Book

The Discovery Of Grounded Theory: Strategies For Qualitative Research

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Abstract

Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.
... In the overwhelming inflation of MMR approaches, it is possible to find the linking to Grounded Theory methodology (GT). Since its original definition by Glaser and Strauss (1967), GT has evolved from being a methodology, or research approach, into a "metatheory of inductive research design" (Johnson and Walsh, 2019, p. 3;Walsh, 2014Walsh, , 2015 where in recent years, a strong tendency has emerged in applying both quantitative and mixed qualitative and quantitative data (pp. 3-4). ...
... However, triangulation does not seem to be a prominent concept in GT methodology discussions (Flick, 2019, p. 237). It is common in (M)GT and CCMA to compare data slices (Glaser and Strauss, 1967;Flick, 2019, pp. 239-240) against each other and against relevant theory to validate the analysis process along the way, as it has been the case for this study. ...
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These couple of years have witnessed an increase in interest in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). As the COVID-19 situation amply showed us, MOOCs promptly became a practical way to secure continuity of education for students in lockdown. Educational institutions chose the MOOC format to swiftly adapt to the “new normal” and deliver their courses online without incurring too many unbudgeted expenses. However, the quality of teaching practices and learning design in MOOCs’ Digital Learning Environments (DLEs) varies considerably. Also, while the interest in the MOOC format has increased, the emergent body of specific research on MOOCs for language learning or Language MOOCs (LMOOCs) is unfortunately still limited. By choosing a connectivist approach to understand teaching and learning dynamics in DLEs, this article will elaborate on the importance of learning design and Digital Story Telling (DST) to create sustainable DLEs in MOOCs for Language Learning. The main research question investigates whether and how the development of a comprehensive and interconnected narrative structure based on DST can enhance the participants’ learning experience in LMOOCs and facilitate language learning leading to better participant retention and higher completion rates. To illustrate and support the logic threads of the argumentation, the article introduces a mixed-methods or multi-modal study of three international LMOOCs in Norwegian for beginners (NfB) developed for the international e-learning platform FutureLearn (FL). The findings discussed in the article seem to corroborate the initial hypothesis that including a comprehensive narrative structure based on DST and inspired by principles of Connectivism can lead to the development of higher-quality DLEs in MOOCs, specifically in LMOOCs.
... We applied a pragmatist paradigm (Creswell, 2007) to a grounded theory approach with a goal of producing substantive theory. Three traditional stages of coding--open, axial, and selective--were employed inductively, which align to the methods described by Glaser and Strauss (1967). Coding was conducted through a memo-writing process (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), and elements of document analysis, including Bowen's (2009) concept of using documents in "bearing witness to past events" (p. ...
... This researcher's analysis proceeded through a deliberate memo writing process. Throughout each round of memos, the researcher employed a constant comparison analysis approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to identify similarities and differences within and across the state guidance policies until reaching data saturation. As the iterative analysis progressed, the researcher reread previous memos; added to running code, concept, and then category lists; and developed further memos to continue the analytic process until eventually leading to substantive theory. ...
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Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many United States brick-and-mortar schools in Spring 2020 rapidly transitioned to emergency remote learning. School leaders grappled with how grades ought to fit within the many unknowns of K-12 remote education. In some cases, schools modified their grading scales to give students greater flexibility to pass courses, and in other situations, schools offered incomplete grades in lieu of failures. During this time, state departments of education (DOEs) provided a variety of guidance documents to their school districts. The purpose of this study was to explore the components of state DOE grading guidance during the Spring 2020 school shutdown, along with the patterns of guidance across states. The researchers applied a grounded theory approach to systematically explore the equivalent of 1,444 pages of documents from 48 state DOE guidelines. The document analysis resulted in three primary categories that influenced state DOE grading guidance: guiding principles, student advancement, and determining grades. The researchers conclude by presenting and discussing a three-category model for emergency remote learning grading guidelines for K-12 schools. In the event of another pandemic temporarily affecting the delivery of education to students, policymakers may use this model as a starting point for future recommendations.
... In this way, ML methods can surprisingly bring quantitative empirical researchers closer to the tradition of qualitatively considered grounded theory, in which researchers identify patterns in the data to build theory based on them. ML methods can thus provide tools to generate new kinds of observations, which aids in the process of building theory in an inductive or abductive way, depending on the context (Choudhury et al., 2021;Eisenhardt, 1989;Glaser et al., 1968;Mantere & Ketokivi, 2013). ...
