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Analogy as the Core of Cognition

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... Douglas Hofstadter goes so far as to define concepts by this property: "a concept is a package of analogies." 52 Humans' abilities for abstraction and analogy are at the root of many of our most important cognitive capacities, and the lack of these abilities is at least partly responsible for current AI's brittleness and its difficulty in adapting knowledge and representations to new situations. Today's state-ofthe-art AI systems often struggle in transferring what they have learned to situations outside their training regimes, 79 they make unexpected and unhumanlike errors, 1 and they are vulnerable to "adversarial examples" in a very unhumanlike way. ...
... 6,27,59,64,66 Others have argued that concept formation, abstraction, and adaptation are all undergirded by processes of analogy-the act of perceiving essential similarities between entities or situations. 40,52,54 Understanding what concepts are-how they are formed, how they can be abstracted and flexibly used in new situations, how they can be composed to produce new concepts-is not only key to a deeper understanding of intelligence, but will be essential for engineering nonbrittle AI systems, ones that can abstract, robustly generalize, resist adversarial inputs, and adapt what they have learned to diverse domains and modalities. ...
... These examples illustrate two important facts: (1) analogy-making is not a rare and exalted form of reasoning, but rather a constant, ubiquitous, and lifelong mode of thinking; (2) analogy is a key aspect not only of reasoning but also of flexible categorization, concept formation, abstraction, and counterfactual inference. 40,48,52,102 In short, analogy is a central mechanism for unlocking meaning from perception. ...
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ion and analogy-making are key abilities underlying humans' abilities to learn, reason, and robustly adapt their knowledge to new domains. Despite of a long history of research on constructing AI systems with these abilities, no current AI system is anywhere close to a capability of forming humanlike abstractions or analogies. This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of several approaches toward this goal, including symbolic methods, deep learning, and probabilistic program induction. The paper concludes with several proposals for designing challenge tasks and evaluation measures in order to make quantifiable and generalizable progress in this area.
... This is particularly evident in the case of children whose memory is of limited time scope and lengthens with the years of age. (See also [38]). On the other hand, what kind of an algorithm could regulate its memory according to its knowledge if not a self-editing one. ...
... On the other hand, what kind of an algorithm could regulate its memory according to its knowledge if not a self-editing one. The same reasoning can provide a plausible cause for the following phenomenon: It is a common knowledge, as noticed also in [38], that the subjective perception of elapsed time shortens with age. In the frame of the theory that is presented here, a plausible explanation would be that in the course of time less self evolution occurs, as the later approaches its upper limit, and on the other hand it occurs a better understanding of the environment, thus less environmental facts to be related to the self and between them. ...
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This is the (hopefully) final version of the paper "On the hard problem of consciousness" .
... Associations also reflect the probability of co-occurrence of two items (Anderson, 1996) and prepares the cognitive system for faster information processing. The associative organization of the memory is naturally linked to the context sensitivity, which is a necessary condition for having both flexible and effective cognition (Hofstadter, 2001;Petrov, 2013). For a system to be flexible, it should be able, at least in principle, to explore huge number of opportunities. ...
... (1) When the model is instantiated, its knowledge consists of hand-coded semantic and episodic agents, resembling the type-token differentiation (see Kahneman and Treisman, 1984). Each agent carries knowledge about a single distinct entity (Hofstadter, 2001). (2) The agents are connected to each other with various types of links, thus, composing structural descriptions. ...
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Relational categories are structure-based categories, defined not only by their internal properties but also by their extrinsic relations with other categories. For example, predator could not be defined without referring to hunt and prey. Even though they are commonly used, there are few models taking into account any relational information. A category learning and categorization model aiming to fill this gap is presented. Previous research addresses the hypothesis that the acquisition and the use of relational categories are underlined by structural alignment. That is why the proposed RoleMap model is based on mechanisms often studied as the analogy-making sub-processes, developed on a suitable for this cognitive architecture. RoleMap is conceived in such a way that relation-based category learning and categorization emerge while other tasks are performed. The assumption it steps on is that people constantly make structural alignments between what they experience and what they know. During these alignments various mappings and anticipations emerge. The mappings capture commonalities between the target (the representation of the current situation) and the memory, while the anticipations try to fill the missing information in the target, based on the conceptual system. Because some of the mappings are highly important, they are transformed into a distributed representation of a new concept for further use, which denotes the category learning. When some knowledge is missing in the target, meaning it is uncategorized, that knowledge is transferred from memory in the form of anticipations. The wining anticipation is transformed into a category member, denoting the act of categorization. The model’s behavior emerges from the competition between these two pressures – to categorize and to create new categories. Several groups of simulations demonstrate that the model can deal with relational categories in a context-dependent manner and to account for single-shot learning, challenging most of the existing approaches to category learning. The model also simulates previous empirical data pointing to the thematic categories and to the puzzling inverse base-rate effect. Finally, the model’s strengths and limitations are evaluated.
... Las ciencias cognitivas suelen asumir que las correspondencias o transferencias que se establecen entre elementos constitutivos de los dominios son de naturaleza similar a la analogía (Gentner et al., 2001) o incluso que la MC no es otra cosa que una forma de analogía (Hofstadter, 2001). Las analogías (y en consecuencia las MCs) no necesariamente están motivadas por una similitud real entre los dominios, sino por una percepción de similitud causada por asunciones o creencias, que pueden ser de tipo cultural. ...
... Para Hofstadter (2001) la analogía sería el núcleo de la cognición y el mecanismo que hace posible el razonamiento, ya que además de ser responsable de la transferencia de estructura entre conceptos o categorías mentales, lo es de su activación en la memoria a largo plazo. Por su parte la TMC postula que el pensamiento es de naturaleza fundamentalmente metafórica (Lakoff y Johnson, 1980, p. 3), lo que resulta congruente con la antes citada equiparación entre MC y analogía y la propuesta de Hofstadter. ...
