ArticlePDF Available

The assessment of motor coordination in children with the Movement ABC test: A comparative study among Japan, USA and Spain

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC; Henderson and Sudgen, 1992) is one of the most popular instrument in the assessment of children with movement coordination problems. It is generally assumed that the published norms for the test are valid for the use with European children and one of the aims of this study was to compare the results of Miyahara’s study with Japanese children (53 boys, 49 girls) and the American standardization (237 boys, 284 girls) with the Spanish sample (202 boys and 183 girls). The cross-cultural comparisons revealed that there are many differences in performance among children of these samples. These differences were distributed among tasks and countries in the two age bands. Gender differences in all samples shown that girls outperform boys in manual and balance tasks, and boys got better scores in ball skills This data and its analysis so far suggest different consequences: 1) The question of cultural differences in motor skill learning and performance; 2) The problem of gender differences in motor coordination; 3)The norms of the test. As a final consequence it will be necessary to study this test in a larger and more broadly based sample of Spanish boys and girls for being accepted as a useful test in the assessment of motor coordination in Spain.
Content may be subject to copyright.
1
International Journal of Applied Sport Sciences (2003), vol 15, 1, 22-35
The assessment of motor coordination in children with the Movement
ABC test: A comparative study among Japan, USA and Spain
Luis Miguel Ruiz
j
Faculty of Sport Sciences
Castilla La Mancha University. (Spain)
José Luis Graupera
Faculty of Sport Sciences
Alcalá de Henares University. (Spain)
Melchor Gutiérrez
Faculty of Psychology
University of Valencia. (Spain)
Motohide Miyahara
School of Physical Education
University of Otago (New Zeland)
Abstract
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC; Henderson and Sudgen,
1992) is one of the most popular instrument in the assessment of children with movement
coordination problems. It is generally assumed that the published norms for the test are valid for
the use with European children and one of the aims of this study was to compare the results of
Miyahara’s study with Japanese children (53 boys, 49 girls) and the American standardization
(237 boys, 284 girls) with the Spanish sample (202 boys and 183 girls).
The cross-cultural comparisons revealed that there are many differences in performance among
children of these samples. These differences were distributed among tasks and countries in the
two age bands. Gender differences in all samples shown that girls outperform boys in manual
and balance tasks, and boys got better scores in ball skills
This data and its analysis so far suggest different consequences: 1) The question of cultural
differences in motor skill learning and performance; 2) The problem of gender differences in
motor coordination; 3)The norms of the test. As a final consequence it will be necessary to study
this test in a larger and more broadly based sample of Spanish boys and girls for being accepted
as a useful test in the assessment of motor coordination in Spain.
Key words: Movement ABC; Motor Coordination, Assessment, Cross-cultural research.
j
Correspondence author: Faculty of Sport Sciences. Avda. Carlos III s/n. 45071 Toledo (Spain)
2
1. Introduction
Throughout the European Union interest in children with coordination disorders is continuously
growing. Within the school population, it is estimated that approximately 5% to 8% of the
children fail to develop sufficient motor competence to allow normal progress in school in
general and particularly in physical education (Betts & Underwood, 1992; Morris & Whiting,
1971; Sudgen & Wright, 1998).
Assessment of this kind of problems has been a challenge during the last decades, and many
instruments have been developed (see Burton and Miller, 1998).
During the past three decades many scholars in several nations, including Australia, Canada,
Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, UK, U.S.A., etc., have recognized
children with coordination problems and the difficulties of the definition of this condition and its
assessment and screening by teachers (Cantel, Smyth y Ahonen, 1994; Causgrive y Watkinson,
1994; Cratty, 1994; Degoute, 1979; Flem Maeland, 1992; Geuze and Börger, 1993; Henderson,
Elliman, Knight and Jongmans, 1991; Henderson, Knight, Losse and Jongmans, 1991; Kiphard,
1976; Larkin and Hoare, 1991; Miyahara, 1994; Miyahara and Mobs, 1995; Miyahara et al.,
1998; Rosblad and Gard, 1998; Smits-Englesman, Henderson and Michels, 1998; WHO, 1992).
In these countries research has been conducted to investigate the cause, the prevalence and the
management of motor coordination problems in school settings . In some of these nations,
educational placement and remedial procedures have been established to meet the needs of these
children (Cratty, 1994; Betts y Underwood, 1992; Morris & Whiting, 1971; Gordon and
Mckinlay, 1980; Miyahara, 1996; Whitehall and Underwood, 1991; Cantell, Huovinen,
Männistö, Larkin & Kooistra, 2002).
This was not the case in Spain. During many years there were no interest in children’s motor
coordination problems. The study of Ruiz, Graupera, Gutiérrez, and Mayoral (1997) can be
considered one of the first efforts in this direction. Although the Spanish educational instructions
emphasizes curricular adaptations to attend to special educational needs, there is a dearth of
research and documents in the areas of learning disabilities and motor coordination problems. In
attempt to accumulate data in these areas a comprehensive study is planned to investigate the
motor coordination problems among Spanish school children.
3
Our specific aim in this study were twofold. The first objective was to compare the results of the
Spanish study with Miyahara´s study and the norms of the ABC from the US standardization.
Our second objective was to examine the gender differences between the age-band 2 and 3 (7-8
years; 9-10 years) (Ruiz, Graupera and Miyahara, 2000).
2. Method
2.1. Participants
Three hundred and eighty five children (202 boys and 183 girls) from several urban and rural
Spanish primary schools at Madrid and Valencia participated in the Spanish study. Every
child in these schools between ages of 7 to 9 took part. This research formed part of a more
extensive study about developmental coordination problems and learned helplessness among
Spanish school children (Ruiz, Graupera, Gutiérrez and Mayoral, 1997).
Their results were compared with to the one hundred and two Japanese children (53 boys, 49
girls) and five hundred and twenty one American children (237 boys, 284 girls) with respect
to 8 subtests of the Movement ABC. The number and gender of Spanish children in each age
group are displayed in table 1, together with the comparable information from the Japanese
study and American standardization.
INSERT TABLE 1 HERE
All children of the Spanish sample followed the National Curriculum prescribed by the
Spanish Educational Reform by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports, including the
physical education curriculum that maintains the general objectives in each course but permits
a free application between schools.
2.2. The Movement ABC test
The Movement ABC test is designed for use with children aged 4-12+ years. A total of 32
items are divided into four sets of eight, each intended for use with children of specific ages.
The first set of items, labeled Age Band 1 is designed for use with 4-6 year old children, the
second set, Age Band 2 for 7 and 8 years old children, the third for 9 to 10 years old and the
fourth for children 11 years old and older. The test is identical in its structure in each age
band. Three items involve the use of the hands, two items require the children to catch or
throw a bean bag or small ball and three items assess static and dynamic balance. In Table 2
we present the characteristics of test items from age band 2 and age band 3, these age bands
are the object of this article.
4
INSERT TABLE 2 HERE
2.3. Procedures
For each child of the Spanish sample, every task of each age band were administered and
scored by a group of 10 physical education students in their last year of career, using the
criteria described in the Movement ABC Manual. All the participating testers previously had
received training by LMR and JLG in the use of the test in a seminar about motor
coordination problems.
