Article

Regression in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Cognitive Neurophysiology Laboratory, Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Temple University, 1701 N. 13th St., Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA.
Neuropsychology Review (Impact Factor: 4.59). 12/2008; 18(4):305-319. DOI: 10.1007/s11065-008-9073-y

ABSTRACT

A significant proportion of children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorder experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously-acquired skills. This may involve a loss of speech or social responsitivity. but often entails both. This paper critically reviews the phenomena of regression in autistic spectrum disorders, highlighting the characteristics of regression, age of onset, temporal course, and long-term outcome. Important considerations for diagnosis are discussed and multiple etiological factors Currently hypothesized to underlie the phenomenon are reviewed. It is argued that regressive autistic spectrum disorders can be conceptualized on a spectrum with other regressive disorders that may share common pathophysiological features. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed.

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    • "These signs all begin before a child is three years old [1]. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood [2]. Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations, or by rare combinations of common genetic variants [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Autism is known as a neurobiological developmental disorder which affects language, communication, and cognitive skill. In the case of autism attention shift impairment and strong familiarity preference are considered to be prime deficiencies. Attention shift impairment is one of the most seen behavioral disorders found in autistic patients. We have model this behavior by employing self-organizing feature map (SOFM).
    Full-text · Conference Paper · Jan 2015
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    • "These signs all begin before a child is three years old [1]. Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize; how this occurs is not well understood [2]. Autism has a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations, or by rare combinations of common genetic variants [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autism is known as a neurobiological developmental disorder which affects language, communication, and cognitive skill. In the case of autism attention shift impairment and strong familiarity preference are considered to be prime deficiencies. Attention shift impairment is one of the most seen behavioral disorders found in autistic patients. We have model this behavior by employing self-organizing feature map (SOFM).
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015
    • "To date, findings are mixed in terms of the effects of regression on ASD-symptom severity and cognitive/adaptivefunctioning outcomes (see Rogers, 2004; Stefanatos, 2008, for reviews). For example, Lord, Schulman, and DiLavore (2004) conducted a longitudinal examination of 110 children with ASD from ages 2 to 5, using the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised (ADI-R) to classify children as having regressed or not. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies using varied methods report that developmental regression occurs in a sizeable proportion of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Findings are equivocal as to whether regression is associated with poorer cognitive and adaptive functioning. This study examined retrospective parent report in 2105 Simons Simplex Collection participants with ASD. Children were classified as having “full” or “subthreshold” losses on language and/or other skills using items from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and a supplemental interview to capture more subtle regressions. Overall, 36.9% of children had some type of regression (27.8% language, 27.0% other-skill loss), with the supplemental interview capturing 11.7% of losses that would have been missed using the ADI-R alone. This figure is consistent with previous parent-report studies but lower than clinician-observed rates in prospective investigations. Early language losses—either full or subthreshold—and full other-skill losses appear to be associated with more deleterious outcomes by middle childhood. Findings may signify the need for more immediate and/or intense therapies for children who have even minor skill losses, particularly in language skills. Results further demonstrate the utility of an expanded set of additional queries with slightly modified criteria to capture such early, subtle losses.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders
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