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This paper explores the possibilities of employing machine learning (ML) methods and new data sources in management accounting (MA) research. A review of current accounting and related research reveals that ML methods in MA are still in their infancy. However, a review of recently published ML research from related fields reveals several new opportunities to utilize ML in MA research. We suggest that the most promising areas to employ ML methods in MA research lie in (1) the exploitation of the rich potential of various textual data sources; (2) the quantification of qualitative and unstructured data to create new measures; (3) the creation of better estimates and predictions; and (4) the use of explainable AI to interpret ML models in detail. ML methods can play a crucial role in MA research by creating, developing, and refining theories through induction and abduction, as well as by providing tools for interventionist studies.
... Thus, the initially created research question may also be altered or modified (Hood, 2009;Janusheva, 2017). Regardless of the qualitative research type (ethnography, case study, action research, grounded theory etc.) there is always at least one research question that should be answered (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Merriam, 1998;Berg, 2001;Yin, 2003;Burns, 2009). ...
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Given that worldwide the research academic community is largely concentrated on the quantitative and qualitative methodological paradigm, and that the quantitative research is seen as dominant, primarily, due to the hypothesis and various statistical procedures used for data analysis, this paper promotes the qualitative inquiry which largely depends on the research question quality and formulation and aims to draw the researchers’ attention to this very significant qualitative research aspect. Thus, the current article is, in fact, a review which indicates the latest qualitative search related to the research question’s diverse aspects. At the same time, the present study offers several techniques for effective research question choice and formulation, in order to increase the researchers’ awareness that the research question moulds all the qualitative research features and that it should be approached very carefully
... Grounded theory [46] is a research method that analyzes empirical data and constructs theories from the bottom up through a process of heuristic abstraction [47] that contributes to the formation of substantive or formal theories. The aim is to generate theories by systematically collecting and analyzing data rather than testing preconceived ideas or hypotheses [48,49]. ...
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The phenomenon of workplace involution has attracted ample attention. How to make employees treat their work with the correct attitude and behavior and improve their work performance has become a realistic proposition. This study uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods, with the help of grounded theory, to conduct an exploratory study on the structural dimensions of employee involution in the Chinese workplace and, on this basis, to develop and test the measurement scale. The research results show that employee involution is a multi-dimensional construct with rich connotations, including four dimensions: inefficient busyness, exhaustion of innovation, promotion anxiety, and internal competition. The measurement scale consists of four factors and 13 items. The factor analysis results showed that the developed scale’s reliability and validity reached an ideal level. To a certain extent, this study promotes the recognition and attention of various types of organizations at all levels to involution. The research conclusions provide theoretical guidance for employees to get rid of the involution crisis and will motivate managers to formulate better intervention measures to prevent and reduce workplace involution.
... The qualitative data were extracted faithfully from the interviewees' words based on the Gioia Method [52]. Gioia's analysis method relies on Glaser and Strauss' [53] Grounded Theory Approach (GTA), which makes textual data from interviews into labeled single sentence as open codes in the first step [54]. The difference between Gioia's analysis method and GTA is how to eliminate bias caused by prior knowledge when conceptualizing the coded data [52]. ...
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As semiconductor usage is prevailing, sustainable growth is deemed highly dependent on the semiconductor supply chain. Accordingly, it is essential to establish robust supply chain capability for a semiconductor company. Especially for Japanese semiconductor manufacturers, it is critical to secure robust and flexible supply chain operation with the background of the experience of supply chain disruption caused by the East Japan Earthquake. So far, we identified that Japanese semiconductor manufacturers and Japanese automotive manufacturers have been in cooperation to secure the semiconductor supply chain. However, the global electronic industry environment has been significantly changed and it is not enough just to consider natural disasters. With this perspective, it is not yet fully studied how Japanese semiconductor manufacturers adapted to global operation through organizational learning. This paper examines how a Japanese semiconductor firm conducted organizational learning and adapted to environmental changes in cross-border M&A transactions. Traditionally, Japanese firms have established organizational routines for the management control systems of their overseas subsidiaries by relying on the expatriates’ transactive memory systems (TMS), which is based on their personnel experiences over the countries and cultural background understanding. Japanese firms have used TMS of expats to manage their global organizations. Recently, however, not a small number of Japanese companies have accelerated their globalization through cross-border M&A, which requires organizational capabilities different from those of conventional TMS formation. In this paper, we studied a case of cross-border M&A of a Japanese semiconductor company by modeling the organizational learning structure throughout the extracted concepts summarizing semi-structure interview outcome. As a result, it has been found out that, by shifting from Japanese cultural norms to more global values in terms of management systems, benefits can be achieved. The company unlearned organizational routines that relied on TMS and created new organizational routines. This study provides direction from a practical perspective on how Japanese firms can transform their global organizations and adapt to changes in the environment for sustainable growth.