3. Results
3.1. Qualitative observations
The children of the Spanish sample responded very positively to the different tasks contained
in the test. There were no problems in the administration of the test.
A child’s performance on the test can be scored in several ways. Raw scores, such as the
number of seconds taken to complete a task, the number of catches made, etc (see table 2). All
testing took place in the gymnasium or psychomotor education room of the children’s school.
For the present study our primary interest was to compare the results of the Spanish children
(age band 2 and 3) with the results of Miyahara’s study and the American standardization.
3.2. Comparisons among the three countries
The means and standard deviations of the raw scores were calculated for the Spanish sample
and compared with those of the Japanese study and American standardization, task by task,
for each age and gender group in age band 2 and 3 (these analysis were made separately
because each tasks are different in each age band). This data are displayed in Tables 3-4.
INSERT TABLES 3 - 4 HERE
The performance of Japanese, American and Spanish children on each task were analyzed
using the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The eight tasks were considered as
dependent variables and age, gender and country as a factors. Multivariate tests of
significance were used to test the effects of each factor and all possible interactions with
MABC items in conjunction. These effects were evaluated through univariate F-tests of
significance on each dependent variable. Post-hoc multiple comparisons tests (Bonferroni
criteria) analysis were employed as appropriate trying to establish the differences among
countries (three groups). The fiduciary limit of p< .05 was set for results to be regarded as
significant.
5
3.2.1. Age Band 2 (7-8 years)
MANOVA analysis and multivariate tests of significance (Wilks lambda and approx. F) sums
up the results in this age band. Table 5 shows four significant differences (p<.001) of the three
factors and an interaction between age and country. No other significant differences were
obtained. Differences between samples for each dependent variable are presented below.
INSERT TABLE 5 HERE
Manual dexterity
On the three manual dexterity items there were significant differences. The Japanese sample
got better scores in relation to the American and Spanish on the first task (MABC1: Placing
pegs). American and Japanese children were quicker than the Spanish performing the second
task (MABC2: Threading lace) and the Spanish and the American performed with less error
when they made the third task (MABC3: Flower trail) (Table 8). There were no differences in
terms of gender in these three tasks (Table 6).
When age is considered, children between 7 and 8 years old (see Table 6) improved their
performance in MABC1 and MABC 3. No differences were obtained in MABC2.
It is interesting to talk about the interactions got between age and country. As table 7 shows
there are a significant effect in these three tasks . MABC1 shows a general tendency to
improve between 7 and 8 years; this improvement is more clear in the Spanish sample,
moderate in the American sample and minimal in the Japanese children. MABC2 task
manifest a cross effect because performance is very similar in American children, better in
Japanese at eight years of age and better in the Spanish children at seven years.
INSERT TABLE 6-7-8 HERE
Ball skills
On the two ball skill items, there were no differences among countries. If we consider the
gender, in this case we found differences, boys got better scores than girls in this two tasks. In
we consider the age of children we found a significant improvement in the two tasks
(MABC4: One-hand bounce and catch and MABC5: Throw bean bag in box) at seven and
eight years (Table 6). There is a significant interaction between country and age in task
MABC4. From seven to eight years there is an improvement in the Japanese and American
children but no in the Spanish (Table 7).
6
Static and dynamic balance
On the three items measuring static balance (Stork balance) and dynamic balance (jump into
squares and heel-toe walking), there were three comparisons that reached significant
differences among Japanese and Spanish children, and among American and Spanish in task
six. American and Japanese sample got better scores that the Spanish.
In relation to gender, only one measure reached significant difference. Girls outperform boys
in this task (MABC8: Heel-to-to walking). One tasks, MABC6 (Stork balance) reached
significant differences in relation to age, and children at eight got better scores.
When we consider the interaction of age and country we see that there is only one significant
difference in MABC8 (Heel-to-toe walking). If American children performed better than the
other groups at 8 years and the Spanish manifested a similar tendency, Japanese got their
better scores at 7 years of age.
3.2.1. Age Band 3(9-10 years)
MANOVA analysis and multivariate tests of significance (Wilks lambda and approx. F) sums
up the results in this age band. Table 9 shows significant differences (p<.01) of the three
factors and two interaction between age and country, and gender and country. No other
significant differences were obtained. Differences between samples for each dependent
variable (MABC items) are presented below.
INSERT TABLE 9 HERE
Manual dexterity
On the three manual dexterity items there were significant differences among the three
samples (Table 10). Japanese and American children reached significant differences (better
scores) performing MABC1 (shifting pegs in rows) task than Spanish children. MABC2
(threading nuts on bolt) differentiate among groups, American were better than Japanese and
Spanish, and Japanese better than the Spanish.
Differences between American and Spanish children on task MABC3 (Flower trial) were
minimal although significant, and they performed better than Japanese children (Table 12).
Gender differences were significant when we compare data on task MABC3 (Flower trail)
and in general girls outperform boys (Table 10).
Multivariate analysis found significant interactions in terms of age and country (Table 11).
MABC1 showed a tendency to improve between 9 and 10 years, this difference was more
clear in the Spanish sample than in the other two groups of children. MABC2 showed a cross
effect because performance threading nuts in bolt were better in the American and Spanish
7
children at 10 years, but this betterment were in the Japanese sample at 9 years old.
If we consider the interaction between gender and country, two comparisons reached
statistical significance: MABC1 and MABC2 . There are no differences between boys and
girls in the American sample, but Spanish girls are better than boys, and Japanese boys are
better than girls shifting pegs into rows. Doing the flower trail American and Spanish got
similar results but Japanese girls outperform boys (Table 11).
INSERT TABLES 10-11-12 HERE
Ball skills
On task MABC4 (two-hand catching) significant differences were between the Japanese
sample and the American, and between the American sample an the Spanish. American
children performed better that the Japanese, and the Spanish better than the American (Table
12). No significant differences were found among countries.
In terms of gender, boys outperform girls doing MABC4 (two-hand catch) and MABC5
(throw bean bag in box) (Table 10). No significant differences were found between the two
ages.
There were significant interaction between age and country in the two tasks and a cross effect
on MABC4 task. Japanese and Americans reached better scores at 10 years but the Spanish
children got them at 9 years of age. Japanese and Spanish were better at 9 years on MABC4
task and the American were better at 10 years.
Another significant interaction were the relationship between gender and country. Japanese
and American boys outperform girls catching balls (MABC4), this differences are minimal in
the Spanish sample. Something similar occurs throwing a bean bag to a box (MABC5).
Static and dynamic balance
On these three tasks there were significant differences in terms of country (Table 10).
Japanese and American children got better scores in task MABC6 (one-board balance) and
MABC7 (Hopping in squares) than the Spanish children, but in task 8 (ball balance) the
significant differences were in favor of the Spanish sample, that got better results than the
Japanese and American samples (Table 12).
Only gender by country interaction reached statistical significance in task MABC6 (one-board
balance). Girls performed better that boys among Japanese and American children but worst
in the Spanish sample.
8
4. Discussion
In this paper, we have presented data on how seven to ten years-old Spanish children
perform on the Movement ABC test when compared to the Japanese and the American
children. Different European studies have suggested that MABC norms are satisfactory
(Smits-Engelsman et al., 1998; Rösblad and Grad, 1998) but one of the practical usefulness of
this study is that it suggests the norms provided in the manual are not valid for Spanish
children, and it is necessary to develop new norms in this country.
