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Anti-inflammatory Activity of Flower Tops of Gentiana Kurroo Royale Extract”

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... The root is used as an ingredient in preparing feed for fattening horses (Qureshi et al. 2007). In unani system of medicine the flower tops (Gule-Ghafis) has been traditionally used for treatment of inflammation, pain, fever and hepatitis (Latif et al. 2006). Amongst these ethnomedicinal properties antiinflammatory activity of flower tops (Latif et al. 2006) and analgesic activity of roots (methanolic extracts) of Gentiana kurroo (Wani et al. 2011a) is scientifically validated. ...
... In unani system of medicine the flower tops (Gule-Ghafis) has been traditionally used for treatment of inflammation, pain, fever and hepatitis (Latif et al. 2006). Amongst these ethnomedicinal properties antiinflammatory activity of flower tops (Latif et al. 2006) and analgesic activity of roots (methanolic extracts) of Gentiana kurroo (Wani et al. 2011a) is scientifically validated. ...
... Other chemical compounds like 1, 3-propanediol, 2-methyl sulphide, 3-methyl butanol, pentanol, hexanal, 7oxabicyclo (4,1,0)-heptanes are present in minor quantities (Wani et al. 2011b). Flower tops contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, free phenols and terpenes (Latif et al. 2006). ...
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Gentiana kurroo Royle is a critically endangered bitter drug plant of western and northwestern Himalaya. The secondary plant metabolites present in the root and rhizome of this plant are valued as bitter tonic, antiperiodic, expecto-rant, antibilious, astringent, stomachic, anthelmintic, blood purifier, carminative, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and sedative. It is also medicated for curing skin diseases, leucoderma, leprosy, bronchial asthma, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, anorexia, helminthiosis, inflammations, amenorrhea, dysmenorrheal, strangury, hemorrhoids, constipa-tion and urinary infections. The drug plant is heavily extracted for root and rhizome. Because of restricted distribution and widespread extraction from its natural habitats coupled with nil cultivation, this species is in high risk category as far as its survival is concerned. The paper presents a comprehensive review on its morphophenology, ethnopharmacy, rege-neration techniques and phytochemistry in a lieu to assist further research in chemical screening for elite genotype, de-veloping agrotechniques of cultivation, varietal development and byproduct extraction and thereby protecting the miracle plant from extinction.
... The results of our experiments revealed the tremendous embryogenic potential possessed by Gentiana kurroo Royle. This species is an endangered medicinal herb from western and northwestern Himalaya, which has been overexploited in its natural habitats owing to the extensive collection of its leaves, roots, rhizomes, and flower heads, which are highly valued in traditional Indian medicine (Latif et al. 2006;Behera and Raina 2012;Baba and Malik 2014). The embryogenic potential of G. kurroo is particularly obvious in cell suspension cultures (Fiuk and Rybczyński 2008) and in cultures of cell suspension-derived protoplasts (Fiuk and Rybczyński 2007), which provide the basis for successful cryopreservation of this species (Mikuła et al. 2011a, b), its genetic transformation (Wójcik and Rybczyński 2015), and its somatic hybridization (Tomiczak et al. 2015b). ...
... In order to determine whether protoplast fusion is a feasible tool for extending the genetic diversity of Gentianaceae, we conducted 28 independent experiments on protoplast fusion between cell suspension-derived protoplasts of G. kurroo and leaf mesophyll-derived protoplasts of Gentiana cruciata L. and Gentiana tibetica King. The last two are tetraploid species of medicinal and ornamental importance (Köhlein 1991) that are easy to cultivate. Although the results of studies conducted so far have indicated, that G. cruciata is recalcitrant in cultures of leaf mesophyllderived protoplasts (Tomiczak et al. 2016), we managed to obtain three somatic hybrid callus lines following electrofusion of their protoplasts with those isolated from cotyledon-derived cell suspension of G. kurroo and thereby, regenerated a total of 87 plants via somatic embryogenesis from two of these (Tomiczak et al. 2015b). ...