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Resumen Este estudio presenta el análisis de las metáforas conceptuales producidas en el discurso de afectados de esquizofrenia y profesionales relacionados con dicho trastorno mental. La investigación permite distinguir y comparar subgrupos coherentes de estos colectivos en el corpus de trabajo e interpretar modelos subyacentes de conceptualización de la enfermedad. El corpus analizado consiste en tres documentales que recogen relatos en primera persona. Se han clasificado cuantitativa y cualitativamente las expresiones metafóricas de los intervinientes y se han inferido conjuntos de ideas y creencias a la luz de la teoría de la metáfora conceptual, un marco teórico bien establecido en la lingüística cognitiva. Las conclusiones muestran los principales patrones de conceptualización de la enfermedad por parte de afectados vinculados a programas de rehabilitación social, afectados no vinculados a ellos, psiquiatras, y otros profesionales relacionados con la salud mental, así como similitudes y diferencias relevantes entre dichos grupos.
... People exploit parallelism among examples for generalization (Hofstadter, 2001; Sander, 2013). Consider Table 1, which displays five examples from a single class for two tasks. ...
Preprint
Training data for text classification is often limited in practice, especially for applications with many output classes or involving many related classification problems. This means classifiers must generalize from limited evidence, but the manner and extent of generalization is task dependent. Current practice primarily relies on pre-trained word embeddings to map words unseen in training to similar seen ones. Unfortunately, this squishes many components of meaning into highly restricted capacity. Our alternative begins with sparse pre-trained representations derived from unlabeled parsed corpora; based on the available training data, we select features that offers the relevant generalizations. This produces task-specific semantic vectors; here, we show that a feed-forward network over these vectors is especially effective in low-data scenarios, compared to existing state-of-the-art methods. By further pairing this network with a convolutional neural network, we keep this edge in low data scenarios and remain competitive when using full training sets.
... From the perspective of a cultural stranger, the near to "non-moving" seems to be the highly emotional state, which often reaches its critical point during the performance of a ca vọng cổ. The question remains whether the culturally initiated may have other options of translating performance back into an essential communication of this emotion (Hofstaedter 2001). ...
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This paper is dedicated to physically moving and emotionally moved singers who combine non-vocal embodiments as an essential content of what their singing conveys. The terms "movement of singers" and the "singers being moved" refer primarily to a physical process that may include the interpretation of the singers' emotional situation. The main question is how these specific non-vocal embodiments in singers and their apparent outcomes are impacted by various forms of mass media showing a striking intercultural variety. Through three sections, based on participant-observation and audiovisual analysis, this paper contributes to the musicological and educational literature in interdisciplinary ways and through multiple perspectives of surveying movements in singers. Beyond this, it provides some new points to stimulate the discussion about the necessity of "singing bodies" in a world of increasing sound simulation. Methodologically, the authors focus mainly on the agency of the singers, actors, and producers in substantiating the final thoughts of the paper. The authors are interconnected through joint studies on the performing arts in and about Asia.
... A third way of problem formulation may address these concerns. Complex problems, like innovation problems, can be made more understandable by using metaphors (Ejdelind and Karlsson, 2014), which are central to human reasoning, understanding, and creativity (Boden, 2004;Hofstadter, 2001;Lockton et al., 2019). Especially in product design, metaphors are often used for framing problems, creating new perspectives, and enabling divergent thinking (Hey et al., 2008). ...
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Problem formulations are critical in crowdsourcing-enabled innovation since they form the baseline for participant ideation. How to design problem formulations that enable mutually original and feasible solutions poses challenges in theory and practice. This study addresses the need by empirically investigating the effects of three conceptual approaches of problem formulation, metaphorical, abstract, and technical, on the outcomes of a crowdsourcing ideation challenge. Therein, 74 participants ideated 418 potential solutions for a real-world innovation challenge based on the three problem formulations. The ideas generated were rated by six experts with respect to feasibility and originality. The statistical analysis showed that abstract and metaphorical formulations yielded more original ideas compared to the technical formulation. In turn, the latter enabled more feasible ideas than the metaphorical formulation, while the abstract formulation showed similar performance. The findings thus showed that abstract problem formulation poses a promising approach for achieving mutually original and feasible ideas.
... Analogy-making is at the core of human and artificial intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as proving mathematical theorems and building mathematical theories, common sense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling (e.g. [9,20,23,25,27,33,37,39,40]). This paper introduces from first principles an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions of the form 'a is to b what c is to d' in the general setting of universal algebra. ...
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Analogy-making is at the core of human intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as commonsense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling. This paper contributes to the foundations of artificial general intelligence by introducing an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions of the form `$a$ is to $b$ what $c$ is to $d$' in the general setting of universal algebra. This enables us to compare mathematical objects possibly across different domains in a uniform way which is crucial for artificial general intelligence. The main idea is to define solutions to analogical proportions in terms of generalizations and to derive abstract terms of concrete elements from a `known' source domain which can then be instantiated in an `unknown' target domain to obtain analogous elements. We extensively compare our framework with two prominent and recently introduced frameworks of analogical proportions from the literature in the concrete domains of sets, numbers, and words and show that our framework is strictly more general in all of these cases which provides strong evidence for the applicability of our framework. In a broader sense, this paper is a first step towards an algebraic theory of analogical reasoning and learning systems with potential applications to fundamental AI-problems like commonsense reasoning and computational learning and creativity.
... "Analogy is the motor of the car of thought" (Hofstadter, 2001). ...