As in Miyahara’s study the ethnic homogeneity of the Spanish sample it was not a
major issue, as the educational experience. In Spain every child practice no less than two
hours of regular physical education in a coeducational setting. Out of many comparisons
made among Japanese, American and Spanish children, country, gender and age differences
reached significance.
When we examined this differences and its characteristics item by item different
patterns emerged. When Japanese, American and Spanish children are compared in manual
dexterity tasks emerged a interesting cultural and children’s understanding difference. If we
analyzed this data, American and Spanish children reached better scores in the Flower trail
task than the Japanese, and the Spanish sample got worst results on task MABC1 and
MABC2. This situation make us think about how children in different countries and cultures
understand the objective of these tasks. All of these dexterity task demands a compromise
between speed and accuracy. Success performing MABC1 and MABC2 demands speed,
MABC3 demands accuracy. Cause Japanese and American are systematically better in speed
tasks and Spanish children in the accuracy task, make us think about the different
understanding that children manifest when they have to do these tasks. Miyahara et al (1998)
explained differences in terms of a systematic biases of testers or in terms of the nature of
writing systems in the two cultures when they observed the differences between the Japanese
and the American children in his study.
We think that probably is a problem of speed versus accuracy, and it seems as if
Japanese and American understand that doing quickly is better and get better results
performing MABC1 and MABC2. Spanish children understand that doing well and with less
errors it is better, and this produces longer times shifting pegs in a row and threading nuts on
a bolt but they manifest more precision doing the flower trail. Here we found a problem of
culture when we try to adopt tests developing in other cultural contexts.
9
Different studies made since 1930 to 1980, found many gender differences in primary
school children. Girls outperformed boys in agility, static and dynamic balance, manual
dexterity and hoping. Boys reached better scores in ball skills, vertical and horizontal jumps
and speed in running (see Zaichkowsky, Zaichkowsky y Martinek, 1980; Ruiz, 1987). This
test explore some of these abilities and skills, and these data in our three samples shows a
different pattern of change. In our analysis we found that balance differences have changed
because we found that the American and Japanese children got better results doing the static
balance item, while Spanish children were better doing the dynamic balance item of the test.
Cultural influences in motor performance is clear when we consider the interaction
gender by country on static balance (MABC6 task age - band 3). It is necessary to
remember that girls outperform boys in the Japanese and American sample, but between
Spanish children boys got better results than girls.
Catching and throwing balls performance are different between boys and girls, but it is
interesting to note that gender differences in the two age bands are clear between American
and Japanese, but if we consider Spanish data, this differences only emerge in age band 3,
and specifically on MABC4 and MABC5 . Is it possible to talk about the influence of
coeducation in the Spanish school system?. During the last twenty physical educators in
Spain had made an strong effort in developing equal opportunities for boys and girls in
primary physical education classes., but social influences produces that boys and girls do
different activities outside school as they get older. We can speculate that the kind of games
that girls play in Spain can be the cause of this data. It is very common that girls play games
of skipping and jumping skills more than boys, they prefer games of catching and throwing
skills. It is difficult to explain these differences but the ecological niche is more important
than we can think, in Spain is very usual to see girls hoping and skipping a great variety of
games, and boys playing soccer or basketball. These different activities form the background
of experiences that govern the direction of motor development and made very difficult
establish the real differences in motor performance, probably it would be better to talk about
similarities between boys and girls in motor coordination (Thomas and French, 1985). The
present study indicates that the cultural differences affect motor performance.
We can conclude that this study permits to see the differences among three countries
and three cultures and three continents. These differences are difficult of explaining with this
test, and if we apply the test norms, probably the percentage of Spanish children failing in the
15% were enormous .
10
The Movement ABC is a test that has some problems in its psychometric properties.
Burton and Miller (1998) consider that this test suffers "the weaknesses inherent in motor
ability tests as well as from insufficient evidence of reliability and validity" (pp.177). This is a
problem when we try to compare different studies made in different contexts with different
ways of life and understanding of how to do motor tasks. Tan, Parker and Larkin (2001)
comparing the MABC test with the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development
(MAND) found that the last one were the more accurate discriminator of motor impairment.
In sum, it will be necessary to study this test in a larger and more broadly based sample
of Spanish boys and girls for being accepted as a useful test in the assessment of motor
coordination in Spain. It seems necessary to develop new investigations and to establish new
norms for Spanish children.
11
References
Betts, M. y Underwood, G.L. (1992) The experience of three low motor ability pupils in
infant physical education. The Bulletin of Physical Education, 28, 3, 45-56
Burton, A.W. and Miller, D.E. (1998) Movement skill assessment. Champaign: Human
Kinetics
Cantell, M.H., Smyth, M.M. y Ahonen, T.P. (1994) Clumsiness in adolescence: Educational,
motor, and social outcomes of motor delay detected at 5 years. Adapted Physical Activity
Quarterly, 11, 114 -129
Cantell, M., Huovinen, T., Männistö, J.-P., Larkin D. & Kooistra, L. (2002) Intervention for
children with developmental coordination disorder. Helsinki: Finnish Educational Ministry and
LIKES Research Center
Cratty, B.J. (1994) Clumsy child syndromes. USA: Harwood Academic Publ.
Causgrove, J. y Watkinson, E.J. (1994) A study of the relationships between physical
awkwardness and children’s perceptions of physical competence. Adapted Physical Activity
Quarterly, 11, 275-283
Degoutte, A. (1979) Contribution a l’etude de la maladresse. Education Physique et Sport, 156,
26-31
Flem Maeland, A. (1992) Identification of children with motor coordination problems.
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 9, 330-342
Geuze, R. y Börger, H. (1993) Children who are clumsy: Five years later. Adapted Physical
Activity Quarterly, 10, 10-21
Gordon, N. y McKinlay, I. (1980) Helping clumsy child. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston.
Henderson, S., Knigth, E., Losse, A. y Jongmans, M. (1991) The clumsy child in the school: Are
we doing enougth?. British Journal of Physical Education, 9, 2-9
Henderson, S., Elliman, D., Knight, E. y Jongmans, M. (1991) Clumsiness in children-Do they
grow of it?. A 10 year follow up study. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 55-
68
Henderson,S. E. and Sugden, D. (1992). Movement Assessment Battery for Children.
London: Psychological Corporation.
12
Kiphard, E. (1976) Movement disorders and coordination problems in primary school children.
Buenos Aires: Kapelutz. (in Spanish)
Larkin, D. and Hoare, D. (1991) Out of step. Neadlands: The University of Western Australia.