... Extraneous utterances unrelated to the research questions or overall topic of the study were not included as meaningful units (e.g., small talk at the start of the interview process and conversation about pets in WebEx window). We then used the constant comparative method (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to code meaningful units within the data. This systematic process involved assigning one or more codes to each meaningful unit. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore experiences with concealing stuttering in children and young people who stutter based on recollections from adults. In addition, we explored how school-based speech therapists can be helpful or unhelpful to children who are concealing stuttering from the perspective of adults who stutter. Method Thirty adults who stutter, who previously or currently conceal stuttering, participated in semistructured interviews exploring their early experiences with hiding stuttering. Purposeful and random sampling was used to diversify experiences and opinions. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to develop themes and subthemes to describe participants' experiences. Results All participants in the study reported beginning to conceal stuttering at 18 years of age or younger, with more than two thirds sharing that they began in elementary school. Participants reported that exposure to implicit and explicit ableist messaging about stuttering and traumatic social experiences at school contributed to their inclination to hide disfluencies. Many participants described concealment as a strategy for protecting themselves from stigma. Several participants condemned fluency shaping, calling it harmful and likening it to teaching concealment. Participants believed that speech therapists could be helpful by promoting safe and supportive school environments and by being responsive to the social and emotional challenges that can accompany speaking differently and navigating stigma at school. Conclusions Some children who stutter may attempt to protect themselves from stigma by concealing their disfluencies, but doing so can feel isolating and confusing. Speech therapists can play an important role in making the school environment safer and more supportive for children who stutter.
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The Brazilian General Data Protection Law (LGPD) implementation has impacted activities carried out by the software development teams. Due to it, developers had to become aware of the existing techniques and tools to carry out privacy requirements elicitation. Extending our previous work, we have investigated the actions taken by organizations regarding the LGPD, specifically in software development, considering the perception of agile development teams after two years of the LGPD implementation. In addition, we also investigated the perception of an agile team regarding the practices, techniques, and tools previously cited by practitioners as potential solutions for use in this context, along with techniques already in use in the current context. We have conducted a systematic literature review (SLR) and selected 36 primary studies. Furthermore, we have conducted a survey with 53 IT practitioners and semi-structured interviews with ten practitioners. The LGPD principles are known by most agile teams and are being implemented by the organizations, although the existing tools to support privacy requirements elicitation are still underused by agile teams. Moreover, agile teams consider that software requirements and software construction are the most impacted areas of knowledge by the LGPD, and most of them use user stories in privacy requirements elicitation. Our findings reveal that agile teams and Brazilian organizations are more concerned with user data privacy issues after the LGPD became effective. However, agile teams still face challenges in privacy requirements elicitation.
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Background Unaddressed impostor feelings that impede developing interest in science and self-efficacy in conducting research have a dispiriting effect that perpetuates unsatisfactory diversity in the health science workforce when such feelings are experienced more by those historically underrepresented in the workforce. This warrants effective interventions to reduce the impact of impostor feelings and related factors that diminish career resilience. We examined the effects of a 90-minute workshop on impostor perceptions and growth mindset to raise awareness of impostor phenomenon (IP) and develop skills to manage IP successfully for students attending a 10-week summer research experience program. Methods Using a convergent mixed-methods design, data were analyzed from 51 racially and ethnically diverse students who participated in an interactive IP workshop. Using students’ half-way and final progress reports about their summer experiences and pre- and post-summer online surveys, we identified how the workshop changed awareness of IP and helped students develop coping strategies. Results Students strongly endorsed the workshop, remarking that its content and personal stories from peers validated their own IP experiences and relieved anxiety by revealing how common the experience was. Many reported applying mindset-changing solutions, including positive self-talk, focusing their thinking on facts about themselves and situation, and grounding themselves firmly against potentially persuasive and confidence-eroding impostor feelings. While students reported end-of-summer impostor feelings at levels similar to before the program, they described being able to manage their feelings better and persist towards goals and challenging tasks. One measure of IP appeared to be addressed through students’ activation of a growth mindset, potentially explaining a specific mechanism for intervention. Discrepancies between qualitative responses and quantitative IP measures demand additional work on IP instruments. Conclusions A brief, theory-based IP workshop administered by research training programs, including those as short as 10-weeks, can have positive impact on subsequent IP experience and its successful management, with potential long-term impact on retention of a diverse biomedical research workforce.