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Scientific information is a key ingredient needed to tackle global challenges like climate change, but to do this it must be communicated in ways that are accessible to diverse groups, and that go beyond traditional methods (peer-reviewed publications). For decades there have been calls for scientists to improve their communication skills—with each other and the public—but, this problem persists. During this time there have been astonishing changes in the visual communication tools available to scientists. I see video as the next step in this evolution. In this paper I highlight three major changes in the visual communication tools over the past 100 years, and use three memorable items—bamboo, oil and ice cream—and analogies and metaphors to explain why and how Do-it-Yourself (DIY) videos made by scientists, and shared on YouTube, can radically improve science communication and engagement. I also address practical questions for scientists to consider as they learn to make videos, and organize and manage them on YouTube. DIY videos are not a silver bullet that will automatically improve science communication, but they can help scientists to 1) reflect on and improve their communications skills, 2) tell stories about their research with interesting visuals that augment their peer-reviewed papers, 3) efficiently connect with and inspire broad audiences including future scientists, 4) increase scientific literacy, and 5) reduce misinformation. Becoming a scientist videographer or scientist DIY YouTuber can be an enjoyable, creative, worthwhile and fulfilling activity that can enhance many aspects of a scientist’s career.
... Often, complex issues are rendered understandable through the use of metaphors and analogies, and indeed it has been argued that these are central to human reasoning, understanding, and creativity (Boden, 1992;Hofstadter, 2001) as well as the linguistic aspects of cognition itself . There are many phenomena where new metaphors could potentially enable new forms of understanding, sharing or changing mental models, or experiencing otherwise invisible processes in more interesting ways. ...
Book
The breadth of topics covered at this Symposium is proof, if proof were needed, of the enormous value of design research. In areas that range from the future of urban living to justice systems and neuroscience, design research is providing the frameworks and methodologies to answer questions which span disciplinary and conceptual boundaries; in an era of ever greater interdisciplinarity, design research is, once again, ahead of the curve. It is for this reason that the Arts and Humanities Research Council is delighted to support UK and international Design research, whether through the Priority Area Leadership Fellowship, to which we have just awarded follow-on funding, or through our open call research portfolios, or through other channels. Design has long been a discipline on which we collaborate with our sibling councils at UKRI, and it features strongly among the Knowledge Transfer Partnerships we sponsor. What we mean by “design” and “design research” is ever-changing, however, and it is right that the AHRC, and UKRI at large, keeps a close eye on those changes and responds to them in a way that allows the very best of innovative and transformative research to flourish. The impacts of that research – academic, economic and social – are enormously significant not only in and of themselves, but also in demonstrating the value of the field, and therefore the importance of the robust and ongoing public funding it richly deserves.
... It has been argued that metaphors and analogies are central to much human reasoning, understanding, and creativity (Hofstadter, 2001), as well as the language we use (Lakoff, Johnson, 1980). Here we use the term 'metaphor' in a broad, intentionally imprecise way, to refer to a class containing a variety of ways in which one thing can be understood in terms of another. ...
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Las “visiones de futuros sostenibles” se han propuesto como un componente clave del diseño para la transición, “un medio a través del cual los estilos de vida contemporáneos y las intervenciones de diseño pueden evaluarse y criticarse contra la visualización de un futuro deseado” (Irwin et al, 2015a, p. 8). Tales ambiciones son necesariamente de amplio alcance, y requieren unir líneas sobre el diseño y la especulación de diversas fuentes. Aquí buscamos aumentar el impulso explorando un conjunto de conceptos que se relacionan particularmente con este papel de visión en el diseño de transiciones. Sobre la base de perspectivas y proyectos de otros campos, presentamos elementos de un vocabulario visionario, que abarca diferentes escalas y grados de eliminación del presente, y la ubicación de estos términos en relación con los desafíos específicos y las oportunidades para el pensamiento y la práctica de la transición. // “Visions of sustainable futures” have been proposed as a key component of Transition Design, “a means through which contemporary lifestyles and design interventions can be assessed and critiqued against a desired future state” (Irwin et al, 2015a, p. 8). Such ambitions are necessarily wide-ranging, and call for drawing together strands on design and speculation from diverse sources. Here we seek to add to the momentum by exploring a set of concepts relating particularly to this role of vision in designing for transitions. Building on perspectives and projects from other fields, we present elements of a visionary vocabulary, covering different scales and degrees of remove from the present, and situating these terms in relation to specific challenges and opportunities for transition thinking and practice.
... To examine our two leading hypotheses, we developed a proportional analogy task of the type A is to B, what C is to D (D having to be discovered), to compare the development of young children's capabilities to make taxonomic and thematic associations within the food domain. Analogical reasoning is the ability to understand or produce common relational structures between two domains despite dissimilarities between the entities (Gentner, 1983;Hofstadter, 2001;Holyoak, 2012). The children are first exposed to one of the two relations of interest (either thematic or taxonomic) in the first pair of items (A and B; for example, apple and melon both belong to the taxonomic category of fruits) and then asked to extend the example type to choose either the thematic or taxonomic match to the food target image. ...
