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Characterization of polyphenols from coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum), red amaranthus (A paniculatus) and green amaranthus (A frumentaceus) using paper chromatography and their health implications



Plant materials, especially GLVs, are recently recommended for prevention of several chronic degenerative disorders (CDDs) due to the antioxidant properties of various flavonoids and phenolic acids present in them. It is therefore important to identify the active phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables. Scanty data are available on the characterization of polyphenols from vegetables commonly consumed in India. Thus an attempt was made to identify various flavonoids, phenolic acids and glycoflavones present in 3 common Indian green leafy vegetables (GLVs) namely, Coriander leaves (Coriandrum Sativum), Red amaranthus (A. Paniculatus) and Green amaranthus (A. Frumentaceus) leaves using paper chromatography. In Coriander Leaves quercetin, kaempferol and acacetin flavanoids were identified. The phenolic acids identified were vanilic acid, ferulic acid (cis and trans form) and p-coumaric acid. Similar results from red and green amaranth emphasize the role of these GLVs in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.
Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology 4 (1) 173-177 (2010)
ISSN : 0973-4643 Original Article
Vanisha S. Nambiar1*, Mammen Daniel2, and Parul Guin1
1Department of Foods and Nutrition, A WHO collaborating Center for Health Promotion
2Department of Botany, The Maharaja SayajiRao University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002. Gujarat. India.
* Corresponding Author email:
Received- 15th Oct. 2009, Revised- 10th Nov. 2009, Accepted-23rd Dec 2009
Abstract : Plant materials, especially GLVs, are recently recommended for prevention
of several chronic degenerative disorders (CDDs) due to the antioxidant properties of
various flavonoids and phenolic acids present in them. It is therefore important to
identify the active phytochemicals present in fruits and vegetables. Scanty data are
available on the characterization of polyphenols from vegetables commonly consumed
in India. Thus an attempt was made to identify various flavonoids, phenolic acids and
glycoflavones present in 3 common Indian green leafy vegetables (GLVs) namely,
Coriander leaves (Coriandrum Sativum), Red amaranthus (A. Paniculatus) and Green
amaranthus (A. Frumentaceus) leaves using paper chromatography. In Coriander
Leaves quercetin, kaempferol and acacetin flavanoids were identified. The phenolic
acids identified were vanilic acid, ferulic acid (cis and trans form) and p-coumaric
acid. Similar results from red and green amaranth emphasize the role of these GLVs
in the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases.
Keywords: polyphenols, Antioxidant, Flavonoids, Kaempferol, Polyphenols, Phenolic
compounds, Coriander leaves (Coriandrum Sativum), Green amaranthus
(A. Frumentaceus), Red amaranthus (A. Paniculatus), Quercetin.
Presence of phytochemicals in addition to vitamins/
provitamins and minerals, in fruits and vegetables has
been recently considered crucial nutritional importance
in the prevention of chronic diseases, such as cancer,
cardiovascular disease and diabetes[1,2]. A significant
inverse correlation has also been reported between
total fruits and vegetables intake and cerebrovascular
disease mortality. Thus the complex mixture of
phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables provide a
better protective effect on health than a single
phytochemical. Many of these phytochemicals have
been found to provide a much stronger antioxidant
activity than vitamin C, vitamin E and ß- carotene
within the same food. These dietary antioxidants
provide bioactive mechanisms to reduce free radical
induced oxidative stress. Oxidative stress results from
either a decrease of natural cell antioxidant capacity
or an increased amount of reactive oxygen species in
organisms. When the balance between oxidants and
antioxidants in the body is shifted by the over
production of free radical, it will lead to oxidative stress
and DNA damage [3]. Over the past 10 years,
researchers and food manufacturers have become
increasingly interested in polyphenols. The chief
reason for this interest is the recognition of the
antioxidant properties of polyphenols, their great
Journal of Herbal Medicine & Toxicology
abundance in our diet, and their probable role in the
prevention of various diseases associated with
oxidative stress, such as cancer cardiovascular and
neurodegenerative diseases.
Our recent study showed that polyphenols, especially,
the flavonols such as kaempferol, quercetin and their
derivatives are found to be present in leafy vegetables
4. Flavonoids, as antioxidants, may inhibit the oxidation
of LDL cholesterol, reduce platelet aggregation, or
reduce ischemic damage. Major flavonoid classes
include quercetin, apigenin, luteolin, catechins and soy
isoflavones[5-8]. India’s flora comprises of 6000
species of plants used for consumption of which
around 0.70 metric tons are green leafy vegetables.