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Somatic hybridization by protoplast fusion is used in breeding programs to obtain plant material that has inherited valuable traits from two different species, and in order to broaden plant genetic diversity. Somatic hybrids of the genus Gentiana could provide a useful source of new ornamental cultivars and of secondary metabolites. However, in order to evaluate its further usefulness, detailed characterization of the newly created hybrid is essential. Here, genome composition and stability of interspecific gentian somatic hybrids obtained following electrofusion of cell suspension-derived protoplasts of diploid Gentiana kurroo Royle with leaf mesophyll-derived protoplasts of tetraploid G. cruciata L. were characterized using various molecular markers and flow cytometry. AFLP and ISSR analyses revealed that all 21 hybrid plants and 3 lines of hybrid callus were genetically closer to G. cruciata than to G. kurroo. According to the results of chloroplast DNA analysis with the use of CAPS markers, all somatic hybrids inherited chloroplasts from “mesophyll” fusion partner G. cruciata. Flow cytometry revealed that polyploidization occurred, and probably it took place at the early stage of post-fusion culture. In consequence, gradual elimination of nuclear DNA, mixoploidy, and high genetic instability were observed in most hybrid plants and calli during the subsequent 4 years of in vitro culture.
... This plant is reported to have medicinal roles such as tonic, antiperiodic, expectorant, antibilious, astringent, stomachic, antihelminthic, blood purifier, carminative, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiarthritic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and analgesic. [43,44] Nasreeena et al., 2019, have reported its role in the cure of Alzheimer's disease. [45] C. rotundus Sivapalan, 2013, has given an exhaustive review of the various medicinal properties of C. rotundus. ...
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Objective: The present study deals with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of one Ayurvedic formulation, Tiktaka Ghrita, which is prescribed for skin diseases. Materials and Methods: The medicine was procured from standard Ayurvedic vendor at Chennai and was subjected to GC-MS analysis after due processing. Results: It was observed that there are some important biomolecules such as Eucalyptol, o-Acetyl-L-serine, Phenylethyl Alcohol, 2-Allyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylsuccinic acid, 1-ethyl ester, Glycerine, Succinic acid, ethyl non-5-yn-3-yl ester, Cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 1-ethyl-, Benzeneethanol, 4-hydroxy-, and 2,4,6,(1H,3H,5H)-Pyrimidinetrione, 5-acetyl- which augur well with the medicinal role of Tiktaka Ghrita. Conclusion: It was observed that the molecules present in the GC-MS profile do show some relationship with that of Tiktaka Ghrita as a medicine.
... Ethnomedicine is a promising field of research in Kashmir, as anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and antidiabetic activity [21]. Present pharmacological study was to prove the activity of Gentiana kurroo extracts on Alzhemier's diseases. ...
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Alzhemier disease (AD) poses a major health concern with an ever-rising global burden. It is the common form of dementia in elderly people. The etiology of this disease is multifactorial. Many different hypothesis have been given from time to time to elucidate the causative factors of this disease, to explain the multifactorial nature of disease, such as cholinergic hypothesis, Aβ hypothesis, tau hypothesis, oxidative stress hypothesis and inflammation hypothesis. Aging has been associated with oxidative damage and is extensive in the AD brain. Natural products and herbal remedies have been a source of many beneficial drugs. Plants have always been rich source of new anti-alzhemeric agents due to their extensive use in folk medicine. Hence, there arises a need to validate their folklore claims by various pre-clinical methods. The current study was designed to ascertain the neuroprotective potential Gentiana kurroo plant of Kashmir, which is used traditionally for treatment against various disorders. Qualitative phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites like flavonoids in methanol and ethanol extracts followed by aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts. Maximum content of phenols was present in methanol extract followed by ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts. Furthermore, the effect of Gentiana kurroo on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice was studied via the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. The methanol extract of Gentiana kurroo extract when administered orally improved learning and memory of mice.
... The drug obtained from G. kurroo is very helpful in removing all kinds of weakness and overtiredness of body from prolonged illness, recovers digestive system and lack of appetite [71]. In the Ayurvedic (Unani) system of medicine, the flower tops (Gule-Ghafis) are used for treatment of inflammation, pain, antipyretic and hepatitis [61,62] and in the preparation of tonics for stomachic [72]. It is also curative for the skin disease leucoderma, leprosy, dyspepsia, colic, anorexia, flatulence, helminthiosis, anti-inflammatory, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhoeal, haemorrhoids, strangury, constipation, urinary infections as an antiseptic, bitter tonic, cholagogue and bronchial asthma [46,73,74]. ...