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Establishing healthy dietary habits in childhood is crucial in preventing long-term repercussions, as a lack of dietary variety in childhood leads to enduring impacts on both physical and cognitive health. Poor conceptual knowledge about food has recently been shown to be a driving factor of food rejection. The majority of studies that have investigated the development of food knowledge along with food rejection have mainly focused on one subtype of conceptual knowledge about food, namely taxonomic categories (e.g., vegetables or meat). However, taxonomic categorization is not the only way to understand the food domain. We also heavily rely on other conceptual structures, namely thematic associations, in which objects are grouped because they share spatial-temporal properties or exhibit a complementary relationship (e.g., soft-boiled egg and soldiers). We rely on such thematic associations between food items, which may not fall into the same taxon, to determine the acceptability of food combinations. However, the development of children’s ability to master these relations has not been systematically investigated, nor alongside the phenomenon of food rejection. The present research aims to fill this gap by investigating (i) the development of conceptual food knowledge (both taxonomic and thematic) and (ii) the putative relationship between children’s food rejection (as measured by the Child Food Rejection Scale) and both thematic and taxonomic food knowledge. A proportional (A:B::C:?) analogy task, with a choice between taxonomic (i.e., bread and pasta) and thematic (i.e., bread and butter) food associates, was conducted on children between 3 and 7-years-old (n = 85). The children were systematically presented with either a thematic or taxonomic food base pair (A:B) and then asked to extend the example type of relation to select the respective thematic or taxonomic match to the target (C:?). Our results revealed, for the first time, that increased levels of food pickiness were significantly predictive of poorer food identification and decreased thematic understanding. These findings entitle us to hypothesize that knowledge-based food education programs to foster dietary variety in young children, should not only aim to improve taxonomic understanding of food, but also thematic relations.
... Navorsing onder sowel mense as die ander primaatspesies toon dat hierdie komplekswat as die brein se sentrum van angs en fobies beskou worddieselfde op sosiale as op fisiese belonings en bedreigings reageer (Baumeister en Leary 1995;Griskevicius en Kenrick 2013). Invloedryke wetenskaplikes soos Boyer (1994Boyer ( , 2002, Crick (1994), Hofstadter (2001), Hood (2009) en Pinker (2002 se oortuiging dat die self 'n illusie is ten spyt, is daar vir die brein van 'n selfbewuste spesie soos die mens ooglopend geen verskil tussen die ontologiese status van die liggaam en dié van die self nie. Navorsing toon dan ook dat die bevrediging al dan nie van die behoeftes van hierdie sosiale self 'n merkbare invloed op die mens se gesondheid, lewensgehalte en lewensverwagting het. ...
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Opsomming In hierdie artikel dien die vroeë Boeddhisme as toepassingsveld vir twee onlangse neurobevindings. Die een is dat religieuse ervarings struktureel met daardie prosesse van die brein verbind is wat met selfsin (sense of self) te make het (McNamara 2009:xi). Die ander is dat neurale prosesse wat met selfsin verbind word, 'n deurslaggewende rol in die emosionele homeostase van individue speel (Dahl, Lutz en Davidson 2015:515). Op grond van 'n vertikale integrasie 1 van insigte vanuit die neurowetenskappe met dié van klassieke studies oor die Boeddhisme is die gevolgtrekking dat die ontstaan en inhoud van die vroeë Boeddhisme historiese ondersteuning vir beide hierdie bevindings bied. Sodanige integrasie ondersteun eweneens McNamara (2009) se bespiegeling dat daar waarskynlik vir religie geselekteer is omdat dit 'n belangrike rol in emosionele homeostase speel. Soortgelyke toepassings op ander religieuse tradisies is egter nodig om die algemene geldigheid van hierdie gevolgtrekkings te toets. Daarbenewens dui omstandighede rondom die ontstaan van die Boeddhisme daarop dat die homeostatiese rol van religie dubbelslagtig is en emosionele homeostase gelykerwys kan herstel én bedreig. Hoewel hierdie gegewe die moontlike verband tussen self, religie en homeostase bevestig eerder as ontken, belig dit terselfdertyd die feit dat huidige neuro-insigte dit nog nie bevredigend kan verklaar nie. Abstract Self, religion and homeostasis: A neurotheoretical exploration of early Buddhism This article presents a vertical integration of the cognitive neurosciences with classical studies of Buddhism. The purpose is to take advantage of the data which the ancient history of Buddhism provides for the assessment of recent findings that hint at a neuro-structural relationship between self, religion and homeostasis.
... The present study focused on schizophrenia patients' performance on one type of complex cognitive process: reasoning by analogy. Such reasoning is prevalent in everyday life and acknowledged to underlie productivity, compositionality, and flexibility in human thinking (Hofstadter, 2001). To make a successful analogy one must identify the structural correspondence between objects or situations that are interrelated (see Gentner, 1983;Holyoak, 2012) and at the same time very often ignore featural similarities (e.g., having the same parts or attributes) or strong semantic associations between them (e.g., belonging to the same category; Markman and Gentner, 1996). ...
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Proportional analogies between four objects (e.g., a squirrel is to tree as a golden fish is to? aquarium) were examined in 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy controls. Half of the problems included distracting response options: remote semantic associates (fishing rod) and perceptually similar salient distractors (shark). Although both patients and controls performed fairly accurately on the no-distraction analogies, patients' performance in the presence of distractors was distorted, suggesting deficits in attention and cognitive control affecting complex cognition. Finally, although education, fluid intelligence, and interference resolution strongly predicted distractibility in the control group, in the schizophrenia group susceptibility to distraction was unrelated to these markers of general cognitive ability, implying an idiosyncratic nature of reasoning distortions in schizophrenia.
... The ability to reason analogically is a central feature of human cognition (Gentner & Holyoak, 1997;Hofstadter, 2001). Analogy has been defined as the transfer of a structured set of relations from a base domain to a target from which it is more or less distant. ...
... Analogy, in one form or another, has widely been assumed to be a critical process in perception, language, learning, and problem solving (Hoyloak and Thagard, 1997;Schumacher and Gentner, 1988). Residing as it does "at the core of cognition" (Hofstadter, 2001). Analogy has been an important topic in the history, philosophy, and psychology of science, in cognitive science, and the field of artificial intelligence (see Holyoak and Barnden, 1994;Gentner, Holyoak andKokinov, 2001, Komendzinski, 2001). ...
