Conference PaperPDF Available

Life cycle assessment of cultured meat production


Abstract and Figures

Cultured meat is produced in vitro by using tissue engineering techniques. It is being developed as a poten-tially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. The goal of this study was to estimate energy use, land requirements, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for large-scale cultured meat produc-tion. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing the environmental impacts along the production chain. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that cultured meat production involves approximately 35-60% lower energy use, 80-95% lower GHG emissions and 98% lower land use compared to conventionally pro-duced meat products in Europe. Conventionally produced poultry had slightly lower energy use than cultured meat. It is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.
Content may be subject to copyright.
7th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-Food Sector, 22nd - 24th
September 2010, Bari, Italy
Life cycle assessment of cultured meat production
Hanna L. Tuomisto1 and M. Joost Teixeira de Mattos2
1University of Oxford, Wildlife Conservation Research Unit, Tubney House, Abingdon Road, Tubney, Oxon
OX13 5QL, UK,
2University of Amsterdam, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Molecular Microbial Physiology
Group, NL-1018 WV Amsterdam, Netherlands
Cultured meat is produced in vitro by using tissue engineering techniques. It is being developed as a poten-
tially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. The goal of this study was to estimate
energy use, land requirements, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for large-scale cultured meat produc-
tion. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing the environmental impacts along
the production chain. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source
for muscle cell growth. The results showed that cultured meat production involves approximately 35-60%
lower energy use, 80-95% lower GHG emissions and 98% lower land use compared to conventionally pro-
duced meat products in Europe. Conventionally produced poultry had slightly lower energy use than cultured
meat. It is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially
lower than those of conventionally produced meat.
Keywords: in vitro meat, environmental impacts, energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, land use
1. Introduction
Meat production is one of the major contributors to global environmental degradation.
Currently, livestock raised for meat uses 30% of global ice-free terrestrial land and produces
18 % of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which is more than the global transporta-
tion sector (FAO, 2006). Livestock production is also one of the main drivers of deforesta-
tion and degradation of wildlife habitats. Due to increasing population size and per capita
meat consumption in the developing world, global meat consumption is expected to double
between 1999 and 2050 (FAO, 2006). Such an increase will also double meat’s impacts on
the environment unless more efficient meat production methods are adopted.
One proposed method for reducing the negative environmental impacts of meat produc-
tion is to grow only animal muscle tissue in vitro, instead of growing whole animals
(Edelman et al., 2005). This technology is called cultured meat (or in vitro meat) produc-
tion, and it is currently in a research stage. The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential
environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production and compare them with con-
ventionally produced meat products.
2. Materials and methods
The goal of this study is to estimate the energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and land
use of cultured meat production. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology based on
ISO14044 guidelines is used (ISO, 2006). The functional unit (FU), towards which all the
impacts are allocated, is 1000 kg of cultured meat with dry matter (DM) content of 30% and
protein content of 19.1%.
The system boundaries cover the major processes from input production up to the factory
gate (Figure 1), including production of input materials and fuels, production of the feed-
stock, and growth of muscle cells. It is assumed that cyanobacteria hydrolysate is used as the
source of nutrients and energy for muscle cell production. Cyanobacteria are assumed to be
cultivated in an open pond. The protein content of cyanobacteria species varies generally be-
tween 50-70% of DM (Richmond, 1988), and in this study a protein content of 64% of DM
was assumed. After harvesting, the cyanobacteria biomass is sterilised and hydrolysed in
order to break down the cells. The stem cells are taken from an animal embryo. The quantity
of stem cells needed for producing 1000 kg cultured meat is relatively low, and therefore the
impacts related to the production of the stem cells are not included in this study. Engineered
Escherichia coli bacteria are used for the production of specific growth factors that induce
the stem cells to differentiate into muscle cells. The muscle cells are grown on a medium
composed of the cyanobacterial hydrolysate supplemented with the growth factors and vita-
mins in a bioreactor. The production of growth factors, vitamins and the animals used for
source of the stem cells are not included in this study, due to their minor contribution to the
Figure 1: The system diagram of cultured meat production and the cyanobacteria biomass flows (kg
The primary energy conversion factors and GHG emission factors for energy sources are
based on the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD, 2009) and Cherubini et al.