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The present investigation was carried out to review and highlight the potential phytochemicals and medicinal phenomena of the critically endangered medicinal plant, Gentiana kurroo Royle of the western and north-western Himalayas. The medicinal plant is heavily exploited for root and rhizome. Due to its endemic nature and the high rate of exploitation from its natural habitat, this species had become critically endangered. The phytochemical screening of the plant revealed that the plant contains some vital phyto-constituents (iridoids, xanthones, C-glucoxanthone mangiferin, and C-glucoflavones) that have a medicinal value for various acute and chronic diseases. Several researchers have carried out experimental work to validate the folkloric use of the medicinal plant for different ailments like antibacterial, antioxidant, anti-arthritic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities and anti-diabetic activity. However, it is yet to be confirmed the antifungal activity of the same plant. Because of endemic nature and high rate of exploitation there is need for alternative method called bio-prospecting of Endophytes from the plant, to carry out the production and characterization of bioactive metabolites for pharmacological uses and can become a conservative tool for the medicinal plant.
... It is a little herb flourishing on the subalpine locale of north-western Himalayas at an elevation of 1,500-3,000 m above mean ocean level [10,11]. The plant has various pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory [12,13], anticancer activity [14], antioxidant [15], analgesic [16] and immunomodulatory [17]. The herb is also used for curing the skin disease -leucoderma, bronchial asthma, antispasmodic jaundice, nausea, vomiting, travel sickness, diarrhoea, malaria and nervous exhaustion and urinary infections [18]. ...
Article
Background Royle is a medicinally important plant of north-western Himalayas used for various ailments. In the present study, the plant extracts were investigated for the antidiabetic effects in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The impact of the extracts on serum glucose levels of diabetic rats was compared with reference drug – glibenclamide-treated diabetic rats. Streptozotocin injection was used to induce diabetes in fasted rats. Various biochemical, physiological and histopathological parameters in diabetic rats were observed for assessing the antidiabetic activity. Results The serum glucose concentrations in diabetic rats were significantly lowered by the extracts (methanolic and hydroethanolic at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight). Several related biochemical parameters like creatinine, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase were likewise decreased by the concentrates. The extracts also showed reduction in feed and water consumption of diabetic rats when compared with the diabetic control. The extracts were found to demonstrate regenerative/protective effect on β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The methanolic and hydroethanolic extracts also exhibited hypoglycaemic effect in normal glucose-fed rats (oral glucose tolerance tests). LC-MS characterization of this extract showed the presence of these compounds – Swertiamarin, swertisin, lupeol, etc. Conclusions The current study demonstrated the counter diabetic capability of
... In this perspective the current study was carried out on Gentiana kurroo Royle used as an effective drug in ayurveda for the treatment of several metabolic diseases [9]. Further the flower tops of this plant has been shown to possess the anti-inflammatory potential [10]. In our earlier studies different extracts of this plant were screened for anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory potential and methanol extract was found to show the maximum potential [11]. ...
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Background In ayurvedic traditional medicine Gentiana kurroo Royle (family; Gentianaceae) is used to treat several metabolic diseases. This plant is rich in various compounds belonging to flavonoids and glycosides. Till now little work has been carried out on immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential of this plant. This study confirms the presence of bioactive compounds and evaluates the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect of this plant. Methods To carry out this work, the methanol extract was investigated in different doses using in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo study involved haemagglutination titre and DTH methods, and in vitro study was done using splenocyte proliferation assay and LPS stimulated macrophage culture. TNF-α, IL-6 and NO were assayed using ELISA kit methods, while NF-κB was evaluated by western blotting. LC-ESI-MS/MS was used for the characterization of the methanol extract. ResultsThe results showed suppression of both humoral and cell mediated immunity in vivo. This effect was also observed by inhibition of B and T cell proliferation in splenocyte proliferation assay. TNF-α, IL-6 and NO concentrations were also less in extract treated macrophage cultures. The NF-κB expression was also lowered in treated macrophages as compared to untreated macrophages. All these observations were found to be dose dependent. LC-MS characterization of this extract showed the presence of known compounds which are glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids in nature. Conclusion The methanol extract of this plant was found to be rich in glycoside, alkaloid and flavonoid compounds. These compounds are probably responsible for the suppression of immune response and anti-inflammatory activity. The extract as such and identified bioactive compounds can be useful for the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
... Similarly three different doses 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of both test compounds dissolved in water were given orally to all other groups of animals by feeding tube. After 1 h of treatment the inflammation of the hind paw was produced by injecting 0.1 ml freshly prepared carrageenan suspension (1%) in normal saline (Latif et al., 2006) on the plantar surface of left hind paw of mice and site of injection was marked. ...