... Often, complex issues are rendered understandable through the use of metaphors and analogies, and indeed it has been argued that these are central to human reasoning, understanding, and creativity (Boden, 1992;Hofstadter, 2001) as well as the linguistic aspects of cognition itself (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980). There are many phenomena where new metaphors could potentially enable new forms of understanding, sharing or changing mental models, or experiencing otherwise invisible processes in more interesting ways. ...
Conference Paper
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A component of design research for change that has been underexplored by designers focused primarily on changing behaviour, is the potential to use design methods to investigate how people think. In particular, the metaphors, mental imagery, and other forms of imaginaries which influence how people act and make sense of the world, individually, and as a society, are topics which design research is well-placed to explore. This paper illustrates three projects addressing these areas (relating to energy use, life and career, and generating new metaphors), and argues that by seeking to 'understand people's understanding better', design research can contribute useful forms of enquiry for informing other academic disciplines dealing with large-scale challenges such as health, environment, politics, and social issues.
... A. Newell outlined this approach in his 1969 publication "Progress in operations research." [32] His outline consisted of four steps that, incidentally, closely models Dactyloscopy. ...
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Recognition processes in daily observations and biometrics are outlined. Recognition's foundation in cognitive processes complements research in the Scientific Method.
... Il bâtit ainsi sesétudes du point de vue de cette forte hypothèse de liaison [R. Hofstadter 2006]. ...
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Plusieurs recherches placent le raisonnement analogique au centre du fonctionnement cognitif humain. La relation d'analogie opère entre deux paires de termes représentant deux domaines différents. Elle transfère la connaissance d'un concept connu vers un autre qu'on souhaiterait clarifier ou définir. Dans ce document, nous adressons d'abord les problématiques de modélisation de l'analogie puis de celles de son automatisation. Nous proposerons ensuite un système de résolution d'équations analogiques dans leur notation en chaînes de symboles. Le modèle basé sur la base de connaissance JeuxDeMots, procède en générant une liste de candidats potentiels parmi lesquels il effectue un choix de la solution la plus adaptée. Nous finirons par tester le modèle sur une collection d'équations et conclurons par les enseignements apportés par le travail réalisé. ** ** Several studies identify analogical reasoning as the core of human cognition. The analogy relation operates between two pairs of terms representing two distant domains. It transfers knowledge from one familiar concept to another that one would like to clarify or define. In this report, we address the modeling aspects of analogy and then those of its automation. We will then propose a system of resolution of analogical equations in their notation in symbols chains. The model based on the common sense knowledgebase JeuxDeMots (semantic network), operates by generating a list of potential candidates from which it chooses the most suitable solution. We will then test our model on a collection of equations and conclude by discussing its results and the information learned from this study.
... People exploit parallelism among examples for generalization (Hofstadter, 2001; Sander, 2013). Consider Table 1, which displays five examples from a single class for two tasks. ...
... The ability to reason analogically is a central feature of human cognition (Gentner & Holyoak, 1997;Hofstadter, 2001). Analogy has been defined as the transfer of a structured set of relations from a base domain to a target from which it is more or less distant. ...
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This study investigated analogical errors made by children aged between 3-4, 5-7 and 9-11 years in analogical reasoning in two administrative regions of Ghana. Analyzing patterns of errors of these children in analogy formation, data in all three age groups, 3-4 years, 5-7 years and 9-11 years suggest children were more likely to make relational errors in analogies that contained more load and distraction than one-relation analogy without distraction-an indication that an additional levels of relational complexity imposes extra mental load making analogical processing more cumbersome for younger children. This finding was interpreted as corroborating what has been established in other studies that the fundamental cause of children's errors in analogy has to do with managing mental load. Children can attend to any analogy provided it is within their knowledge base and working memory capacity and not so much on age per se. Pedagogical implications of working memory resource deficits are drawn for student-centered and constructivist approaches to teaching and learning.
... Actually, the postulation that the isomorphic mapping of the brain under similar tasks is not fabricated from the single experimental phenomena. Gradually over the years, some researchers have tried to demonstrate this capability that the brain perceives our world by the analogical reasoning [21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. And some other researchers also suggested using category theory to mathematically demonstrate how analogical reasoning in the human brain get rid of the spurious inferences that puzzle traditional artificial intelligence modeling (called systematicness) [28][29][30]. ...
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Unified Granger causality analysis (uGCA) alters conventional two-stage Granger causality analysis into a unified code-length guided framework. We have presented several forms of uGCA methods to investigate causal connectivities, and different forms of uGCA have their own characteristics, which capable of approaching the ground truth networks well in their suitable contexts. In this paper, we considered comparing these several forms of uGCA in detail, then recommend a relatively more robust uGCA method among them, uGCA-NML, to reply to more general scenarios. Then, we clarified the distinguished advantages of uGCA-NML in a synthetic 6-node network. Moreover, uGCA-NML presented its good robustness in mental arithmetic experiments, which identified a stable similarity among causal networks under visual/auditory stimulus. Whereas, due to its commendable stability and accuracy, uGCA-NML will be a prior choice in this unified causal investigation paradigm.
... Analogy-making is at the core of human intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as commonsense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling (e.g. Hofstadter, 2001;Hofstadter & Sander, 2013;Gust, Krumnack, Kühnberger, & Schwering, 2008;Boden, 1998;Sowa & Majumdar, 2003;Winston, 1980;Wos, 1993). In a recent paper, Antić (2021a) introduced an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions of the form a : b :: c : d in the generic language of universal algebra. ...
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Analogy-making is at the core of human intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as commonsense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling. This paper studies analogical proportions between booleans of the form `$a$ is to $b$ what $c$ is to $d$' called boolean proportions. Technically, we instantiate an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions -- recently introduced by the author -- in the boolean domain consisting of the truth values true and false together with boolean functions. It turns out that our notion of boolean proportions has appealing mathematical properties and that it coincides with a prominent model of boolean proportions in the general case. In a broader sense, this paper is a further step towards a theory of analogical reasoning and learning systems with potential applications to fundamental AI-problems like commonsense reasoning and computational learning and creativity.