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During an era in which serial killers simultaneously terrified and titillated the American public, Aileen Wuornos stood out in what had largely been, and continues to be, a boys' club. However, unlike her male counterparts, Wuornos incited revulsion rather than enthrallment. Indeed, even feminist advocacy groups, which had championed the right of abused women to defend themselves, were silent when it came to Wuornos's prosecution, incarceration, and execution. To understand this abdication requires consideration of the ways in which understandings of crime, specifically those involving women, are dichotomized. Two decades after the execution of Aileen Carol Wuornos, have these same binaries been bent?
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Improving citizens' water literacy level has gradually become one of the key elements to solve or alleviate water problems, which is of great significance in building a social water security system and promoting the harmonious development of man and nature. A fusion method—grounded systems analysis based on grounded theory and event systems theory is proposed in this study, which is used to explore the representation factors of water literacy and construct the main category chain through reverse tracking interview data and revealing each factor's mechanism. The research results show that: After encoding the original data, the water literacy characterization factor system including 4 main categories, 12 key categories, and 110 conceptualized sentences was obtained. The interaction between water knowledge and other main categories has a positive impact. There is no apparent direct relationship between water skills and water attitude, however, it can affect the implementation of water behavior. Water attitude can positively influence water behavior and has a moderating effect on each main category. The research conclusions can provide theoretical and decision‐making references for water literacy research, exploration, and practical work.
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Objetivo: explorar los factores sociales y de prestación de servicios de salud asociados al fenómeno de la Malaria en la costa pacífica del Departamento de Nariño (CPDN) con base en las vivencias de pacientes, líderes sociales y autoridades del sector salud de este territorio. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una investigación cualitativa empleando como metodología Teoría Fundamentada; la técnica de recolección de datos fue la entrevista en profundidad, las cuales se realizaron en el Municipio de Tumaco – Nariño a 36 personas distribuidas en tres grupos: que habían tenido Malaria, líderes comunitarios de áreas endémicas que hayan realizado trabajo social con Malaria y personal de salud que desempeñe labores directas de atención en Malaria. Resultados: se establecieron cuatro categorías selectivas que expresan la realidad del territorio y dan comprensión al fenómeno, a saber: Historia de un Olvido; Malaria: Realidad Tolerada en la CPDN; Atención en Salud de la Malaria: entre Luces y Sombras y; Tumaco Distrito Especial, Industrial y Biodiverso: ¿Un mejor futuro? Conclusión: la Malaria aun es una “realidad social” del diario vivir de las comunidades de la CPDN. Aceptación dada como resultado del abandono histórico del Estado, quien ausente deja al devenir la salud y la enfermedad de estos grupos humanos. Por lo que, para transformar esta realidad se requiere comprender el fenómeno de la Malaria en esta región del país a partir del entendimiento de la historia y de la realidad social que en ella se vive para poder transformarla.
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Background: It is well-established that social determinants of health contribute to health and well-being. Among the social determinants of health, health-related social needs (HRSNs) are unmet needs that can be identified by the health care system and addressed through referral to community services. Despite the importance of identifying patients with HRSNs, none of the few screening tools for HRSNs available internationally have received a comprehensive psychometric validation. The current study aims to conduct a qualitative validation of the Social Determinants of Health Screening Tool (SDoHST). Methods: This study took place at Lyell McEwin Hospital, a major tertiary hospital located in Adelaide, South Australia. Patient (n = 5) and stakeholder (n = 9) focus groups were conducted face to face, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Inductive content analysis of focus group transcripts was performed to inform tool modifications (e.g. item rewording). Results: The patient focus group recommended the addition of an explanatory paragraph to improve face validity, and highlighted the importance of reliable transport and internet access. The stakeholder focus group recommended using language that carries less stigma to this particular community and incorporating questions surrounding cultural, linguistic and spiritual needs. The final version of the SDoHST included 12 items (four original items were removed and seven new items were added during the validation process). Conclusion: The SDoHST is the first validated tool to measure social determinants of health (and specifically HRSNs) in Australia, receiving a comprehensive qualitative validation. The instrument is readily available and future studies will further investigate its psychometric properties with quantitative methods.