Article
p>The current study was planned to evaluate comparative anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of two newly synthesized organo-antimony (v) ferrocenyl benzoate derivatives with piroxicam. Anti-microbial activity of these compounds was also screened against two microorganisms. Analgesic effect of test compounds was evaluated by formalin-induced paw licking test in mice. The test compounds at 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w. doses exhibited significant (p<0.001) reduction of paw licking in treated mice comparable with standard drug piroxicam. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed against carrageenan-induced paw oedema. The compound A produced anti-inflammatory effects comparable with standard piroxicam in dose dependent manner whereas compound B showed better effects than piroxicam at dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. To investigate anti-pyretic activity, fever was induced by administration of Brewer’s yeast in mice. Compound A showed highly significant inhibition of pyrexia (p<0.001) comparable to piroxicam after 3 hours while compound B (50 and 100 mg/kg) produced relatively lower anti-pyretic effect than standard drug. Antibacterial activity determined by disc diffusion method showed that compound B was relatively more effective than compound A against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It is conceivable that both the tested compounds possessed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-microbial effects even after the structural modification of parent compound. Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 19 (1): 15-24, 2016</p
... Its secondary metabolite spectrum is the richest of all gentian species, even comparable to G. lutea. These secondary compounds -gentiopicrine, gentiamarin and the alkaloid gentianinareare used for the treatment of inflammation, pain, fever, and hepatitis (Latif, 2006). G. kurroo 's reproductive biology is connected with its flowers being dichogamous due to protardy. ...
Article
This article presents our further in vitro studies into the morphogenic potential of gentian cells, organs, and tissues after modification of their genome. The objective was to study the effect of electroporation and the introduction of foreign genes on the morphogenic potential of Gentiana kurroo embryogenic cell suspension protoplasts. Protoplasts were electroporated with DNA plasmids carrying nptII and bar genes. The stability of cell membranes, the contents of electroporation buffer, the length of electric pulse, the number of pulses and the strength of the electric field were studied. We determined the highest electroporation efficiency by evaluating the highest protoplast survival rate under specific physical conditions. The best results were achieved in the presence of EB1 electroporation buffer where the viability of protoplasts was 70.1%. Protoplast survival at this higher level required culture temperatures near 0EC, and a 20 μs electric pulse with an electric field of 1.0 kV/cm. After seven days of agarose embedded protoplast culture, a selective agent – kanamycin – was introduced to the medium. The cell transformation effect was improved by a long term culture of callus, regenerated somatic embryos and transformants in the presence of 50 mg/l kanamycin. © 2015, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry. All rights reserved.
... The methanolic root extract of this plant contains tannins, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides , terpenes, flavonoids, phenolics, and carbohydrates and has been found to have the analgesic activity [17]. The ethanolic extract of the flower tops of this plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, free phenols, and sterols/ terpenes and thus have been shown the anti-inflammatory activity [18]. The current study was carried out to observe the effect of this medicinal herb on the acute and chronic inflammation and hence to evaluate its antiarthritic potential. ...
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Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder which involves the activation of immune system against the self-tissues. The main targets of this disease are the joints. Being systemic the development of this disease involves different mechanisms and thus the exact cause of this disease remains unknown. Although different drugs have been developed, none has been found to be the cure for this disease. In the current study the rat carrageenin paw was used as a model for acute inflammation and mycobacterium induced adjuvant arthritic model was used for exploring the antiarthritic potential of methanolic extract of Gentiana kurroo. In this study the different extracts tested showed less inhibition of acute inflammation than methanolic extract. The methanolic extract was further used in different doses and the anti-inflammatory efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The results obtained were significant with the control and the standard groups. In the arthritic model the methanolic extract showed decrease in the paw volume of arthritic animals and also in the arthritic symptoms. Again the results obtained were found to be significantly dose dependent. From the results obtained it can be concluded that this extract may serve as a source of drug against the rheumatoid arthritis.