Active Life Foundation
Miyahara, M. (1994) Subtypes of students with learning disabilities based upon gross motor
functions. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11, 368-381
Miyahara, M. (1996) A meta-analysis of intervention studies on children with developmental
coordination disorders. Corpus, Psyche et Societas, vol.3, 1, 11-18
Miyahara, M. y Möbs, I. (1995) Developmental dyspraxia and developmental coordination
disorder. Neuropsychology Review, 5, 4, 245-268
Miyahara, M., Tsujii, M. Hanai, T., Jongmans, M., Barnett, A., Henderson, S., Hori, M.,
Nakanishi , K. and Kageyama, H. (1996) Sex differences in motor coordination among prymary
school children in Japan and U.S.A. Paper presented at the 10
th
International Conference of the
ISCPES: Cultural Diversity and Congruence in Physical Education and Sport. (pp.181-184)
Miyahara, M., Tsujii, M. Hanai, T., Jongmans, M., Barnett, A., Henderson, S., Hori, M.,
Nakanishi , K. and Kageyama, H. (1998) The Movement Assessment Battery for Children: A
preliminary investigation of its usefulness in Japan. Human Movement Sciences, 17, 679-697
Morris, P.R. and Whiting, H.T.A. (1971) Motor impairment and compensatory education.
London: G. Bell & Sons
Rosblad, B. and Gard, L. (1998) The assessment of children with developmental coordination
disorders in Sweden: A preliminary investigation of the suitability of the Movement ABC.
Human Movement Sciences, 17, 711-719
Ruiz, L.M. (1987) Motor development and physical activities. Madrid: Gymnos, 3
rd
Ed. (in
Spanish)
Ruiz, L.M. (1997) Motor coordination problems and learning difficulties in physical education.
In. N. Garcia (Dir.) Instruction, learning and difficulties. Barcelona: Ed. LU (pp. 397-410) (in
Spanish)
Ruiz, L.M., Graupera, J.L., Gutiérrez, M. and Miyahara, M. (1996) General motor competence:
A comparative study of coordination between Spain, Japan and North America. In J.P.F. Garcia
and M.M. Garcia (Eds.) I Spanish Congress of Sport Sciences Association. Vol. II. Cáceres:
Faculty of Sport Sciences. University of Extremadura. Spain, (pp. 137-140) (in Spanish)
13
Ruiz, L.M., Graupera, J.L., Gutiérrez, M. and Mayoral, A. (1997) Developmental coordination’s
problems and learned helplessness in Spanish school children. Madrid: CIDE, Ministry of
Education and Culture. (in spanish)
Ruiz, L.M., Navarro, F., Graupera, J.L., Linaza, J.L. and Gutierrez, M. (2000) Development,
Motor Behavior and Sport. Madrid: Síntesis (in Spanish)
Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M., Henderson, S.E. and C.G.J. Michels (1998) The assessment of
children with developmental coordination disorders in the Netherlands: The relationships
between the Movement Assessment Battery for Children and the Köperkoordinations Test für
Kinder. Human Movement Sciences, 17, 699-709
Sudgen, D. and Wright, H. (1998) Motor coordination disorders in children. London: Sage
Publi.
Tan, S.K., Parker, H.E. and Larkin, D. (2001) Concurrent validity of motor tests used to identify
children with motor impairment. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 18 (2), 168-182
Thomas, J, R. y French, K.E. (1985) Gender differences across age in motor performance: A
Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, vol. 98, 2, 260-282
Whitehall, C. y Underwood, G.L. (1991) A case study of the behavior of pupils of high and low
motor ability in primary school game lessons. The Bulletin of Physical Education, 27, 3, 24-33
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral
Disorders. Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. Geneva: World Health
Organization.
Zaichkowsky, L, Zaichkowsky, L. y Martinek, T. (1980) Growth and development: The
child and the physical activity. St. Louis: Mosby Co.
14
Table 1: Number of children per age for the Japanese, American and Spanish samples
(age band 2 and age band 3)
Male Female
Age Japan USA Spain Total Japan USA Spain Total
Total
7 12 64 43 119 13 60 39 112 231
8 16 62 51 129 12 78 44 134 263
Total age band 2 28 126 94 248 25 138 83 246 494
9 7 49 39 95 10 81 43 134 229
10 18 62 69 149 14 65 57 136 285
Total age band 3 25 111 108 244 24 146 100 270 514
Total 53 237 202 492 49 284 183 516 1008
14
Table 2
Test items from age band 2 and age band 3of the Movement ABC
DOMAIN ITEM DESCRIPTION
MEASURES
Age Band 2 (7-8 years)
Manual dexterity
MABC1. Placing pegs Place 12 pegs in holes of board (preferred and non preferred hand) Time (seconds)
MABC2 . Threading lace Thread lace through holes in board Time (seconds)
MABC3. Flower trail Trace with a pen 2 curved lines without crossing the lines Number of errors
Ball skills
MABC4. One-catch bounce and catch Bounce a tennis ball on the floor and catch it with the same hand (preferred and
non preferred hand)
Number of
catches
MABC5. Throw bean bag in box Throw bean bag into box with one hand from 2 m Number of hits
Static/dynamic balance
MABC6. Stork Balance Stand on one foot with sole of other foot against side supporting knee for as long
as possible ((preferred and non preferred leg)
Time (seconds)
MABC7. Jump into squares Make 5 continuous jumps (feet together) from square to square Number of jumps
MABC8. Heel-to-toe walking Walk along 4,5 m line, placing heel of one foot against toe of other Number of steps
Age Band 3 (9 10 years)
Manual dexterity
MABC1. Shifting pegs into rows Move each of 3 rows of pegs up one row Time (seconds)
MABC2. Threading nuts on bolt Screw 3 nuts down a bolt Time (seconds)
MABC3. Flower trail Trace with a pen between 2 curved lines without crossing the lines Number of errors
Ball skills
MABC4. Two-hand catch Throw a ball at wall from 2 m and catch with both hands Number of
catches
MABC5. Throw bean bag in box Throw bean bag into box with one hand from 2,5 m Number of hits
Static/dynamic balance
MABC6. One-board balance Balance on one foot on a balance board Time (seconds)
MABC7. Hopping in squares Make 5 continuous jumps on one foot from square to square Number of jumps
MABC8. Ball balance Walk around stands (2,7 m apart) balancing ball on a board Number of steps
1
Table 3: Mean scores and standard deviation (italics) (age band 2) of the Japanese,
American and Spanish samples.