(2009). In this study it is assumed that diesel is used in the cultivation of cyanobacteria oper-
ations and transportation of the biomass, and electricity for sterilisation and muscle cell cul-
It is assumed that cyanobacteria hydrosylate is used as an energy and nutrient source for
the growth and proliferation of the muscle cells. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria species are
assumed to be used. Cyanobacteria biomass is assumed to be cultivated in an open pond
(0.30 m deep) and harvested by using sedimentation and continuous vacuum belt filters. The
energy requirements used for cultivation of cyanobacteria, harvesting, fertiliser production
and construction and maintenance of the facility are based on the data from Chisti (2008).
Recorded annual production quantities of cyanobacteria vary globally between 7-110
tDM ha-1 (Richmond, 1988; Belay, 1997). In this paper cyanobacteria yield of 30 tDM ha-1
year-1 and 25 g m-2 d-1 are assumed.
It is assumed that the cyanobacteria biomass is transported without drying for 50 km, as-
suming an energy need of 2.6 MJ t-1 km-1 (Liu and Ma, 2009).
Table 1 shows the specifications used for sterilisation and the cultivation processes. The
volume of the culture is assumed to be 30 m3, by assuming maximum muscle cell density of
1*1010 cells dm-3 and weight of a cell 1*10-12 kg.
It is assumed that the bioreactor is made from stainless steel. Production of 1 kg stainless
steel requires 30.6 MJ primary energy and emits 3.38 kg CO2-eq kg-1 (ELCD, 2009). The
bioreactor is assumed to be used for 20 years.
Table 1: Specifications for sterilisation of cyanobacteria biomass and cultivation of muscle cells.
Method: autoclaving
volume 1500 l, power 140 kW, temperature 220°C, time 20 min
Muscle cell cultivation
Method: cylinder stirred-tank bioreactor
volume 1000 l, height 1.72 m, diameter 0.86 m, weight 93 kg, 80% maximum filling capacity, cell density
1*1010 cells dm-3, time per run 60 days, temperature 37°C, rotation 100 rpm, aeration 0.05 vvm, power input
for agitation 25 W m-3 (Varley and Birch, 1999), power requirement for aeration was 16 W m-3 (Harding et
al., 2007)
3. Results
Total energy use and GHG emissions of producing 1000 kg cultured meat are presented
in Table 2. The energy use for producing cyanobacteria accounts for approximately 8% of
total energy use and 15% of GHG emissions. The cultivation process of muscle cells has the
greatest contribution to the results, accounting for 80% of total energy use and 74% of total
GHG emissions. Sterilisation of the cyanobacteria biomass accounts for approximately 11%
of total energy use and 9% of GHG emissions. Transportation of the cyanobacteria biomass
to the cultured meat production facility has only a minor contribution (less than 2%) to both
of the impacts.
The land requirements for producing feedstock for cultured meat production vary accord-
ing to the location of the facility. Here it is estimated that the world average land requirement
for cultivation of cyanobacteria is approximately 240 m2 ha FU-1. In the highest-yielding re-
gions, the land requirement may be as low as 120 m2 FU-1, while in the lowest-yielding re-
gions the land requirement may be as high as 480 m2 FU-1.
Table 2: Primary energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of producing a Functional Unit
(FU) of 1000 kg cultured meat
Primary Energy GHG
-1 kg CO2-eq FU-1
Construction and maintenance 0.68 66
Cultivation 1.49 145
Harvesting 0.05 5
TOTAL 2.22 217
Steel production 0.98 108
Aeration 7.89 396
Rotation 12.32 618
TOTAL 21.19 1122
TOTAL 26.64 1508
4. Discussion
The results show that cultured meat production emits substantially less GHG emissions
and requires only a fraction of land compared to conventional meat production in Europe
(Table 3). Energy requirements of cultured meat production are lower compared to beef,
sheep and pork, but higher compared to poultry production. As a comparison with cultivated
Atlantic salmon (Pelletier and Tyedmers, 2007), cultured meat has approximately 36% lower
energy input and 53% lower GHG emissions.