... Likewise three different doses of each five test compounds suspended in gum tragacanth have been administered orally to all other groups of animals by a feeding tube. The inflammation of the hind paw was produced 1 h after the treatment by injecting 0.1 ml freshly prepared carrageenan suspension (1%) in normal saline [23] on the plantar surface of the left hind paw of mice and the site of injection was marked. ...
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A series of schiff base derivatives of 4-aminophenazone (4APZ-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one) with different aldehydes were synthesized. The synthetic compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities. The characterization of synthesized compounds was carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and MS. Carrageenan-induced paw oedema (CIPO) and histamine induced paw oedema (HIPO) methods were used to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of commercial sample of 4APZ and its synthesized schiff bases in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was in the order of 4APZAB > 4APZBB > 4APZCB > 4APZVn and all the test compounds exhibited considerable dose dependent inhibition of the paw oedema. The effect of the compounds on membrane stabilization was also determined which showed that compounds 4APZ (120 and 240 mg/kg doses), 4APZAB (160 mg/kg) and 4APZVn (600 mg/kg) produced highly significant inhibition (P 4APZCB. Moreover, phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time (PIST) in mice was also studied but only 600 mg/kg of 4APZVn significantly increased the duration of induced sleep which also suggested its sedative property. Brewer’s yeast was used to induce fever in rabbits and analysed the compounds for their antipyretic activity. Different doses of 4APZ for different time durations (240 mg/kg-after 1 h, 120 and 240 mg/kg doses-after 2 h) produced highly significant (P
... The root extract of this plant has been found to have an analgesic activity [9]. The ethanolic extract of the flower tops of this plant contains alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, free phenols, and sterols/terpenes and thus has been found to show an antiinflammatory activity [10]. ...
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Gentiana kurroo Royle is a critically endangered medicinal plant species endemic to the northwestern Himalayas. This plant was studied for the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential. Carrageenan paw edema model was used to study the potential of the drug in inflammation in Wistar rats. SRBC specific haemagglutination titre and DTH assays were carried out in Balb/C mice for observing the effect of test drugs on immune system. The plant extracts were found to be active against inflammation. The methanolic fraction was observed to be the most effective in inhibition of paw edema with the inhibitory potential of 47.62%. In immunomodulation studies the plant extracts showed the immunosuppressant activity. Methanolic fraction was observed to have maximum potential for the suppression of both humoral (57.57% and 54.05%) and cell mediated immunity (65.27% and 75%). From these studies, it can be concluded that the extracts of plant are having anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant activity. Since in chronic inflammation like arthritis there is the involvement of immune system, this plant may serve as an alternative for the treatment of autoimmune diseases like arthritis.
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Arunachal Pradesh is a treasure house of biodiversity as well as traditional knowledge. The state harbours over 800 medicinal plants. Rising demands of signifi cant medicinal plants such as Taxus baccata , Paris polyphylla , Swertia chirayita , Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifl ora , etc. for developing pharmaceutical drugs have drastically reduced the wild population of these species. Some important medicinal plants of the state, their bioactive effi cacy and conservation status are mentioned in this paper. This paper also describes the traditional use of 13 ethnomedicinal plants used by the Monpa tribe of Arunachal Pradesh as antidote against food poisoning, snake bite, scorpion bite and insect bites. Some of the potent antidote plants claimed by the Monpa tribe are Aconitum heterophyllum , Asparagus racemosus , Ligularia amplexicaulis , Rhododendron hodgsonii , Swertia hookeri and Verbascum thapsus. Out of the 13 traditional antidote plants, six are new to science as traditional medicine and are yet to be pharmaceutically validated for their bioactivity. Given the strong traditional cultural use of the plants, it is expected that biochemical and pharmacological studies would reveal the bioactive compounds, which could be further developed as holistic evidence-based drugs to cure some complicated ail-ments/diseases.
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