Male Female
Age Item Japan USA Spain Total Japan USA Spain Total
7
MABC 1
20.19 25.16 31.04 26.78 21.14 23.52 33.30 26.65
5.17 5.56 7.37 6.17 5.04 4.20 8.86 5.92
MABC 2
20.19 19.30 22.27 20.46 21.83 16.92 21.89 19.22
5.17 7.02 6.27 6.56 5.69 4.32 8.63 5.98
MABC 3
4.92 1.84 .62 1.71 5.08 1.44 .33 1.48
6.36 2.15 1.11 2.20 4.57 1.53 .66 1.58
MABC 4
8.96 8.66 9.04 8.83 8.38 8.09 8.26 8.18
.75 1.46 1.45 1.38 1.54 1.59 1.89 1.69
MABC 5
5.17 6.36 6.32 6.23 4.92 5.72 4.76 5.29
1.95 1.91 2.23 2.03 2.47 2.02 2.18 2.13
MABC 6
17.63 14.85 17.50 16.09 18.19 16.60 16.55 16.77
2.95 5.47 4.27 4.78 2.50 4.91 5.06 4.68
MABC 7
4.83 4.81 5.20 4.95 5.00 4.92 4.76 4.87
.53 .71 .83 .74 .00 .65 2.18 1.11
MABC 8
14.75 12.25 13.35 12.90 15.00 13.38 14.51 13.96
.87 4.23 3.14 3.50 .00 2.90 2.16 2.31
8
MABC 1
20.21 22.19 26.34 23.59 19.21 21.42 25.52 22.57
2.63 3.72 6.69 4.76 2.34 4.24 6.59 4.84
MABC 2
18.61 17.85 24.69 20.65 18.26 16.62 25.46 19.67
4.62 5.55 8.44 6.58 3.27 6.03 16.00 9.06
MABC 3
1.94 .62 .74 .83 1.00 .07 .48 .28
2.43 1.13 1.23 1.33 1.13 1.34 .94 1.19
MABC 4
9.31 9.29 8.71 9.06 9.46 8.79 8.38 8.72
.85 1.10 1.97 1.41 .45 1.33 1.77 1.40
MABC 5
7.38 7.27 6.60 7.02 5.67 5.78 5.60 5.71
1.63 2.03 2.27 2.08 1.78 2.05 2.41 2.14
MABC 6
17.72 17.85 17.82 17.82 18.71 17.36 18.13 17.73
4.04 4.31 7.69 5.61 2.62 4.36 3.67 3.98
MABC 7
4.94 4.7
1
4.92 4.82 5.00 4.91 5.60 5.14
.25 .93 1.21 .96 .00 .59 2.41 1.13
MABC 8
13.65 14.24 13.55 13.89 15.00 14.40 14.77 14.58
3.37 2.15 2.69 2.51 .00 1.72 2.96 1.97
2
Table 4: Mean scores and standard deviation (italics) (age band 3) of the Japanese, American and
Spanish samples.
Male Female
Age Item Japan USA Spain Total Japan USA Spain Total
9
MABC 1
11.30 13.34 19.93 15.90 14.70 13.29 18.50 15.07
5.61 2.22 4.41 3.37 3.58 1.60 4.32 2.62
MABC 2
20.55 15.19 19.25 17.25 16.27 17.42 21.71 18.71
10.10 6.46 11.22 8.68 7.56 5.99 11.93 8.01
MABC 3
2.88 .49 .61 .72 1.90 .64 .59 .72
2.10 1.02 .96 1.07 1.73 .91 1.12 1.04
MABC 4
6.43 8.90 8.00 8.35 5.40 6.28 9.30 7.18
3.55 1.61 3.32 2.45 2.91 2.38 .44 1.80
MABC 5
6.43 6.76 6.81 6.76 6.30 4.95 6.09 5.42
2.82 1.09 2.38 1.75 1.42 2.09 2.28 2.10
MABC 6
11.40 10.40 9.03 9.91 13.93 12.90 7.10 11.12
4.03 5.66 6.29 5.80 6.23 5.65 6.13 5.85
MABC 7
5.00 4.68 4.12 4.47 5.00 4.69 4.65 4.70
.00 .97 1.52 1.12 .00 1.02 1.12 .98
MABC 8
.00 .35 2.94 1.39 .10 .22 2.02 .79
.00 1.25 5.79 3.02 .32 .76 4.93 2.07
10
MABC 1
13.02 12.64 17.28 14.83 12.93 12.61 16.87 14.43
2.38 1.57 3.97 2.78 2.24 1.33 5.01 2.97
MABC 2
21.44 12.98 15.11 14.99 19.95 15.28 14.08 15.26
4.52 5.00 7.54 6.12 5.96 4.88 7.51 6.09
MABC 3
2.88 .56 1.25 1.16 1.21 .52 1.33 .93
2.10 .97 2.06 1.61 1.53 .90 2.48 1.63
MABC 4
7.79 8.61 5.85 7.23 6.43 7.63 6.06 6.85
2.23 2.42 3.05 2.69 2.82 2.20 3.01 2.60
MABC 5
6.58 6.66 5.41 6.07 5.07 6.00 5.52 5.70
1.64 1.82 1.93 1.85 1.49 1.93 1.88 1.86
MABC 6
12.05 12.46 7.32 10.03 13.85 14.38 7.19 11.31
6.66 5.68 4.82 5.40 6.80 5.41 4.91 5.34
MABC 7
4.97 4.67 4.78 4.76 4.96 4.88 4.80 4.85
.11 .94 1.15 .94 .13 .58 1.03 .72
MABC 8
.00 .16 1.63 .82 .00 .03 1.47 .63
.00 .79 3.99 2.18 .00 .17 3.84 1.69
1
Table 5. Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Multivariate tests of significance
MABC-Age band 2..
Effect
Wilks
lambda
Approx.
F
Hypoth.
DF
Error DF
Sig. of
F
Age .87 9.22
8
475
.000
Gender .90 6.51
8
475
.000
Country .49 25.07
16
950
.000
Age by Gender .97 1.56
8
475
.135
Age by Country .81 6.48
16
950
.000
Gender by Country .98 .71
16
950
.786
Table 6 : Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Univariate F-tests of significance.
MABC-Age band 2.
Factor effect
Country Gender Age
Item F
(2, 482)
Sig of F F
(1, 502)
Sig of F F
(1, 502)
Sig of F
MABC 1
93.45 .000 .08 .772 30.54 .000
MABC 2
40.21
.000 .18 .673 .04 .842
MABC 3
35.14
.000 2.70 .101 45.66 .000
MABC 4
2.05
.130 8.15 .004 7.78 .005
MABC 5
3.12
.045 22.29 .000 12.85 .000
MABC 6
3.37
.035 .55 .459 4.59 .033
MABC 7
4.3
2
.014 1.37 .243 .70 .402
MABC 8
5.99
.003 12.74 .000 2.58 .109
Table 7 : Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Interaction effects, univariate F-tests of significance.
MABC-Age band 2.
Age by Gender Age by Country Gender by
Country
Item F
(1, 482)
Sig of F F
(2, 482)
Sig of F
F
(2, 482)
Sig of F
MABC 1
1.40 .238 8.69
.000
1.83 .161
MABC 2
.00 .946 5.66
.004
1.50 .224
MABC 3
.77 .380 17.34
.000
.12 .883
MABC 4
1.87 .172 4.68
.010
.35 .707
MABC 5
1.54 .215 1.27
.281
.18 .836
MABC 6
.03 .851 1.06
.348
.72 .487
MABC 7
2.71 .100 1.52
.220
.02 .980
MABC 8
.02 .898 7.41
.001
.82 .439
2
Table 8 : Multiple comparisons by country (Bonferroni, * Significance level .050).
MABC-Age band 2.
Item
Country -
Country
Mean
differences
Std Error Sig.
MABC 1 Japan USA -2.770
*
.840 .003
Spain -8.600
*
.874 .000
Spain USA 5.830
*
.542 .000
MABC 2 Japan USA 2.050 1.114 .199
Spain -4.000
*
1.159 .002
Spain USA 6.050
*
.719 .000
MABC 3 Japan USA 2.230
*
.258 .000
Spain 2.610
*
.269 .000
Spain USA -.380 .167 .069
MABC 4 Japan USA .320 .225 .465
Spain .430 .234 .199
Spain USA -.110 .145 1.000
MABC 5 Japan USA -.370 .316 .726
Spain .010 .329 1.000
Spain USA -.380 .204 .189
MABC 6 Japan USA 1.350 .722 .187
Spain 2.500
*
.752 .003
Spain USA -1.150
*
.466 .042
MABC 7 Japan USA .100 .170 1.000
Spain -.105 .177 1.000
Spain USA .205 .110 .186
MABC 8 Japan USA .930 .392 .054
Spain .520 .407 .607
Spain USA .410 .253 .316
3
Table 9 : Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Multivariate tests of significance
MABC-Age band 3..