An inventory on the available green leafy vegetables
from the rural, tribal and urban areas of Vadodara
and Panchmahal districts of Gujarat, revealed a wide
array of plant foods including 37 GLVs, which could
be good sources of beta-carotene [9-10]. Twenty-five
of these GLVs were used for medicinal purposes by
the local population. These health promoting properties
along with the fact that several of these greens may
be potential sources of beta carotene along with other
micronutrients make these GLVs an important
nominee for their use in the food based approach to
combat vitamin A deficiency[11-18].
Though information is available on the nutrient profile
of most of these, there is no data available on their
polyphenols content. The literature search revealed
data on GLVs familiar to the western world such as
broccoli, lettuce, spinach, green tea. Consequently
there is a need to generate data about the polyphenol
profile of Indian GLVs so as to bridge the gap between
the known and the unknown.
The present paper highlights the results of the
polyphenol composition of three GLVs commonly
consumed in India, namely, Coriander leaves
(Coriandrum Sativum), Red amaranthus (A.
Paniculatus) and Green amaranthus (A.
Frumentaceus), which may be a repository of several
favourable chemicals.
In the present study 3 green leafy vegetables were
taken for the separation and identification of
polyphenols. They were:-
(A) Coriander leaves (Coriandrum Sativum)
(B) Red amaranthus (A. Paniculatus)
(C) Green amaranthus (A. Frumentaceus).
Five kg of each type of leaves were obtained from 3
different vegetable markets of Vadodara city, mixed,
cleaned, shade dried and powdered using a laboratory
blender, stored under refrigeration and used in
triplicates for the identification of the polyphenols by
paper chromatpgraphy as described in our earlier
The Polyphenol separation included the isolation and
identification of:-
(a) Flavonoids (b) Phenolic Acids (c) Glycoflavones
The standard analytical procedures involving
interaction with diagnostic reagents and paper
chromatographic separation of compounds and their
UV/Visible spectroscopic studies including
hypsochromic and bathochromic shifts with reagents
such as AlCl3, AlCl3/HCl, NaOMe, NaOAc and
NaOAc/H3PO3 were followed for the identification
of flavonoids and other phenolics. The identities of all
the compounds were confirmed by co-chromatogaphy
(paper and thin-layer chromatography) with authentic
In Coriander Leaves the flavonoids that were
identified are quercetin, kaempferol and acacetin. The
phenolic acids that were identified vanilic acid, ferulic
acid (cis and trans form) and p-coumaric acid as can
be seen from Table 1. No glycoflavones were
detected. No literature is available regarding the
polyphenol composition of coriander leaves, red or
green amaranth by other investigators. Quercetin is
found in abundance in onions, apples, broccoli and
berries. Thus coriander leaves, rich in quercetin, can
be an important food source for the prevention of
chronic degenerative diseases. The flavonol quercetin
(3, 3’, 4’, 5, 7- pentahydroxyflavone) is one of the
most abundant dietary flavonoids. Quercetin and other
flavonoids have been shown to modify eicosanoid
biosynthesis (antiprostanoid and anti-inflammatory
responses), protect low density lipoprotein (LDL) from
oxidation (prevention of atherosclerotic plaque
formation) and promote relaxation of cardiovascular
Nambiar et al.
smooth muscle (antihypertensive, antiarrythemic
effects). In addition, flavonoids have been shown to
have antiviral and anticarcinogenic properties[22].
Several flavonoids, including quercetin results in a
reduction in the ischemia-reperfusion injury by
interfering with inducible nitric-oxide synthase activity.
Table 1 : Polyphenol content of three Green leafy vegetables
Name of the compounds Coriander leaves Green amaranthus leaves Red amaranthus leaves
Apigenin - - -
3’,4’-di-OMe luteolin - - -
Kaempferol + - -
4’-OMe kaempferol - - -
7’4’-di-OMe kaempferol - - -
Quercetin + - -
3’-OMe quercetin + - -
4’-OMe quercetin + - -
3’,4’-di-OMe quercetin - - -
Acacetin + - -
Gossypetin - - -
Quercetagetin - - -
Proanthocyanidins - - -
Anthocyanins - - -
Coumarins - - -
+ : Present; - : Absent
Table 2 : Phenolic acids content of three Green leafy vegetables
Name of the compounds Coriander leaves Green amaranthus leaves Red amaranthus leaves
Vanillic acid + + +
Syringic acid - - +
p-OH benzoic acid - + +
Melilotic acid - - -
Gentisic acid - - -
o-Coumaric acid - - -
p-Coumaric acid + + -
Cis-Ferulic acid + + +
Trans-Ferulic acid + +
Phloretic acid - - -
Chlorogenic acid - - -
Resorcylic acid - - -
+ : Present ; - : Absent
Journal of Herbal Medicine & Toxicology
Nitric oxide reacts with free radicals, thereby
producing peroxynitrite can directly oxidize LDL,
resulting in irreversible damage to the cell membrane.
When flavonoids are used as antioxidants, free
radicals are scavenged and, therefore can no longer
react with nitric oxide, resulting in less damage.
