Relationship between anthropometric parameters, physiological responses, routes and competition results in formula windsurfing

Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis 01/2009; 14:95-110. DOI: 10.12697/akut.2009.14.07


Formula windsurfing is faster than the Olympic version, due to a number of unique differences. This study was designed to identify the importance of anthropometric and cardiac factors on the final result of the European Formula Windsurf Championships (2007). We selected 45 competitors (30 amateurs and 15 professionals) of 30±9.77 years of age, a height of 182.6±0.06 cm, a weight of 81.67±7.35 kg and a BMI of 24.7±2.1 kg. They were divided into three groups (PG: 15; TG: 45 and GPSG: 12). We followed the recommendations of Carter and Marfell-Jones for the anthropometric measurements. The route, speed, distance and heart rate were recorded using an FRWD W600 GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. The anthropometric measurements indicate a professional profile with 2.3±0.4 endomorphy 5±0.8 mesomorphy and 2.4±0.6 ectomorphy. Arm span and fat mass show a significant (p≤0.02) and very significant (p≤0.005) correlation with the final classification. The average speed was 11.84±2.38 km·h-1, the heart rate varied from 128 to 180 b·min-1 and the average was 127.62±13.73 b·min-1. The distances covered (12784.77±5522.19 m) and the times used for the races (2049.3±989.68 s) were very variable. This will assist not only in initial selection for the sport, but also in the design of training programmes which further develop that morphology, where possible, in the pursuit of improved performance. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR

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    • "Its practice depends on three basic conditions: the athlete, environment, and equipment. Little is known about metabolism in windsurfing athletes because most articles in this area have focused on physiological parameters (Campillo et al., 2007; Castagna et al., 2007, 2008; Chamari et al., 2003; Melis et al., 2003; Pérez-Turpin et al., 2009; Vogiatzis et al., 2002) and injuries (Dyson et al., 2006; Hetsroni et al., 2006; McCormick and Davis, 1988; Nathanson and Reinert, 1999; Nathanson et al., 2008; Neville and Folland, 2009; Nickel et al., 2004; Orchard et al. 2002; Petersen et al., 2003). The tactical and strategic decisions needed during a windsurfing competition require a mixture of force and resistance training. "
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    ABSTRACT: Physical exercise affects hematological equilibrium and metabolism. This study evaluated the biochemical and hematological responses of a male world-class athlete in sailing who is ranked among the top athletes on the official ISAF ranking list of windsurfing, class RS:X. The results describe the metabolic adaptations of this athlete in response to exercise in two training situations: the first when the athlete was using the usual training and dietary protocol, and the second following training and nutritional interventions based on a careful analysis of his diet and metabolic changes measured in a simulated competition. The intervention protocol for this study consisted of a 3-month facility-based program using neuromuscular training (NT), aerobic training (AT), and nutritional changes to promote anabolism and correct micronutrient malnutrition. Nutritional and training intervention produced an increase in the plasma availability of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), aromatic amino acids (AAAs), alanine, glutamate, and glutamine during exercise. Both training and nutritional interventions reduced ammonemia, uricemia, and uremia. In addition, we are able to correct a significant drop in potassium levels during races by correct supplementation. Due to the uniqueness of this experiment, these results may not apply to other windsurfers, but we nonetheless had the opportunity to characterize the metabolic adaptations of this athlete. We also proposed the importance of in-field metabolic analyses to the understanding, support, and training of world-class elite athletes.
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