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To provide a theoretical basis for deepening digital reform in the construction industry and explore the innovation path of the digital construction industry, this research uses patent data for Guangdong Province to carry out explanatory sequence research. First, this research analyzes the dynamic evolution process of networks in the digital construction industry by using social network analysis. Then, grounded theory is used to conduct qualitative research to explore the innovation path of the digital construction industry. The results show that the scale of the innovation network of the digital construction industry is continually expanding and the digital carriers are becoming increasingly diverse. Influenced by the diversification of digital carriers, the research theme of the digital construction industry is beginning to develop in the direction of intelligence. The findings indicate that the use of mixed methods improves the robustness of the results and that the quantitative research results are explained by the qualitative research results. This research not only contributes to information development in the construction industry but also provides a theoretical basis for deepening digital reform in the construction industry.
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Background: COVID-19 epidemic has lasted for nearly 3 years, and revolutionized social life. In the study, in-depth interviews were conducted with Chinese undergraduate students to explore their understanding and experience of meaning in life. Meaning of life is interpreted from four aspects: life goals, life value, life enthusiasm, and life freedom. These four aspects are independent yet interrelated. Based on the free grasp of life, individuals explore and pursue the true meaning of life goals, acquire life value in evaluating the completion of life goals, and subsequently experience enthusiasm for life. Life enthusiasm and the perception of life value can help individuals to further understand and possess their meaning of life. Materials and methods: The present study adopts the qualitative method to understand the experience of meaning in life among Chinese undergraduate students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and six people participated the study. The Grounded Theory was adopted to analyze the qualitative data. Results: (1) Chinese undergraduates had clear life goals and obtained a certain sense of achievement and satisfaction when striving for these goals. (2) The life value of Chinese undergraduates was mainly to their families, but there was also a willingness to make due contributions to the country and society. (3) Chinese undergraduates' feelings about life were polarized, but they all expressed the view of "living in the moment and cherishing the present." (4) Chinese undergraduate students see life freedom as freedom of choice and generally believed that COVID-19 did not restrict their lives very much. (5) Chinese undergraduate students gained a deeper understanding of meaning in life after this major public health emergency.
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The aim of this methodological article is to provide a practical example of the application of substantive theorizing to the area of educational research according to the principles of Grounded Theory. While most GT applications end up in a thematic-like manner of presentation and analysis by emphasizing open/substantive coding and how it is related to interview fragments, we attempt to highlight the move from connecting categories to making abstractions by using matrices. We suggest that substantive theorizing should entail 3 analytic stages which correspond to three different levels of abstraction: First, researchers have to clearly define the properties and the dimensions of the main categories as they emerged from in vivo coding, second, they have to provide matrices which show how categories are connected and, third, they must clarify how these connections cover the diversity of data bits and are explained by a core (theoretical) category.
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i>Researching hard-to-reach populations that are criminally active is difficult. Gaining access to these populations is essential to the success of the project, however, strategies to obtain access can involve navigating through complex and dangerous situations. Prior research has identified a range of factors that can influence the ability of researchers to gain access to offenders. Qualitative projects that encompass obtaining information from individuals mandate researchers to consider from whom they need to gain information, and how to appeal to the individuals. This relationship building is facilitated by strategies of gaining access that aid not only the recruitment of participants but also increase the quality of interactions and data collection. In this paper, we examine the importance of identity, rapport, and commitment acts in relationship building to gain access to active offenders in fieldwork. This contribution offers examples in which researchers can negotiate the difficulties in gaining access.</i
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There is an increasing interest within the field of Information Systems as well as political agendas to identify the potential of digital technologies to promote sustainable development. Nonetheless, sustainable entrepreneurship and digital entrepreneurship are widely treated separately within the literature, suggesting that there is little understanding of how entrepreneurs could employ digital technologies to promote sustainable development. Based on an empirical, qualitative research approach, relying on Grounded Theory methodology, this paper identifies characteristics of sustainable digital entrepreneurs. An investigation of the manifestations of the sustainable digital orientation reveals a rather diffuse understanding of the relation and potential synergy effects. In response to this gap, the paper presents examples on how sustainable digital entrepreneurs employ digital and disruptive technologies to tackle sustainability challenges (IT4Sustainability development path), including information and communication technology, such as digital platforms, artificial intelligence, or drone technology. The presented approaches range from second-mover approaches associated with low digital maturity limited to the business level to the development of new business models facilitating the sustainable transition of whole sectors. These insights are summarized in an IT4Sustainability maturity model, which presents different starting points for entrepreneurs. Relevant theoretical, practical, and policy implications are discussed, especially concerning the education on IT4Sustainability, including Corporate Digital Responsibility.KeywordsIT4SustainabilityDigitalizationSustainabilityEntrepreneurship
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