Table 3: Environmental impacts of producing 1000 kg of edible meat (calculated from original data)
Source Energy use GHG emissions Land use
2-eq ha
Cultured meat (this study) 26.64 1.5 0.02
Casey and Holden (2006) 55
Kumm (2002) 1.35
Williams et al. (2006) 71.83 40.97 5.96
Elferink and Nonhebel (2007) 7.52
Williams et al. (2006) 50.71 38.2 3.03
Kumm (2002) 1.57
Basset-Mens and van der Werf (2005) 47.59 6.88 1.63
Williams et al. (2006) 37.48 14.25 1.66
Elferink and Nonhebel (2007) 2.24
Dalgaard et al. (2007) 8.46 2.04
Williams et al. (2006) 23.3 8.90 1.24
Elferink and Nonhebel (2007) 1.46
The energy input calculations of cultured meat production in this study are based on
many assumptions, and therefore, have high uncertainty. Energy consumption for cultured
meat production may be higher if additional processing is required for improving the texture
of meat. However, the efficiency of both cultivation of cyanobacteria and muscle cell culti-
vation can be improved by technology development. For example, closed bioreactors for
cyanobacteria and microalgae production could improve the efficiency of biomass produc-
tion (Ugwu et al., 2008).
Table 3 shows that the energy input for cultured meat production is 63, 47 and 37 %
lower compared to conventionally produced beef, sheep and pork, respectively, but requires
14 % more energy compared to conventionally produced poultry. However, energy input
alone does not necessarily provide a sufficient indicator about the energy performance, if the
opportunity costs of land use are not taken into account (Tuomisto et al., 2009). Cultured
meat production requires only about 2% of the land area that is used for producing the same
mass of conventionally produced poultry meat. Therefore, more land could be used for
bioenergy production and it can be argued that the overall energy efficiency of cultured meat
would be more favourable.
As the majority of GHG emissions during the production of cultured meat are associated
with the use of fuels and electricity, the emissions could be reduced by using renewable en-
ergy sources. In conventional meat production, the potential for reducing GHG emissions is
more limited, because most of the emissions are due to methane from manure and ruminants’
enteric fermentation, and nitrous oxide from soil. The replacement of conventionally pro-
duced meat by cultured meat could potentially contribute to the mitigation of GHG emis-
sions, because instead of clearing more land for agriculture, large land areas could be refor-
ested or used for other carbon sequestration purposes.
Cultured meat production could also have potential benefits for wildlife conservation for
two main reasons: i) it reduces pressure for converting natural habitats to agricultural land,
and ii) it provides an alternative way of producing meat from endangered and rare species
that are currently over-hunted or – fished for food. Cultured meat production also has sub-
stantially lower nutrient losses to waterways compared to conventionally produced meat,
since wastewaters from cyanobacteria production can be more efficiently controlled com-
pared to run-offs from agricultural fields.
This study concentrated only on the production chain from input production up to the fac-
tory or farm gate, and therefore, does not provide the full comparison of the impacts during
the whole life cycle of the products. However, it can be estimated that the relative impacts of
cultured meat maybe even lower if the whole product life cycles were compared. The trans-
portation requirements for cultured meat are likely to be lower, since whole animals are not
transported and the production sites may locate closer to the consumers. Also refrigeration
needs may be reduced, since cultured meat would potentially have less microbial contami-
nants compared to slaughtered meat. Further research is needed for estimating the total envi-
ronmental impacts of cultured meat production during the whole life cycle from production
to the consumer.
5. Acknowledgements
We thank New Harvest for funding the project.
6. References
Basset-Mens C., van der Werf H.M.G. (2005): Scenario-based environmental assessment
of farming systems: the case of pig production in France. Agriculture, Ecosystems &
Environment 105(1-2) pp. 127-144.
Belay A. (1997): Mass Culture of Spirulina Outdoors -The Earthrise Farms Experience.
In Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): Physiology, Cell-biology and Biotechnology, ed. A.
Vonshak, 233. London: Taylor & Francis Ltd.
Casey J.W., Holden N.M. (2006): Quantification of GHG emissions from sucker-beef
production in Ireland. Agricultural Systems 90(1-3) pp. 79-98.
Cherubini F., Bird N.D., Cowie A., Jungmeier G., Schlamadinger B., Woess-Gallasch S.
(2009): Energy- and greenhouse gas-based LCA of biofuel and bioenergy systems: Key
issues, ranges and recommendations. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 53(8) pp. 434-
Chisti Y. (2008): Response to Reijnders: Do biofuels from microalgae beat biofuels from
terrestrial plants? Trends in Biotechnology 26(7) pp. 351-352.
Dalgaard R.J. (2007): The environmental impact of pork production from a life cycle
perspective. In Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, PhD thesis 135 p. Tjele: University of
Edelman P.D., McFarland D.C., Mironov V.A., Matheny J.G. (2005): Commentary: In
Vitro-Cultured Meat Production. Tissue Engineering, 11(5-6) pp. 659-662.