... Selon cette définition, il découle que la catégorisation, la comparaison ou encore l'abstraction seraient des aspects différents de l'analogie. L'étude de l'analogie au cours de ces dernières années a montré que ce phénomène jouait un rôle primordial dans le raisonnement et l'apprentissage (Gentner, 2003 ;Hofstadter, 2001 ;Kokinov & French, 2003). Il existe plusieurs types d'analogie : (1) l'analogie forcée, lorsque l'on donne un indice explicite pour utiliser une source ; (2) l'analogie spontanée, lorsque l'on doit retrouver la source parmi ses connaissances en mémoire ; et (3) l'analogie constructive, lorsque l'on décide de trouver la solution analogique d'un problème, en se référant à plusieurs sources, par des transformations systématiques. ...
Thesis
L’objectif de la thèse est d’étudier les difficultés d’acquisition du langage écrit chez les enfants à haut potentiel intellectuel (HPI). Il s’agit principalement d’une part de répertorier les types de problèmes rencontrés en termes de composantes du langage écrit - exécution graphomotrice, orthographe, formulation textuelle et production de texte - et d’autre part de comprendre les processus qui sous-tendent ces problèmes. La thèse est destinée également à contribuer à la compréhension des processus d’écriture chez les enfants tout-venants. La revue de littérature qui sera la première étape de la thèse permettra de pointer les points les plus caractéristiques des problèmes d’acquisition de l’écrit rapportés dans les études (e.g., Yates et al. 1995) et les principales questions en débat aujourd’hui. Les études empiriques associeront observation, comparaison quasi-expérimentale et étude expérimentale. Les performances seront recueillies auprès d’une population d’enfants à haut potentiel et d’enfants tout-venants. Nous envisageons la réalisation d’un suivi longitudinal concernant d’un échantillon sélectionné selon les critères d’inclusion et d’exclusion mentionnés dans le corps du projet. Les participants seront sélectionnés selon les critères suivants : niveau intellectuel (Weschler IV)
... Generally, metaphor and analogy are considered to have central roles in human cognition and language. For example, Hofstadter (2001) proclaims that analogy is "the engine of cognition" and Lakoff & Johnson (1980) highlight how our everyday language is inherently metaphorical. ...
Preprint
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Evolutionary concepts are used, with varying and arguable degrees of scientific utility, across a wide range of disciplines. Evolution education, however, remains overwhelmingly within the confines of biology education, when it is taught at all within general education. The reasons for this disciplinary myopism are complex, and normative guidance for curriculum designers is scarce. This contribution explores how understanding the structures of knowledge, or the organization of facts and generalizations in science, cognition, and education, may help illuminate the educational potential and evidence-informed pedagogical practices appropriate for teaching about the interdisciplinary application of evolutionary concepts.
... Analogy is the core of cognition of human beings [12]. This is because analogy is representative of human thinking that is structure flexible and sensitive [1], and analogy is a mental tool that is ubiquitously used in human reasoning [14]. ...
Preprint
Letter-string analogy is an important analogy learning task which seems to be easy for humans but very challenging for machines. The main idea behind current approaches to solving letter-string analogies is to design heuristic rules for extracting analogy structures and constructing analogy mappings. However, one key problem is that it is difficult to build a comprehensive and exhaustive set of analogy structures which can fully describe the subtlety of analogies. This problem makes current approaches unable to handle complicated letter-string analogy problems. In this paper, we propose Neural logic analogy learning (Noan), which is a dynamic neural architecture driven by differentiable logic reasoning to solve analogy problems. Each analogy problem is converted into logical expressions consisting of logical variables and basic logical operations (AND, OR, and NOT). More specifically, Noan learns the logical variables as vector embeddings and learns each logical operation as a neural module. In this way, the model builds computational graph integrating neural network with logical reasoning to capture the internal logical structure of the input letter strings. The analogy learning problem then becomes a True/False evaluation problem of the logical expressions. Experiments show that our machine learning-based Noan approach outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on standard letter-string analogy benchmark datasets.
... "Analogy is the motor of the car of thought" (Hofstadter, 2001). ...