Effect
Wilks
lambda
Approx.
F
Hypoth.
DF
Error DF
Sig. of
F
Age
.96
2.58
8
495
.009
Gender
.95
3.44
8
495 .001
Country
.405
35.73
16
990
.000
Age by Gender
.995
.43
8
495 .900
Age by Country
.77
8.74
16
990
.000
Gender by Country
.87
4.60
16
990
.000
Table 10 :. Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Interaction effects, univariate F-tests of significance.
MABC-Age band 3
Factor effect
Country Gender Age
Item F
(2, 502)
Sig of F F
(1, 502)
Sig of F F
(1, 502)
Sig of F
MABC 1
187.56
.000
.45
.505
7.53
.006
MABC 2
10.22
.000
.00
.970
5.17
.023
MABC 3
27.89
.000
6.36
.012
.42
.515
MABC 4
7.11
.001
6.82
.009
1.28
.259
MABC 5
.30
.741
11.98
.001
2.37
.124
MABC 6
45.7
9
.000
2.79
.095
.39
.534
MABC 7
3.64
.027
1.32
.250
1.94
.164
MABC 8
42.54
.000
.63
.428
2.24
.135
Table 11 : Multivariate Analysis of Variance. Univariate F-tests of significance.
MABC-Age band 3.
Age by Gender Age by Country Gender by
Country
Item F
(1, 502)
Sig. of
F
F
(2, 502)
Sig. of F
F
(2, 502)
Sig. of F
MABC 1
1.39
.240
4.44
.012
3.82
.023
MABC 2
.015
.901
7.44
.001
2.62
.074
MABC 3
.63
.428
4.82
.008
4.93
.008
MABC 4
.02
.898
28.86
.000
15.98
.000
MABC 5
.19
.660
8.32
.000
3.30
.038
MABC 6
.01
.903
2.96
.053
4.95
.007
MABC 7
.23
.628
2.02
.133
.65
.523
MABC 8
.18
.673
1.81
.164
.62
.537
4
Table 12 : Multiple comparisons by country (Bonferroni, * Significance level .050).
MABC-Age band 3.
Item
Country -
Country
Mean
differences
Std Error Sig.
MABC 1 Japan USA .12 .338 1.000
Spain -4.83
*
.347 .000
Spain USA 4.95
*
.209 .000
MABC 2 Japan USA 4.45
*
.780 .000
Spain 2.86
*
.802 .001
Spain USA 1.59
*
.484 .003
MABC 3 Japan USA 1.64
*
.153 .000
Spain 1.18
*
.157 .000
Spain USA .46
*
.095 .000
MABC 4 Japan USA -.96
*
.259 .001
Spain -.30 .267 .783
Spain USA -.66
*
.161 .000
MABC 5 Japan USA .10 .205 1.000
Spain .23 .211 .828
Spain USA -.13 .127 .923
MABC 6 Japan USA .17 .605 1.000
Spain 5.30
*
.622 .000
Spain USA -5.13
*
.376 .000
MABC 7 Japan USA .25 .105 .051
Spain .35
*
.108 .004
Spain USA -.10 .065 .372
MABC 8 Japan USA -.16 .305 1.000
Spain -1.89
*
.313 .000
Spain USA 1.73
*
.189 .000
... Cross-cultural validity was studied in four papers, looking at Swedish, Spanish, Italian, Dutch and Japanese samples in comparison to US or UK norms [88, [127][128][129]. Results showed that UK norms were not suitable for use to evaluate the performance of Italian children, as significant differences were found for eleven of the twenty seven items on the MABC-2 [129]. ...
... Differences were also found between the performance of UK children and Dutch children, however these differences were not statistically significant. The US standardised sample was found to be valid for a Swedish sample [127], but not for a Spanish sample, for which US norms left a large proportion of the sample below the 15 th percentile [128]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) play a critical role in ontogenesis. Many children have insufficient FMS, highlighting the need for universal screening in schools. There are many observational FMS assessment tools, but their psychometric properties are not readily accessible. A systematic review was therefore undertaken to compile evidence of the validity and reliability of observational FMS assessments, to evaluate their suitability for screening. Methods A pre-search of ‘fundamental movement skills’ OR ‘fundamental motor skills’ in seven online databases (PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, EBSCO CINAHL, EBSCO SPORTDiscus, Ovid PsycINFO and Web of Science) identified 24 assessment tools for school-aged children that: (i) assess FMS; (ii) measure actual motor competence and (iii) evaluate performance on a standard battery of tasks. Studies were subsequently identified that: (a) used these tools; (b) quantified validity or reliability and (c) sampled school-aged children. Study quality was assessed using COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklists. Results Ninety studies were included following the screening of 1863 articles. Twenty-one assessment tools had limited or no evidence to support their psychometric properties. The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD, n = 34) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC, n = 37) were the most researched tools. Studies consistently reported good evidence for validity, reliability for the TGMD, whilst only 64% of studies reported similarly promising results for the MABC. Twelve studies found good evidence for the reliability and validity of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency but poor study quality appeared to inflate results. Considering all assessment tools, those with promising psychometric properties often measured limited aspects of validity/reliability, and/or had limited feasibility for large scale deployment in a school-setting. Conclusion There is insufficient evidence to justify the use of any observational FMS assessment tools for universal screening in schools, in their current form.
... O rigor das instruções comporta dificuldades às crianças com problemas de atenção. Está traduzido em várias línguas, relevando a sua potencial transversalidade cultural, embora requeira ajustes pontuais (e.g., Schoemaker et al., 2005;Ruiz et al., 2003;Miyahara et al., 1998;Balakrishnan & Rao, 2007;Cardoso et al., 2008). Inclui uma checklist com uma componente motora e outra não motora, aplicável dos 5 aos 12 anos, preenchida pelos pais e pelos professores sobre o contexto habitacional (e.g., vestir) e escolar (e.g., equilíbrio). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
A Associação Americana de Psiquiatria estabeleceu a designação de Developmental Coordenation Disorder para crianças com ausência de desordem neurológica mas com dificuldades motoras em tarefas diárias e académicas. A DCD está associada a problemas de rendimento escolar, psicológicos e sociais, que não exclusivamente no domínio motor. Há instrumentos de diagnóstico vocacionados para este tipo de problema, com razoável nível de concordância. Contudo, as medidas de corte ainda não são consensuais e existem problemas associados à sua adaptação cultural. Os factores que estão na origem desta dificuldade ainda não estão identificados, mas têm aparecido associadas insuficiências perceptivas espaciais e no processamento de informação. Foram detectadas diferenças de incidência da DCD em função do género e da lateralidade.