ELCD (2009): European Reference Life Cycle Database ed. E. Comission.
Elferink E. V., Nonhebel S. (2007): Variations in land requirements for meat production.
Journal of Cleaner Production, 15(18) pp. 1778-1786.
FAO (2006): Livestock’s long shadow –environmental issues and options. 390. Rome:
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Harding K.J., Dennis J.S., von Blottnitz H., Harrison S.T.L. (2007): Environmental
analysis of plastic production processes: Comparing petroleum based polypropylene and
polyethylene with biologically-based poly-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis.
Journal of biotechnology, 130(1) pp. 57-66.
ISO 14044 (2006): Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements
and quidelines. International Organization for Standardization.
Kumm K.I. (2002): Sustainability of organic meat production under Swedish conditions.
Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment, 88(1) pp. 95-101.
Liu J., Ma X. (2009): The analysis on energy and environmental impacts of microalgae-
based fuel methanol in China. Energy Policy, 37(4) pp. 1479-1488.
Pelletier N., Tyedmers P. (2007): Feeding farmed salmon: Is organic better? Aquaculture,
272(1-4) pp. 399-416.
Richmond A. (1988): Spirulina. In Micro-algal biotechnology, eds. M. A. Borowitzka &
L. J. Borowitzka, 477. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tuomisto, H.L., Hodge I.D., Riordan P., Macdonald D.W. (2009): Assessing the
environmental impacts of contrasting farming systems. Aspects of Applied Biology, 93(1) pp.
Ugwu C.U., Aoyagi H., Uchiyama H. (2008): Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of
algae. Bioresource Technology, 99(10) pp. 4021-4028.
Varley J., Birch J. (1999): Reactor design for large scale suspension animal cell culture.
Cytotechnology, 29(3) pp. 177-205.
Williams A.G., Audsley E., Sandars D.L. (2006): Determining the environmental burdens
and resource use in the production of agricultural and horticultural commodities. Main
Report. Defra Research Project IS0205. Bedford.
... Several studies indicated that meat substitutes had a lower environmental impact than meat (Håkansson et al. 2005;Nonhebel and Raats 2007;Raats 2007;Blonk et al. 2008;Finnigan et al. 2010;Head et al. 2011;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;Berardy 2012;Oonincx and de Boer 2012;Van Huis et al. 2013). However, limitations of transportation systems or regional production specifics, used in global supply chains, could increase environmental impacts for soy and milk products. ...
... The LCA relies on data collected from multiple sources. It uses Ecoinvent 3 and LCA Food DK databases to identify the impact of raw materials growing and harvesting (Nielsen et al. 2003;Weidema et al. 2013); published data on meat substitute production, processing, and environmental impact (Berk 1992;Berlin 2002;Raats 2007;Blonk et al. 2008;Dalgaard et al. 2008;Finnigan et al. 2010;Tuomisto and De Mattos 2010;Head et al. 2011;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;van Zeist et al. 2012;Oonincx and de Boer 2012;Van Huis et al. 2013;Deng et al. 2013); and primary data of highmoisture extrusion processes (Table 1) from the German Institute of Food Technologies (DIL e.V.). The same global average databases, aimed for allocation, are used for the comparison analysis. ...
... The LCA relies on data collected from multiple sources. It uses Ecoinvent 3 and LCA Food DK databases to identify the impact of raw materials growing and harvesting (Nielsen et al. 2003;Weidema et al. 2013); published data on meat substitute production, processing, and environmental impact (Berk 1992;Berlin 2002;Raats 2007;Blonk et al. 2008;Dalgaard et al. 2008;Finnigan et al. 2010;Tuomisto and De Mattos 2010;Head et al. 2011;Tuomisto and de Mattos 2011;van Zeist et al. 2012;Oonincx and de Boer 2012;Van Huis et al. 2013;Deng et al. 2013); and primary data of highmoisture extrusion processes (Table 1) from the German Institute of Food Technologies (DIL e.V.). The same global average databases, aimed for allocation, are used for the comparison analysis. ...