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In this Research Topic we are interested in the impact of online video-sharing on the public communication of science and the environment, but also on intra-scientific communication and practice. The online video format has great potential for science and environmental communication, but there are also potential problems and pitfalls that need to be reflected. We are interested in the role of online video-sharing platforms, such as YouTube, Vimeo and others, for the public communication of science and research. Production We are looking for various perspectives on the production of online videos, i.e. who creates and uploads videos with scientific and environmental contents and what are the intentions and purposes of these videos? What are the differences and similarities between professional, amateur, institutional and other actors who produce online videos? How do the different creators of videos about science and the environment legitimize themselves and what audiences do they want to reach and for what reasons? What are the differences in practices and intentions of journalists, YouTubers, scientists, scientific institutions and others when it comes to online video-sharing? Content Which scientific and environmental topics and what kinds of research and knowledge are represented in publicly available online videos and which are not? Are there certain scientific disciplines that use online videos for public and/ or intra-scientific communication more often than others? What kind of video formats, genres, videographic styles etc. are most successful, widespread and adequate for science and environmental communication? How can the quality of scientific online videos be assessed? What role do misinformation, disinformation and conspiracy theories play in online videos about scientific and environmental topics and what could be done to successfully counteract erroneous and problematic video content? Can differences concerning topics, frames or aesthetic aspects be found and analyzed, and if so how? What are the differences between the online videos of professional, amateur, institutional and other user/ producer cultures? Are there differences in the online videos from diverse geographical locations, languages and disciplinary communities? Audiences, reception and communities How are online videos on science and the environment perceived by various audiences? Do scientists and researchers also make use of the online-video format, and if so, how and why? How do different audiences make sense of the online videos they are watching and how do they affect perceptions, knowledge and attitudes? How do different users seek and find online videos about science and the environment and how do they assess the credibility of the videos? What communities emerge around specific video channels featuring science and environmental online videos and how do various audiences/ communities and video creators interact? What is the role of specific online video-sharing platforms for the dissemination, recommendation and practices of environmental and science communication via online video? Methodological innovations What quantitative, qualitative, computational and other methods could be used to study scientific and environmental online-videos and practices of online video-sharing? Practical perspectives We are also interested in perspectives of online video practitioners or researchers and others who experimented with online videos for science and environmental communication. We also welcome case studies and the experiences of science YouTubers and experience reports of exchanges with scientists, scientific institutions, journalists, filmmakers and others who use online videos for environmental and science communication. Keywords: Science Communication, Environmental Communication, Online Video, Video Platforms, YouTube, Vimeo, Public Understanding of Science, Science of Science Communication, Social Sciences, Media, Communications, Interdisciplinarity See also: https://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/11604/new-directions-in-science-and-environmental-communication-understanding-the-role-of-online-video-sha
... For example, the multiple feed-back loops, scale and duration, uncertainty and non-linearity of climate change may be reduced by popular media discourse to 'global warming', a framing whose 'validity' (along with trust in science itself) is held open to question. Often, complex issues are rendered understandable through the use of metaphors and analogies, and indeed it has been argued that these are central to human reasoning, understanding, and creativity [10,32], as well as the linguistic aspects of cognition itself [38]. (Here we use the term 'metaphor' in a broad, imprecise way, to refer to a variety of ways in which one thing can be understood in terms of another). ...
Conference Paper
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Metaphors are important at multiple levels within design and society—from the specifics of interfaces, to wider societal imaginaries of technology and progress. Exploring alternative metaphors can be generative in creative processes, and for reframing problems strategically. In this pictorial we introduce an inspiration card workshop method using juxtaposition (or bisociation) to enable participants to explore novel metaphors for hard-to-visualise phenomena, drawing on a provisional set of inspiration material. We demonstrate the process through illustrating creative workshops in France, Portugal, Chile, and the USA, and reflect on benefits, limitations, and potential development of this format for use within interaction design.
... It has been argued that metaphors and analogies are central to much human reasoning, understanding, and creativity (Hofstadter, 2001), as well as the language we use (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). Here we use the term 'metaphor' in a broad, intentionally imprecise way, to refer to a class containing a variety of ways in which one thing can be understood in terms of another. ...
... However, relatively less work has focused on learning via analogy, when learning is defined as a change in behavior due to regularities in the environment (De Houwer et al., 2013; although see Bliznashki & Kokinov, 2009;Gentner & Smith, 2013;Ruiz & Luciano, 2011;Stewart, Barnes-Holmes, Hayes, & Lipkens, 2001). This is surprising given that several authors have argued that analogy is central to human adaptability to our environment and our ability to learn about events we have not directly experienced (e.g., Gentner, 2003;Hofstadter, 2001;Holyoak & Thagard, 1995). We therefore suggest that there is a need to directly examine learning about novel concepts via such analogical abilities, including study of the environmental regularities that determine when analogical learning takes place. ...
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The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a popular tool for measuring attitudes. We suggest that performing an IAT could, however, also change attitudes via analogical learning. For instance, when performing an IAT in which participants categorize (previously unknown) Chinese characters, flowers, positive words, and negative words, participants could infer that Chinese characters relate to flowers as negative words relate to positive words. This analogy would imply that Chinese characters are opposite to flowers in terms of valence and thus that they are negative. Results from three studies (N = 602) confirmed that evaluative learning can occur when completing an IAT, and suggest that this effect can be described as analogical. We discuss the implications of our findings for research on analogy and research on the IAT as a measure of attitudes.
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Game scholars make arguments that depend on the idea that games are capable of conveying meaning and making arguments via their mechanics, an information channel unique to games (and other forms of system-driven media) which Bogost has termed “proce- dural rhetoric.” This concept is not intended to just be an interpre- tive technique for experts, but is also meant to describe the way the general player population experiences games. However, there has never (to our knowledge) been any attempt to use the tools of psy- chology to ascertain whether procedural rhetoric is a psychological reality for players in general and, if so, under what circumstances and in which ways it is experienced. This paper reports on the first steps in such an investigation. We found (a) that procedural rhetoric has psychological reality, with players accurately understanding that two games meant to have arguments have them, and the purely abstract game we included did not; (b) the understanding of pro- cedural rhetoric appears to be strongly shaped by accompanying media, with the more abstract of the rhetorical games we studied much less clearly understood; and (c) as with any media, even when audiences understand the goal of a procedural rhetoric argument, the impact on their thoughts and feelings may not be as authors intend.
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Chapter
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Analogies are common part of human life; our ability to handle them is critical in problem solving, humor, metaphors and argumentation. This paper introduces a method to solve string-based (symbolic) analogies based on a hybrid inferential process integrating Structural Information Theory—a framework used to predict phenomena of perceptual organization—with some metric-based processing. Results are discussed against two empirical experiments, one of which conducted along this work, together with the development of a Python version of the SIT encoding algorithm PISA.