... For the students' motor evaluation, the second edition of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children -Movement ABC-2 (MABC-2) was used, proposed by Henderson, Sugden and Barnett (2007). This test is one of the most used to identify children with delays in motor development, whether those who already have difficulties in movement, including DCD, or those who are prone to motor problems (Ruiz et al, 2003;Barnet, 2007). According to Geuze et al (2001), The MABC is a useful measurement instrument in the clinical and educational context widely used by researchers in the field of motor development. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research was characterized as a quantitative cross-sectional descriptive. During the motor development process, a series of physical and mechanical changes occur, where the factors of physical growth, maturation, development of physical fitness, physical activity, age and experience are interrelated. The general objective of this study was to study the different effects of physical fitness on the motor performance of adolescents aged 13 to 16 years in the city of Itaituba / Pará. Methodology developed was with the n = sample of 102 students of both genders aged between 13 and 16 years old from the city of Itaituba / PA. All guardians signed the ICF and were released by the doctor for the tests, the instruments used were MABC-2, 6/9 walk / run, TG Lohman protocol, Wells Bank, Medicinibol Pitch, Sargent Jump Test, Impulse Test Horizontal, Anthropometric Scale. The statistics used were descriptive and inferential through the SPSS program that evaluated the relationship and or association of the results. Results: when compared between genders, boys showed an index of 85.4% and girls 72.2% within normal limits. For the Physical Fitness variable, only the values of the Medicinibol Throw, Horizontal Impulse and Flexibility tests showed above-average rates. When compared between genders, boys did not outperform girls in the abdominal, horizontal push and fat percentage test. In the analysis of the maturational state, performed through the Peak Growth Speed test, girls reached this state at around 12.9 years of age, while boys at 14.6 years of age. In the analysis of motor performance, only 38.9% of the girls are in the green zone, presenting 40.7% with indicative of BDD, in boys, 50% are in the green zone and only 18.8% have indicative of BDD. In the association of motor performance between age, physical fitness and nutritional status, the results point to significance only for the association between motor performance and an item of physical fitness, flexibility. We conclude that the process of acquisition of motor skills emerges due to environmental and socioeconomic influences, of course, without forgetting, mainly, the interaction between genotype and phenotype on motor performance. Nowadays we observe a huge decline in the provision of motor opportunities for children and adolescents, generating less stimulus and, therefore, few motor experiences. Copyright © 2020, Eliana da Silva Coelho Mendonça et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... Girls often perform better than boys on manual/fine motor skills [18][19][20][21][22], while boys perform better in ball skills [19,20,23,24]. In terms of balance, less differences are found between sex, although there is a tendency that girls outperform boys. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research indicates that children and adolescents gradually participate less in physical activity with age. Several factors are associated with children’s physical activity levels, such as motor performance, self-perception of athletic competence and motivation to physical activity. To gain a better understanding of the factors of importance for behavior related to an active lifestyle, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between motor competence, physical self-perception and autonomous motivation and to examine to what extent this association may vary by sex. The sample consisted of 101 children, whose average age was 11.7 years (SD = 0.57), 53 boys and 48 girls. All subjects were measured on motor competence, physical self-perception and autonomous motivation for physical activity. The results indicate a low positive relationship between motor competence and physical self-perception for the entire sample and among girls. There is also a significant correlation between autonomous motivation and physical self-perception. No significant correlations were found between autonomous motivation and motor competence. The association between physical self-perception and autonomous motivation suggests that psychological factors play an important role in children’s participation in physical activity.
Chapter
Full-text available
A educação formal que era desenvolvida predominantemente nas escolas, considerada como tradicional, seguia modelos curriculares de um passado que não coaduna com o panorama educacional que vem se materializando historicamente. Não obstante, caminhos e soluções didático-pedagógicas foram criadas e passaram a ser conhecidas como Metodologias Ativas (DIESEL; BALDEZ; MARTINS, 2017). Nelas, alunos e professores trabalham juntos, em uma relação horizontal, utilizando recursos e adotando técnicas que vão favorecer e estimular o desenvolvimento de novas e significativas aprendizagens (MOREIRA, 2011; NASCIMENTO, 2011). Com o intuito de apresentar estes caminhos e soluções didático-pedagógicas o nosso objetivo nesta comunicação foi apresentar algumas perspectivas das metodologias ativas presentes na literatura e descrever as principais evidências nesta relação horizontal
Book
Full-text available
A coleção “Ciências da Saúde no Brasil: Impasses e Desafios” é uma coletânea composta de nove obras, e no seu quinto volume contextualiza a fase da adolescência e da juventude que são períodos complexos e dinâmicos do ponto de vista físico, psico-emocional e social na vida do ser humano. Não cabe nessa breve apresentação, nos debruçarmos sobre a definição de adolescência e juventude, mas todos sabemos que são períodos da vida, entre a infância e a fase adulta, marcados pelas transformações biológicas e comportamentais. A Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) define adolescência como sendo o período da vida que começa aos 10 anos e termina aos 19 anos completos. Para a OMS, a adolescência é dividida em três fases: pré-adolescência: dos 10 aos 14 anos, adolescência: dos 15 aos 19 anos completos e juventude: dos 15 aos 24 anos. Esse volume será dedicado aos impasses, desafios, dilemas, dificuldades e saúde dessa faixa etária. Serão apresentados capítulos que versam sobre: obesidade, educação em saúde, jovens com deficiências, os benefícios da estimulação elétrica funcional na reabilitação de de adolescentes com paralisia cerebral, o uso de medicamentos psicotrópicos por universitários, será também apresentado um estudo sobre a alimentação saudável, a prevenção e promoção da saúde dos adolescentes com foco na qualidade de vida, e a influência da educação física no desenvolvimento motor em adolescentes de 12 a 15 anos de idade em diferentes estágios maturacional. Alguns estudos abordaram a questão da sexualidade, como por exemplo as dificuldades presentes no entendimento da sexualidade dos jovens com e sem deficiência intelectual, pois a maioria demonstra ter pouco conhecimento sobre esse assunto, além de que o fato de iniciarem as práticas sexuais sem as orientações necessárias, os tornam alvo vulnerável ao acometimento de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis (IST’s) e portanto é fundamental a sensibilização para uma mudança de atitude entre adolescentes e adultos jovens frente a problemática das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis. Foram abordados também temas como: “Toxicodependência na gestação em adolescentes e o desenvolvimento da síndrome de abstinência neonatal”, “Caracterização da dismenorreia primária em adolescentes e jovens”, “A utilização de medicamentos psicotrópicos entre universitários”, “Parassuicídio, entendendo a realidade da mente jovem”, portanto os estudos apresentados e as pesquisas na temática da fase juvenil, revelam a necessidade de se trabalhar a promoção da saúde dessa população em situação de vulnerabilidade social, e implementar um sistema de apoio fazendo com que esses adolescentes/jovens possam repensar seu papel na sociedade, onde suas opiniões e ações irão exercer influência relevante na comunidade. Diante da proeminente necessidade de divulgação dos avanços da ciência e da saúde, seus impasses e desafios, a Editora Atena presenteia os leitores com esse volume que apresenta assuntos tão valiosos sobre a saúde do público jovem. Isabelle Cerqueira Sousa
Article
The Test component of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2nd Edition (Movement ABC-2) is used worldwide to identify children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). In China, practitioners have been using this test with the assumption that the published UK norms are valid for Chinese children. However no systematic investigation has previously been undertaken to check this assumption. 2185 children aged 3–10 years old from a national representative sample in China were therefore recruited to the current study. Performance on the Movement ABC-2 was assessed and compared with the UK standardization norms. Gender differences were also examined. The comparisons revealed that Chinese children were generally better in Manual Dexterity and Balance tasks compared to their UK peers; while UK children were better in Aiming & Catching tasks. Further analysis showed an interaction of country and age with mixed results. For both countries, girls were generally better in Manual Dexterity and Balance tasks, and boys were generally better in Aiming & Catching. Possible explanations for the country differences are discussed. The results suggest that local norms for the Movement ABC-2 Test are needed in China.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the follow-up at age 15 of a group of children who were diagnosed at age 5 as having delayed motor development. The group of children who were clumsy and the control group still differed in motor performance 10 years later: 46% of the members of the early motor delay group were classified as different from the control group on motor and perceptual tasks. The remainder made up an intermediate group that could not be clearly distinguished from the other groups. Adolescents with stable motor problems had fewer social hobbies and pastimes and had lower academic ambitions for their future than the controls, although the lower academic ambitions also reflect their lower academic achievements. The adolescents who were clumsy believed they were less physically and scholastically competent than the controls. However, they did not have poor opinions of their social acceptance or self-worth. The intermediate group, although they showed motor delay at age 5, had good school performance and high ambitions and engaged in social sports at age 15.
