Article

Alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase are associated with the metabolic syndrome but not with angiographically determined coronary atherosclerosis

01/2008; 51:S545-S545.

ABSTRACT

Risch, L. Saely, C. H. Vonbank, A. Rein, P. Woess, M. Beer, S. Boehnel, C. Jankovic, V. Aczel, S. Drexel, H.

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    • "339 patients from a previously described study cohort [13] of the Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment (VIVIT; Feldkirch, Austria) were recruited. Samples were collected from unselected white patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: After ingestion of phosphatidylcholine, l-carnitine or betaine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is formed by gut microbiota and liver enzymes. Elevated TMAO plasma levels were associated with increased cardiovascular risk and other diseases. Also betaine and choline itself were recently associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Methods: A newly developed LC-HRMS method was applied to measure the plasma concentrations of TMAO, betaine and choline in a cohort of 339 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of suspected coronary artery disease. Results: Betaine concentrations in males were significantly higher than in females (42.0 vs. 35.9 μmol/L; p < 0.001). Plasma concentrations of TMAO but not of betaine or choline were higher in patients with diabetes compared to euglycemic patients (2.39 vs. 0.980 μmol/L; p = 0.001) as well as in patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to patients without metabolic syndrome (2.37 vs. 1.43 μmol/L; p = 0.002). Plasma concentrations of TMAO or choline increased significantly with decreasing renal function (Spearman's rho: -0.281; p < 0.001). However, plasma levels of TMAO or betaine were associated with neither a history of myocardial infarction nor the angiographically assessed presence of coronary heart disease, nor incident cardiovascular events during 8 years of follow-up. Plasma levels of choline were significantly lower in patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction as compared to those without such history (10.0 vs. 10.8 μmol/L; p = 0.045). Conclusions: Plasma levels of TMAO are confounded by impaired kidney function and poor metabolic control but are not associated with the history, presence or incidence of symptoms or events of coronary heart disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) management programs conventionally focus on the adults having MetS. However, risk assessment for MetS development is also important for many adults potentially at risk but do not yet fulfill MetS criteria at screening. Therefore, we conducted this follow-up study to explore whether initial screening records can be efficiently applied on the prediction of the MetS occurrence in healthy middle-aged employees. Utilizing health examination data, a five-year follow-up observational study was conducted for 1384 middle-aged Taiwanese employees not fulfilling MetS criteria. Data analyzed included: gender, age, MetS components, uric acid, insulin, liver enzymes, sonographic fatty liver, hepatovirus infections and lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of risk for MetS development. The synergistic index (SI) values and their confidence intervals of risk factor combinations were calculated; and were used to estimate the interacting effects of coupling MetS components on MetS development. Within five years, 13% (175 out of 1384) participants fulfilled MetS criteria. The ORs for MetS development among adults initially having one or two MetS components were 2.8 and 7.3, respectively (both p < 0.01), versus the adults having zero MetS component count at screening. Central obesity carried an OR of 7.5 (p < 0.01), which far exceeded other risk factors (all ORs < 2.7). Synergistic effects on MetS development existed between coupling MetS components: 1. High blood pressure plus low-HDL demonstrated an OR of 11.7 (p < 0.01) for MetS development and an SI of 4.7 (95% CI, 2.1-10.9). 2. High blood pressure plus hyperglycemia had an OR of 7.9 (p < 0.01), and an SI of 2.7 (95% CI, 1.2-6.4). MetS component count and combination can be used in predicting MetS development for participants potentially at risk. Worksite MetS screening programs simultaneously allow for finding out cases and for assessing risk of MetS development.
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to elucidate the association between gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) activity with prevalence of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) in young Pakistani patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography. A total of 218 young adults (age ≤ 45 years) underwent diagnostic angiography. Serum samples were taken from all the patients and analyzed for serum GGT activity, cholesterol and triglycerides. Coronary artery disease patients had significantly increased GGT activity (P = .001) and exhibited a significant positive correlation with blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose, and smoking and negative correlation with total antioxidant status (P < .01). The study revealed good diagnostic accuracy at cutoff of 35 U/L with a sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 81%, and diagnostic odds ratio of 48 in estimation of premature CAD in young Pakistanis.
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