Coriander is also reported to be a chelating agent and
reported to be effective as pharmaceutical agents in
removing heavy metals[23].
Results of the Green Amaranthus reveled no presence
of either flavonoids or glycoflavones. However several
phenolic acids were identified, namely: vanillic acid,
cis and trans ferulic acid, p- OH benzoic acid, o-
coumaric acid, p- coumaric acid and melilotic acid as
can be seen from Table 1. In Red Amaranths also no
flavonoids or glycoflavones were detected. The
phenolic acids that were identified were vanilic acid,
p- OH benzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid.
Two classes of phenolic acids can be distinguished:
derivatives of benzoic acid and derivatives of cinnamic
acids. The hydroxybenzoic acid content of edible plants
is generally very low, with the exception of certain
red fruits, black radish and onions. The
hydroxylcinnamic acids are more common than the
hydroxybenzoic acids and consist chiefly of p-
coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids. These
acids are rarely found in the free form, except in
processed food that has undergone freezing,
sterilization or fermentation. Phenolic compound
ferulic acid has added health benefits as it battles
cancer. Ferulic acid is the predominant bound phenolic
form. The fact that ferulic acid could be identified in
all the three GLVs, emphasizes their potential role in
the fight against cancer[24-29].
These results emphasize that food-based approaches
are more practical and sustainable to combat various
health or nutritional disorders. Inclusion of these
greens in the daily diet will not only add on to the
nutritional value of the diet, but also serve as an
additional advantage of being functional foods, which
would maintain heart health due to their high
antioxidant activity. These green could also be teamed
up with several other functional foods such as foods
containing plant sterols and stanols, fatty fish, foods
containing fiber, nuts, and flaxseed, garlic, tea, grapes,
dark chocolates and many more. Inclusion of these
foods along with healthy dietary patterns and lifestyle
can help fight against obesity, diabetes and heart
disease. Further studies are suggested to quantify these
polyphenols and assess their health benefits by
conducting clinical trials.
We thank all the staff and students of the
phytochemistry laboratory, Department of Botany for
their cooperation and support towards completion of
this study.
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The present study involves the use of Box-Behnken design for optimization of the energy-efficient process variables, eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles of iron oxide using Coriandrum sativum L. (cilantro) leaf extract. The factors, which significantly influenced mean nanoparticle size, surface charge, and size distribution, were the volume of leaf extract, agitation speed, and temperature. The developed model using Box-Behnken design was validated by synthesizing the iron nanoparticles using optimized operational conditions i.e. 10 ml volume of leaf extract, 1500 rpm agitation speed and 30 °C temperature. This resulted in the formation of highly stable iron oxide nanoparticles with mean particle size 161.5 nm and polydispersity index 0.132 with a zeta potential of −19.5 mV. The free radical inhibitory activity of prepared iron oxide nanoparticles was found comparable to ascorbic acid. These results reveal that iron nanoparticles for a biomedical application can be prepared at ambient temperature in an eco-friendly manner.
Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander, cilantro, Chinese parsley) belonging to Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) family is an annual herbaceous aromatic plant widely cultivated and distributed in Asia, Europe, and Northern Africa. Coriander is a well-known culinary herb around the world and has a long history of use as a medicinal plant that dates back to 1500 BC. Dried fruits (usually called seed) and fresh leaves are the most commonly used parts of the plant. Coriander, as well as its essential oil, has been traditionally used to treat various diseases by different civilizations. This chapter covers the botanical properties, traditional uses, chemical composition, pharmacological activities, and the safety profile of coriander.Keywords Coriandrum sativum CorianderApiaceaeEthnomedicineBioactive constituentPharmacological activitySafety
Convective drying (CO) is the most common technique for drying herbs, although it may diminish phenolic compounds content. Microwave drying (MW) has been suggested as an alternative, although its effects on phenolic compounds remain to be explored. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of different convective temperatures (40, 80 and 120 °C) and microwave powers (100, 500 and 1000 W) on drying time, polyphenols classes (HPLC‐DAD) and antioxidant capacity in celery, coriander and parsley leaves. Microwave procedure reduced drying time (MW: 3 h–7 min; CO: 25–1.5 h) resulting more effective than CO. Increasing temperatures led to an initial decrease in total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity followed by an increase, potentially by the release of bound phenolic acids. Regarding MW, the highest polyphenol content was generally observed at 500 W, probably due to the hydroxycinnamic acid's rise. Antioxidant capacity was similar at 500 and 1000 W. There was a good agreement between TPC and antioxidant capacity. Consequently, MW seems a good alternative to reduce drying time. However, the maintenance or improvement of phenolic activity depends on the food matrix. Indeed, the best drying system and conditions to preserve phenolic compounds were variable depending on the herb type: celery (CO at 40 °C), coriander (both CO at 40 °C and MW at 500 W) and parsley (MW at 100 W). Effect of drying process type on polyphenols content and activity in three culinary herbs.