Article
Full-text available
Assessed whether clumsiness in children persists after 12 yrs and described the characteristics of motor and other problems, if present. From 31 clumsy and 31 matched control children (aged 6–22 yrs) studied in 1984, 12 clumsy and 14 control children (aged 11–17 yrs) were reassessed 5 yrs later. The Test of Motor Impairment indicated that at least 50% of the clumsy Ss were still markedly below the level of normal motor performance. This outcome was also validated by parent and teacher opinions. Persistent problems were not specifically related to 1 domain of fine or gross motor ability or general coordination. Concomitant problems reported by teachers and parents were lack of concentration and problems in social behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study explored the relationship between perceived physical competence and physical awkwardness in an effort to gain further understanding of the effects of motor incompetence on behavior. Subjects included 195 children in Grades 3 through 6. Multiple regression analysis found that gender, the importance attached to physical competence, and the interaction between severity of awkwardness and grade were significant predictors of perceptions of physical competence. As expected, males reported higher perceptions of physical competence than females. In addition, the higher the rating that subjects attached to the importance of physical competence, the higher their perceptions of physical competence. Investigation of the interaction between severity of awkwardness and grade revealed that the expected decrease in perceptions of competence associated with increasing severity of awkwardness was present only in third-grade children. It is suggested that older awkward children may utilize strategies to maintain positive perceptions of competence and motivation.
Article
This study focuses on identification of children with motor coordination problems and investigates whether the incidence of children with such problems in a normal school setting in Norway is comparable to that found in other countries using the same tests and criteria. The study also examines whether there would be any agreement between two motor tests, the Test of Motor Proficiency (TMP) and the Test of Motor Impairment (TOMI), and teachers' judgment in identifying clumsiness among 360 children 10 years of age. The results showed that while the three different assessment methods identified about the same number of children with such problems (5-5.6%), each measure identified a somewhat different set of children. The lack of agreement demonstrates the difficulty in assessing subtle motor coordination problems or clumsiness.
Article
The purpose of this study was to identify possible subtypes of students with learning disabilities based upon gross motor functions. Subjects in a private school for learning difficulties were divided into a group of students with learning disabilities and a comparison group. Gross motor subtests from the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency were administered to both learning-disabled and comparison groups. The four subtypes yielded by the K-means iterative partitioning method demonstrated distinct profiles. Cluster membership was shown to be fairly stable by internal validation techniques. The external validity of the four subtypes was verified by a teacher's ratings of students' physical behaviors. It was recommended that the outcome of type-specific remediation and the longitudinal stability of gross motor subtypes be evaluated.
Article
Examined the concurrent validity and discrimination accuracy of the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency—Short Form (R. H. Bruininks, 1978, BOTMP-SF) and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (L. T. McCarron, 1982, MAND) for identifying motor impairment (MI) in children. 26 children (aged 4.7–10.7 yrs) with suspected MI completed the BOTMP-SF, and MAND, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (S. E. Henderson and D. A. Sugden, 1992, MABC). Results show that performance rankings for both MI Ss and non-MI controls were highly correlated concerning both the BOTMP-SF and MAND tests; however, only 35% of MI cases were classified alike and 71% of cases were agreed on, overall. Comparison with MABC scores showed that MAND was a more accurate discriminator of MI and possessed higher sensitivity and negative predictive values than the BOTMP-SF. It is concluded that the MAND is a more valid test for the identification of MI than the BOTMP-SF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Henderson and Sugden, 1992) for use with Japanese children. One hundred and thirty three Japanese children aged seven to eleven years participated in the study. Their performance was compared to the American children of the same age on whom the 1992 standardisation was based. Analysis of the individual test items revealed a number of significant differences between the samples, some favouring Japanese children others favouring American. Post hoc examination of those test items that best distinguished Japanese from American children showed that the items favouring the Japanese children tended to be in the dynamic balance section of the test and those favouring American in the manual dexterity section. Approximately nineteen percent of children in the Japanese sample obtained total scores lying two or more standard deviations below the American means. It would be premature to ascribe all the obtained differences to cultural factors. Data from a larger and more broadly based sample of Japanese children will be necessary to provide a more appropriate basis for making decisions about the usefulness of the Movement ABC test items and published norms.PsycINFO classification: 2221; 2330
Article
The Movement ABC is now widely used in Sweden by physio and occupational therapists. The manual was translated into Swedish in 1996. It is generally assumed that the published norms for the test are valid for use with Swedish children but no systematic investigation of their suitability has been undertaken. The aim of this study was to begin this process by comparing the performance of a group of six-year-old Swedish children with that of American children from the original standardisation sample. Two matched groups of 60 children were compared. Out of 10 cross-cultural comparisons, only one revealed a significant difference between the groups. Swedish children were better on one of the ball skills tasks. Although the restricted age range and small sample size make it difficult to generalise our results beyond Age Band One of the test, the data so far suggest that the norms for the test may need little adjustment for use with Swedish children.PsycINFO Classification: 2221; 2330
Article
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC; Henderson, S.E., Sugden, D.A., 1992. Movement Assessment Battery for children: Manual. Psychological Corporation, London.) is used throughout the world in the evaluation of children with movement difficulties. Within Europe, another test commonly used for the same purpose is the Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder (KTK; Kiphard, B.J., Schilling F., 1974 Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder. Beltz Test Gmbh, Weinheim.). The aims of this study were: (i) to take a preliminary look at the suitability of the published norms of these two tests for use with Dutch children, (ii) to examine the correlations between scores on the two tests and, (iii) to examine the concordance between the tests in detecting cases of impairment among children believed to be poorly coordinated. Two hundred and eight children completed both tests. The results suggested that the current norms for the Movement ABC are satisfactory for Dutch children but for the KTK, they may require adjustment. The overall correlation between the two tests was 0.62. Although there were children who failed one test and passed the other, the degree of concordance between the tests was statistically significant.PsycINFO classification: 2221; 2330