Synthesis and stereochemistry of highly crowded N-benzylpiperidones
A series of N-benzylated 3,5-diakyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones 4-8 were conveniently synthesized in significant yields of 68-88% by N-benzylation of the corresponding 2,6-diaryl-3,5-dimethylpiperidin-4-ones 1-3 using different benzyl bromides. Initially, the new piperidone 2,6-bis(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3,5-dimethylpiperidin-4-one 3 was synthesized by the condensation of 1:1:2 M ratio of 3-pentanone, ammonium acetate and para-ethoxybenzaldehyde in ethanolic medium. All the synthesized new compounds 3-8 were characterized by their analytical and spectral (IR, 1H and 13C NMR) interpretations. The stereochemistry of the new piperidone 3 was elucidated as chair conformation with an equatorial orientation of all substituents, suggested by its vicinal couplings from 1H NMR spectrum. To investigate the impact on piperidone stereochemistry as well as NMR chemical shifts, all the N-benzylated products 4-8 were compared with their corresponding precursors, and as a result, it is clearly established that all the synthesized N-benzyl piperidones exist in the chair conformation with an equatorial orientation of all the substituents at C-2, C-3, C-5, C-6 and N. Contrary to the probability all N-benzylated compounds retain the same conformation and configuration as their precursors, however, a remarkable change on the chemical shifts are observed. For the further unambiguous confirmation of stereochemistry, the 1-benzyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one 4 was examined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound 4, C26H27NO, crystallized in a P-1 space group under triclinic system with unit cell dimensions a, b, c (Å) and α, β, γ (°) of 10.1562(7), 11.0018(7), 11.3476(8) and 116.7440(10), 100.8070(10), 100.1730(10), respectively.
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