 2020) in jump performance. ...
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Although stretching is recommended for fitness and health, there is little research on the effects of different stretching routines on hemodynamic responses of senior adults. It is not clear whether stretching can be considered an aerobic exercise stimulus or may be contraindicated for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three stretching techniques; contract/relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), passive straight-leg raise (SLR), and static sit-and-reach (SR) on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in senior athletes (119 participants: 65.6 ± 7.6 yrs.). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR measurements were taken at baseline (after 5-minutes in a supine position), 45 and 90-seconds, during the stretch, and 2-minutes after stretching. Within each stretching group, (SLR, PNF, and SR) DBP, MAP and HR at pre-test and 2-min post-stretch were lower than at 45-s and 90-s during the stretch. SLR induced smaller increases in DBP and MAP than PNF and SR, whereas PNF elicited lower HR responses than SR. In conclusion, trained senior adult athletes experienced small to moderate magnitude increases of hemodynamic responses with SLR, SR and PNF stretching, which recovered to baseline values within 2-min after stretching. Furthermore, the passive SLR induced smaller increases in BP than PNF and SR, while PNF elicited lower HR responses than SR. These increases in hemodynamic responses (HR and BP) were not of a magnitude to be clinically significant, provide an aerobic exercise stimulus or warrant concerns for most senior athletes.
... Flexibility training is a significant component of all training programs which require systematic progression based on continuous exercise. The optimal model of flexibility training consists of three phases: corrective, active, and functional flexibility (Wilson, Elliott, & Wood, 1992;Alter, 1996;Halbertsma, Van Bulhuis, & Goeken, 1996). ...
Article
Flexibility is a basic motor ability that significantly improves overall motor efficiency and reduces the possibility of muscle and joint injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Pilates exercise with a Swiss ball on flexibility development among female students. The sample of 45 participants, aged 19 to 22 years, was divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group took part in a 12-week Pilates exercise with a Swiss ball, with a frequency of three training sessions with one hour of exercise per week. The control group was not involved in the training process. For flexibility assessment, four tests were applied (Sit and Reach, Straddle in Supine Position, Leg Lift from Supine Position and Backward Leg Lift from a Prone Position). The results of the multivariate analysis of covariance showed that there is a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Univariate results showed significant differences in all flexibility variables. The authors conclude that the Pilates program with a ball has significantly improved the flexibility of the female students.
... Studies conducted in the dynamic and static stretching are said to create similar effects. However, it is clearly mentioned in the books and articles that chronically applied studies have controversial results and that chronic studies have negative effects on muscle structure (16). ...
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Objective: This study was carried out to determine the differences between exercises of women in different age groups. Material and Methods: Aerobic exercise was administered to 20 exercise and control groups each at ages ranging between 17-24 and 3045. Before and after the study, Sit and Reach Test, Shuttle test, BMI measure were carried out. Results: In terms of BMI, there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test and there was no difference in BMI between middle-age exercise and young age exercise and young age control group. When all age groups were evaluated in terms of shuttle movement, no difference was found between exercise groups, and there was a significant difference between exercise and control groups. It was observed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test in terms of the length of the long jump and double leg sit length test and there was a significant increase in the elasticity values of the exercise groups in the scale score. Conclusion: This study showed that the flexibility of join to movement of the individuals can be improved with the appropriate stretching exercises after warming, and that these exercises can be applied in every age group. Key words: Aerobic Exercise, Flexibility, Women
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The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to assess the available body of published peer-reviewed articles related on the effects of jump rope training (JRT) compared with active/passive controls on health- and sport-related physical fitness outcomes. Searches were conducted in three databases, including studies that satisfied the following criteria: i) healthy participants; ii) a JRT programprogramme; iii) active or traditional control group; iv) at least one measure related to health- and sport-related physical fitness; v) multi-arm trials. The random-effects model was used for the meta-analyses. Twenty-one moderate-high quality (i.e., PEDro scale) studies were meta-analysed, involving 1,021 participants (male, 50.4%). Eighteen studies included participants with a mean age <18 years old. The duration of the JRT interventions ranged from 6 to 40 weeks. Meta-analyses revealed improvements (i.e., p = 0.048 to <0.001; ES = 0.23-1.19; I2 = 0.0-76.9%) in resting heart rate, body mass index, fat mass, cardiorespiratory endurance, lower- and upper-body maximal strength, jumping, range of motion, and sprinting. No significant JRT effects were noted for systolic-diastolic blood pressure, waist-hip circumference, bone or lean mass, or muscle endurance. In conclusion, JRT, when compared to active and passive controls, provides a range of small-moderate benefits that span health- and sport-related physical fitness outcomes.
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La Actividad Física(AF) entendida como aquel movimiento corporal producido por los músculos esqueléticos y que tiene como resultado un gasto energético que se añade al metabolismo basal (Gálvez, y otros, 2001; Martínez-González & Guillén Grima, 1999), en las dos últimas décadas, constituye uno de los principales triunfos de un estilo de vida saludable y de una verdadera protección y promoción de la salud. Diversos estudios científicos han demostrado que la práctica habitual de AF regular proporciona importantes beneficios en la salud (Carpersen, Powell, & Christenson, 1985; Corbin, 2008; Balius Juli, 1989; Andersen & Haradsodóttir, 1995; Eaton, Lapane, Garber, Assaf, Lasater, & Carleton, 1995; Oja, 1995; Pate, 1995; Young, Sharp, & Curb, 1995; Myers, Strikmiller, Webber, & Berenson, 1996; Pate, Heath, Dowda, & Trost, 1996; Sánchez Bañuelos, 1996; Raitakari, Taimela, Porkka, Telama, Välimäki, & Akerblom, 1997; Boreham, Twist, & Savage, 1997; Perula de Torres, Lluch, Ruiz Moral, Espejo Espejo, Tapia, & Mengual Luque, 1998; Graf, Bjarnason-Wehresn, & Rost, 2001; Boreham, Twisk, Murray, Savage, & Strain-Cran, 2001) y de igual manera, la relación que su ausencia mantiene con el desarrollo, mantenimiento y agravamiento de diversas enfermedades crónicas.
Article
Static stretching - the slow, gradual pulling, holding, and releasing of specific muscle groups - has superseded ballistic-type calisthenics in the regimen of flexibility training for many athletes from grade school to the professional. Indeed, flexibility itself, for years the overlooked sibling of strength, endurance, and speed, has come to be appreciated for its own virtues as an aid to overall physical performance and as a protection against muscle soreness and injury. Even with all the attention now given to stretching exercises, many experts say athletes are too tight. Physicians can help by telling their patients both the why and how of flexibility exercises.