Full-text available
Open available: Purpose Food production is among the highest human environmental impacting activities. Agriculture itself accounts for 70–85 % of the water footprint and 30 % of world greenhouse gas emissions (2.5 times more than global transport). Food production’s projected increase in 70 % by 2050 highlights the importance of environmental impacts connected with meat production. The production of various meat substitutes (plant-based, mycoprotein-based, dairy-based, and animal-based substitutes) aims to reduce the environmental impact caused by livestock. This article outlined the comparative analysis of meat substitutes’ environmental performance in order to estimate the most promising options. Methods The study considered “cradle-to-plate” meal life cycle with the application of ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ methods. Inventory was based on literature and field data. Functional unit (FU) was 1 kg of a ready-to-eat meal at a consumer. The study evaluated alternative FU (the equivalent of 3.75 MJ energy content of fried chicken lean meat and 0.3 kg of digested dry matter protein content) as a part of sensitivity analysis. Results and discussion Results showed the highest impacts for lab-grown meat and mycoprotein-based analogues (high demand for energy for medium cultivation), medium impacts for chicken (local feed), and dairy-based and gluten-based meat substitutes, and the lowest impact for insect-based and soy meal-based substitutes (by-products allocated). Alternative FU confirmed the worst performance of lab-grown and mycoprotein-based analogues. The best performing products were insect-based and soy meal-based substitutes and chicken. The other substitutes had medium level impacts. The results were very sensitive to the changes of FU. Midpoint impact category results were the same order of magnitude as a previously published work, although wide ranges of possible results and system boundaries made the comparison with literature data not reliable. Conclusions and recommendations The results of the comparison were highly dependable on selected FU. Therefore, the proposed comparison with different integrative FU indicated the lowest impact of soy meal-based and insect-based substitutes (with given technology level development). Insect-based meat substitute has a potential to be more sustainable with the use of more advanced cultivation and processing techniques. The same is applicable to lab-grown meat and in a minor degree to gluten, dairy, and mycoprotein-based substitutes.
Full-text available
Stem cells are extraordinary cells with a unique ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various cell types such as muscle, nerve, bone, and blood cells. Historically, they have found significant applications in the biotech and pharma sectors. To grow and maintain stem cells artificially, researchers use basal media formulations supplemented with nutrients and growth factors, with Fetal bovine serum (FBS) as the key component of the culture medium. However, to maintain this supply every year, millions of pregnant cows are slaughtered for preparing FBS. The process of harvesting FBS also raises concerns about contamination with pathogens, animal proteins that may interfere with cellular behavior and ethical considerations regarding animal welfare. To overcome these limitations, here we report ClearX9-Stem™ - an affordable, sustainable, effective, and ethical replacement for an FBS-enriched stem cell culture medium. A specialized ClearX9-Stem™ cell culture medium formulation was designed to grow chicken embryonic fibroblast (SL-29) in the absence of FBS. Based on the results obtained, ClearX9-Stem™ is undergoing further refinement to meet the growing academic and industrial demand for serum-free culture media formulations. In the future, there is a need to customize and optimize ClearX9-Stem™ for the scalable growth of cells in bioreactors. HIGHLIGHTS ClearX9-Stem™ provides good nutritional support for the growth of chicken embryonic fibroblast cells. ClearX9-Stem™ cell growth performance is comparable to the serum-enriched culture medium ClearX9-Stem™ maintains a healthy morphological profile of cells during division ClearX9-Stem™ generates a stress-free environment within cells ClearX9-Stem™ does not require animal slaughter and reduces the environmental footprint ClearX9-Stem™ has applications in the biotechnology, pharma, and cell-cultivated meat industries
Full-text available
Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) is a nutrient-rich fluid that contains nutritional and macromolecular factors essential for cell growth. Every year millions of pregnant cows are slaughtered in search of FBS leading to huge environmental consequences. Here we report ClearX9™ - an affordable, sustainable, ethical, and effective replacement for FBS. ClearX9™ cell culture medium was used to grow HeLa (cervical cancer cells), HEK293T (embryonic kidney transformed cells) and Nthy Ori-3-1 (primary thyroid follicular transformed epithelial cells) and showed encouraging growth patterns and good cellular health. Compared with the FBS-enriched cell culture medium, ClearX9™ scored positive on all the parameters suggesting ClearX9™ as a credible alternative to FBS. In future, more work is required to establish the efficacy of ClearX9™ in toxicology testing, bio-manufacturing, regenerative medicine, and vaccine research. HIGHLIGHTS ClearX9™ provides good nutritional support for the growth of animal cells ClearX9™ cell growth performance is comparable to the serum-enriched medium ClearX9™ maintains a healthy morphological profile of cells during division ClearX9™ generates a stress-free environment within cells ClearX9™ does not require animal slaughter and reduces carbon footprint ClearX9™ has applications in biotechnology and cell cultivated meat industry
The key factor in the Global eco-failure scenario is not the emissions regarded as CO2, which, regardless of content only contributes 1% of the Total Greenhouse Effect, the other 99% being the result of industrial and Animal Agriculture nitrous oxide and methane. Nonetheless, the gasses are not the source of the problem. The Total Global Energy Output us an upward trend toward the current 5E20 Joules per year, consistently for 50 years, is 2.5E22 Joules. In perspective, as thermonuclear* release, 1-Megaton thermonuclear [fusion boosted fission] yields 4E15 Joules. The total 50-year yield is 6,250,00 Megaton equivalent; 125GT per year, Hiroshima was 6E13 Joules; meaning, our daily output is equal to 22,830 Hiroshima bombs. It does not take a great deal of intellectual prowess to conclude the problem is not gas, but pure industrial production and uncontrolled release of energy. Immediately below, the Lunar Ranging Data overlays with the Anderson-Zyga 5.9 year sinusoidal cycle for the measurement of G, which is evident in the second significant figure, a very huge error. Regardless of hypotheses why, the Antarctic plate Gravitational Uplift as a result of deglaciation is also an exact fit. Antarctica has lost 3-trillion metric tons of ice, discussed below, has led to gravimetric uplift of the entire Antarctic tectonic plate. As shown and modelled below; the moon is literally wobbling in orbit so immensely that the Lunar Ranging Project cannot determine a value of 4cm ± 2cm, which is a huge error. Consequently, the inability to measure the elusive Gravitational Constant, and validate other General Relativistic principles is laid to waste by the fact that the alinear wobble of Earth and equilibration actually, as Zyga shows, goes through a 5.9 year cycle of G drifting sinusoidally. As I show the Gravimetric Tuv for this below, this is an equilibration issue between the Antarctic uplift and the Moon's settling back into a stable orbit. Where everything from 'Dark Matter Drifts' and 'Dark Energy Ripples' have been figured into this elusive behavior, the mundane answer is melting ice, as a direct result of being melted. The amount of energy required to melt 1-trillion metric tons of fresh water ice is about 3E17 Joules. Hence, we have released the amount necessary to melt the 3-trillion metric tons of Antarctic deglaciation every year, for the past 50 years. The notion that there is no causal relationship is formally dismissed. The Himalayan uprise has doubled from 2 to 4cm per year, the mag 6 earthquake activity has increased by an order of magnitude, the impassible North-West passage is totally void of ice. In the ultimate perspective, as a Gravitational model, the ripple literally will extend out to infinity, as the Earth-Moon go through this play of bungee behavior. This is all just to put this in perspective.
Full-text available
An update of this paper will be available March 2019. The Climate Change Model in Chaos Theory in the upcoming March updates describes this as the Energy Release in energy production of 5E22 Joules; as a Joule*K equivalent [as 'thermo-nuclear,' e.g. fusion-boosted fission] of 300-million Hiroshima bombs in 50 years; 5 billion times the amount of energy required to melt Antarctica. [That portion is 'arithmetic']. This is straight forward as not a CO2 issue; but the release of 1E22 Joule*K of uncontained energy into Earth's ecosystem. We then examine the 3 trillion metric tone loss of ice in Antractica; and the measured and validated gravitational uplift that has occurred as a result. This establishes causality in human industrial activity, and the observed, measured, and quantified gravitational uplift of the Southern Tectonic Plate. In turn, the Tectonic Map of Earth has shifted, as a 'floating' system, and we have quantified the Himalayas increase from 2 to 4.5 cm/year rise. This in turn has resulted in a 10-fold increase in Mag 6 earthquakes in 25 years. I show the Trace Matrix of Tuv [General Relativity], and in fact, this 'wobble' is observed in 1: exactly proportional to very precise aberrations in the Moon's orbital vector and distance, 2: resulting in a 5.9 year equilibrium cycle that is quantified in the measurement of G: whose anomaly, hitherto unexplained, is an 800 page text of the CRC qualifying the reported value G. That paper will be avialable, again, in March. This paper is a collection of Chaotic Models; all of which [about 12] cross at a 300 year endpoint for the Holocene Extinction.