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Chapter
This chapter describes how computer developers used existing documents, such as operation manuals and design proposals, to share information about innovations in computer design in the years immediately after World War II, before there were textbooks or formal curricula in a professional field of computer science. This documentary approach to information sharing was especially important for people working in the computer field that was being established in southern California to support the aircraft industry and guided missile development. Foundational documents are detailed: a 1945 report on relay computers written by George Stibitz for the US Army, John von Neumann’s 1946 “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC,” Claude Shannon’s 1948 Bell Labs report entitled “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” and Warren Weaver’s 1949 elaboration on this work, and Edmund Berkeley’s 1949 Giant Brains or Machines that Think, which is often considered to be the first book on computers for popular audiences.
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The debate around analogy in modern physics that focuses on its role as a logical inference often correspondingly overlooks its historical dimension and the other equally important functions and aspects that are intertwined with this dimension. Inspired by a close investigation of the primary sources and archival material of a few historical actors, this paper lays out a framework on analogy-making which preserves as much as possible its historical complexity. While not losing sight of the logical role, our framework puts a special emphasis on the heuristic process, and aims at offering to the historian and philosopher of science as well as the physicist some tools to capture the subtle functions of analogical reasoning involved in such a process. After having traced it out theoretically, we make use of this framework to interpret the growth of the ideas of two remarkable physicists dealing with the multifaceted notion of vacuum in 20th century physics. We first consider the trajectory followed by John A. Wheeler, between the 1960s and 1970s, towards (in his own words) a “geology of the vacuum”; and then examine, starting from the hitherto neglected Japanese reception of the idea of Dirac sea in the early 1930s, the pathway that led Yoichiro Nambu to the discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking.
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Analogical mapping – the core component of analogical reasoning – consists of establishing the relational structure shared by two analogous situations and inferring the missing elements in a less familiar situation from a more familiar one. Several existing models of analogy predicted that the complete relational structure can be considered in parallel. Other models postulated that mapping can be less or more incremental – it can access only a relatively small part of the structure, and needs to move to its other parts in steps in order to construct the final relational correspondence. However, the precise time course of analogical mapping, especially in sufficiently complex analogies, to date was rarely studied empirically. In two studies, eye tracking was used to assess in a rigorous way the extent to which mapping can be incremental. In a newly designed geometric A:B::C:D task, pattern D was generated from C according to the same shape transformations that generated pattern B from A. The six possible response options differed systematically in the number of correct transformations, from no transformation matching, via partial relational match, up to the full match. In Study 1, the relational match of options fixated on by participants was initially low but increased monotonically over the course of analogy. The number of corresponding eye fixations predicted 68% variance in relational match of the final response. The correct option was chosen only if fixated on for a sufficiently long time. Study 2 replicated the findings using a more ecologically valid and less demanding task variant that required to map the changes in people's appearance. The results support these theoretical models of analogy which postulate strictly incremental mapping.
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Analogy-making is at the core of human and artificial intelligence and creativity with applications to such diverse tasks as proving mathematical theorems and building mathematical theories, common sense reasoning, learning, language acquisition, and story telling. This paper introduces from first principles an abstract algebraic framework of analogical proportions of the form ‘a is to b what c is to d’ in the general setting of universal algebra. This enables us to compare mathematical objects possibly across different domains in a uniform way which is crucial for AI-systems. It turns out that our notion of analogical proportions has appealing mathematical properties. As we construct our model from first principles using only elementary concepts of universal algebra, and since our model questions some basic properties of analogical proportions presupposed in the literature, to convince the reader of the plausibility of our model we show that it can be naturally embedded into first-order logic via model-theoretic types and prove from that perspective that analogical proportions are compatible with structure-preserving mappings. This provides conceptual evidence for its applicability. In a broader sense, this paper is a first step towards a theory of analogical reasoning and learning systems with potential applications to fundamental AI-problems like common sense reasoning and computational learning and creativity.
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A biologically inspired cognitive architecture is described which uses navigation maps (i.e., spatial locations of objects) as its main data elements. The navigation maps are also used to represent higher-level concepts as well as to direct operations to perform on other navigation maps. Incoming sensory information is mapped to local sensory navigation maps which then are in turn matched with the closest multisensory maps, and then mapped onto a best-matched multisensory navigation map. Enhancements of the biologically inspired feedback pathways allow the intermediate results of operations performed on the best-matched multisensory navigation map to be fed back, temporarily stored, and re-processed in the next cognitive cycle. This allows the exploration and generation of cause-and-effect behavior. In the re-processing of these intermediate results, navigation maps can, by core analogical mechanisms, lead to other navigation maps which offer an improved solution to many routine problems the architecture is exposed to. Given that the architecture is brain-inspired, analogical processing may also form a key mechanism in the human brain, consistent with psychological evidence. Similarly, for conventional artificial intelligence systems, analogical processing as a core mechanism may possibly allow enhanced performance.
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With the rapid advances in data analytics, machine learning, and continuous monitoring along with other related advances in artificial intelligence-based technologies, our solution as researchers to many of today's business problems increasingly becomes one of, “Can I fix the problem through automation?” However, as we find that artificial intelligence increasingly provides us with the power to replace knowledge workers with automated systems, rarely is the question asked, “Should we automate knowledge work?” There are a host of questions that should be addressed including (1) whether automation is the most effective solution, (2) if there are ethical dilemmas associated with replacing the human element, and (3) if there are societal implications of displacing large numbers of knowledge workers. The focus of this discussion is on understanding the impact of knowledge-based systems on human users' knowledge acquisition and retention and outlining an alternative research strategy that centers more on transferring knowledge to the user during the work production process in order to maintain human expertise and relevance in professional decision making. Contemporary research still argues that human-computer collaboration may outperform either on their own; but, to limit the deskilling effect of knowledge-based systems and alternatively promote skill development, we call upon academic researchers to seek better ways to keep the human relevant in a broad range of knowledge work fields. Further, we suggest that expanding the philosophical discussions of the ethics of artificial intelligence-based technologies and the corollary impact on the rapid decline of the professions is necessary.
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