The purpose of the current investigation is to standardize the aqueous leaf extract of Coriandrum sativum L. with a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. The method involves the determination and validation of extract with quercetin as standard. Chromatography was performed on pre-coated silica gel G 60 F254 plate as the stationary phase with formic acid, ethyl acetate and toluene as the mobile phase in the ratio 1:4:5 (V/V). Identification and quantification were conducted optical densitometrically at 254 nm. The RF value of quercetin obtained for the standard as well as the leaf extract was found to be 0.50. The method was validated for intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy. The accuracy of the method was established by a recovery study, with 98.04 ± 0.21% average recovery of quercetin. The lyophilized coriander extract samples contained 0.058 ± 0.02% quercetin. The HPTLC method resulted in the development of an accurate, precise, reproducible and pragmatic approach to standardize the aqueous leaf extract of C. sativum L.
The ftavonoid pigments, one of the most numerous and widespread groups of natural constituents, are ofimportance and interest to a wide variety ofphysical and biological scientists and work on their chemistry, occurrence, natural distribution and biological function continues unabated. In 1975, a mono graph covering their chemistry and biochemistry was published by Chapman and Hall under our editors hip entitled The Flavonoids. The considerable success of this publication indicated that it filled an important place in the scientific literature with its comprehensive coverage of these fascinating and versatile plant substances. The present volume is intended to update that earlier work and provide a detailed review of progress in the ftavonoid field during the years 1975 to 1980. Although cross references are made to The Flavonoids, this supplement is entirely self-contained and where necessary, tabular da ta from the earlier volume are incJuded and expanded here. The choice oftopics in Recent Advances has been dictated by the developments that have occurred in ftavonoid research since 1975, so that not all subjects covered in The Flavonoids are reviewed again here. A major advance in ftavonoid separation has been the app1ication ofhigh performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and this is reviewed inter alia in the opening chapter on separation techniques. An equally important development in the spectral analysis of ftavonoids has been the measurement of carbon-13 NMR spectra and this subject is authoritatively discussed in Chapter 2 and is also illustrated with the spectra of 125 representative ftavonoids.
Flavonoids are nearly ubiquitous in plants and are recognized as the pigments responsible for the colors of leaves, especially in autumn. They are rich in seeds, citrus fruits, olive oil, tea, and red wine. They are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions. This basic structure is shared by tocopherols (vitamin E). Flavonoids can be subdivided according to the presence of an oxy group at position 4, a double bond between carbon atoms 2 and 3, or a hydroxyl group in position 3 of the C (middle) ring. These characteristics appear to also be required for best activity, especially antioxidant and antiproliferative, in the systems studied. The particular hydroxylation pattern of the B ring of the flavonoles increases their activities, especially in inhibition of mast cell secretion. Certain plants and spices containing flavonoids have been used for thousands of years in traditional Eastern medicine. In spite of the voluminous literature available, however, Western medicine has not yet used flavonoids therapeutically, even though their safety record is exceptional. Suggestions are made where such possibilities may be worth pursuing.
The methanol spectra of flavones and flavonols exhibit two major absorption peaks in the region 240 – 400 nm¹. These two peaks are commonly referred to as Band I (usually 300 – 380 nm, Table V-1 records the λmaxvalues for Band I for all flavones and flavonols examined in the present investigation), and Band II (usually 240 – 280 nm). Band I is considered to be associated with absorption due to the B-ring cinnamoyl system, and Band II with absorption involving the A-ring benzoyl system (see III) [1].
Three cereal/pulse-based recipes of Gujarat were developed and standardized so as to incorporate maximum amount of fresh radish leaves using the Composite scores and Hedonic scores tests for organoleptic evaluation. These were: dhebra (shallow-fried) with 75 g of fresh radish leaves in 100 g of mix, muthia (steamed) with 75 g of fresh radish leaves in 100 g of mix and handwa (baked) with 40g of fresh radish leaves in 100 g of mix. The retention of beta -carotene in these products was also estimated. The results showed that shallow-fried dhebra retained 82 %, followed by steamed and sauteed muthia (68 %) and handwa which called for prolonged heating, retained only 36 % of beta -carotene. However, all the three products were nutrient dense with high amounts of both macro and micro nutrients and can be promoted to combat vitamin A deficiency as well as in the supplementaty feeding programmes to prevent overall malnutrition in the community.
My lecture spanned not only the hour allocated for it in the morning, but also the first half of the round table that afternoon, where it acted as an introduction to the round table discussion that followed. The break between the two sessions was determined only by administrative and not by scientific matters, and so in this published account, the two may be read as a unit.