Full-text available
World meat consumption has increased considerably during recent decades at the same time as questions about the sustainability of livestock systems. The aim of the paper is to investigate whether organic meat production can be more sustainable than conventional meat production. Organic meat production is supposed to use ecological resources, such as natural grasslands and by-products with low alternative value together with fodder that is grown without artificial fertilisers and pesticides. The organic animals are given the possibility of more natural behaviour, for example, they stay outdoors all year in nature and use simple buildings. For organic meat production to expand in a sustainable way, consumers must perceive it as at least as good as conventional production regarding environmental quality and price. Therefore, possible future organic and conventional meat production are compared regarding production costs, land requirements, soil conservation, nature conservation, energy needs, and chemical requirements as well as the discharge of nitrogen and greenhouse gases.The results suggest that organic production can be more sustainable than conventional production for beef and lamb, but not for pork. Organic beef and lamb production has advantages compared with conventional pig production regarding soil conservation, nature conservation and independence of chemicals. However, the production costs and discharge of nitrogen and greenhouse gases per kilo of meat are larger than in conventional pork production. Organic production also needs more land, which limits its sustainability if land for food production and energy crops is scarce. When food is scarce, organic meat production should aim to use land and by-products that cannot be used in any other way for food production.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper examines how opportunity costs of land use can be taken into account when life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to compare environmental impacts of contrasting farming systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of organic, conventional and integrated farm models are assessed. It is assumed that the farm size and food product output are equivalent in all farm models, and the remaining land that is not needed for food crops is used for Miscanthus energy crop production. The impacts of integrating biogas production into the farming systems are also explored. The results illustrate the significance of taking into account the opportunity costs of land use and suggest that integrated farming systems have potential to reduce negative environmental impacts compared to organic and conventional systems.
Full-text available
The scale of operation of freely suspended animal cell culture has been increasing and in order to meet the demand for recombinant therapeutic products, this increase is likely to continue. The most common reactor types used are stirred tanks. Air lift fermenters are also used, albeit less commonly. No specific guidelines have been published for large scale (>/=10 000 L) animal cell culture and reactor designs are often based on those used for microbial systems. However, due to the large difference in energy inputs used for microbial and animal cell systems such designs may be far from optimal. In this review the importance of achieving a balance between mixing, mass transfer and shear effects is emphasised. The implications that meeting this balance has on design of vessels and operation, particularly in terms of strategies to ensure adequate mixing to achieve homogeneity in pH and dissolved gas concentrations are discussed.
Jerome believed that the task of the commentator was to convey what others have said, not to advance his own interpretations. However, an examination of his commentaries on the Prophets shows that their contents are arranged so as to construct a powerful, but tacit, position of authority for their compiler. By juxtaposing Jewish and Greek Christian interpretations as he does, Jerome places himself in the position of arbiter over both exegetical traditions. But because he does not explicitly assert his own authority, he can maintain a stance of humility appropriate for a monk. Here, Jerome may have been a more authentic representative of the tradition of Origen than was his rival, for all that he was willing to abjure Origen's theology.
A life cycle assessment (LCA) type method was used to quantify greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from Irish suckler-beef production. The methodology was used as a systems analysis tool to quantify GHG emissions from a typical Irish beef production system and to evaluate a number of alternative management scenarios. The LCA methodology can be used to decide whether a management strategy will reduce GHG emissions or transfer them elsewhere in the emission basket. Scenarios were developed that examined using both beef-bred animals (Charolais, Simmental and Limousin) and dairy-bred animals (Holstein–Fresian). By scaling total GHG emissions relative to a functional unit (FU) of live weight per year (kg CO2 kg LW yr−1), it was possible to estimate both the emissions and the potential for emissions reduction by adopting alternative management. The typical suckler-beef system was estimated to produce 11.26 kg CO2 LW yr−1. For beef-bred animals the cow contributed a large amount to the total emissions whereas for dairy-bred beef production the allocation from the cow was much less. In terms of dietary supplementation for GHG emissions reduction, a broad range of supplement combinations were evaluated and showed no major reduction potential compared to, or within, the grass-dominated system.
Feed provision accounts for the majority of material and energetic inputs and emissions associated with net-pen salmon farming. Understanding and reducing the environmental impacts of feed production is therefore central to improving the biophysical sustainability of salmon farming as a whole. We used life cycle assessment (with co-product allocation by gross energy content) to compare the cradle-to-mill gate life cycle energy use, biotic resource use, and global warming, acidifying, eutrophying and aquatic ecotoxiticy impacts associated with producing ingredients for four hypothetical feeds for conventional and organic salmon aquaculture in order to assess the benefits, if any, associated with a transition to organic feed use. Fish and poultry-derived ingredients generated substantially greater impacts than crop-derived ingredients. Despite the fact that organic crop ingredients had markedly lower life cycle impacts compared to equivalent conventional ingredients, substituting organic for conventional crop ingredients therefore resulted in only minor reductions to the total impacts of feed production because the benefits of this substitution were effectively overwhelmed by the much larger impacts associated with animal-derived ingredients. Replacing fish meals/oils from dedicated reduction fisheries with fisheries by-product meals/oils markedly increased the environmental impacts of feed production, largely due to the higher energy intensity of fisheries for human consumption, and low meal/oil yield rates of fisheries by-products. Environmental impacts were considerably lower when feeds contained reduced proportions of fish and poultry-derived ingredients. These results indicate that current standards for organic salmon aquaculture, which stipulate the use of organic crop ingredients and fisheries by-product meals and oils, fail to reduce the environmental impacts of feed production for the suite of impact categories considered in this study. This information should be of interest to feed producers and aquaculturists concerned with improving the biophysical sustainability of their products, and bodies responsible for aquaculture certification, ecolabeling, and consumer awareness programs.
The whole life of methanol fuel, produced by microalgae biomass which is a kind of renewable energy, is evaluated by using a method of life cycle assessment (LCA). LCA has been used to identify and quantify the environment emissions and energy efficiency of the system throughout the whole life cycle, including microalgae cultivation, methanol conversion, transport, and end-use. Energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the energy of methanol produced to the total required energy, is 1.24, the results indicate that it is plausible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgae-based fuel methanol is 0.187mPET2000 in contrast to 0.828mPET2000 for gasoline. The effect of photochemical ozone formation is the highest of all the calculated categorization impacts of the two fuels. Utilization of microalgae an raw material of producing methanol fuel is beneficial to both production of renewable fuels and improvement of the ecological environment. This Fuel methanol is friendly to the environment, which should take an important role in automobile industry development and gasoline fuel substitute.
Current intensive pig production is often associated with environmental burdens. However, very few studies deal with the environmental performance of both current and alternative systems of pig production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the environmental impacts of three contrasting pig production systems using the life cycle assessment method and to identify hot spots for each system. The scenarios compared were conventional good agricultural practice (GAP) according to French production rules, a French quality label scenario called red label (RL) and a French organic scenario called organic agriculture (OA). For each of the three scenarios a “favourable” and an “unfavourable” variant was defined; these variants were used as indicators of uncertainty with respect to key parameters for technical performance and emissions of pollutants. The environmental categories assessed were: eutrophication, climate change, acidification, terrestrial toxicity, energy use, land use and pesticide use. Two functional units (FU) were used to express impacts: 1 kg of pig produced and 1 ha of land surface used. The scenarios were examined with particular emphasis on their contribution to eutrophication and acidification. Given this perspective, the RL scenario can be an interesting alternative to GAP on the condition that its emission of greenhouse gases can be reduced. The results for OA were very dependent on the choice of the FU. Per kg of pig, eutrophication and acidification were similar for OA and GAP, while OA had less eutrophication and acidification than GAP when expressed per ha. For the three scenarios, environmental hot spots and important margins of improvement were identified. Finally, the uncertainty analysis indicated that efforts should be made to produce more reliable estimations of emission factors for NO3, NH3 and N2O in the field.
Production of meat requires substantial amounts of feed grains which in turn require vast amounts of land. Future population growth and increase in consumption will raise the demand for meat and with it the land required for meat production. This paper analyses the various factors that affect land requirements for meat production. Meat production by Dutch broilers, pigs and beef cattle on their current feeds are compared and options for change are evaluated with respect to their nutritional needs. Differences in land requirements of a factor of 3 were found between different agricultural production systems and feeds as well as between types of livestock. It is shown that broilers have the lowest land requirement while beef cattle have the highest. The variation in feed crop yields between agricultural systems is discussed. It is concluded that due to the large variation within the system there is potential for reduction in the land requirements for meat production.
ALTHOUGH MEAT has enjoyed sustained popularity as a foodstuff, consumers have expressed growing concern over some consequences of meat consumption and production. These include nutrition-related diseases