ArticlePDF Available

Characteristics of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seed oil


Abstract and Figures

Studies were conducted on properties of oil extracted from raspberry seeds. Oil yield from the seed was 10.7%. Physicochemical properties of the oil include: saponification number 191; diene value 0.837; p-anisidine value 14.3; peroxide value 8.25 meq/kg; carotenoid content 23 mg/100 g; and viscosity of 26 mPa.s at 25°C. Raspberry seed oil showed absorbance in the UV-B and UV-C ranges with potential for use as a broad spectrum UV protectant. The seed oil was rich in tocopherols with the following composition (mg/100 g): [alpha]-tocopherol 71; [gamma]-tocopherol 272; [delta]-tocopherol 17.4; and total vitamin E equivalent of 97. The oil had good oxidation resistance and storage stability. Lipid fractionation of crude raspberry seed oil yielded 93.7% neutral lipids, 3.5% phospholipids, and 2.7% free fatty acids. The main fatty acids of crude oil were C18:2 n-6 (54.5%), C18:3 n-3 (29.1%), C18:1 n-9 (12.0%), and C16:0 (2.7%). The ratio of fatty acids, polyunsaturates to monounsaturates to saturates varied depending on lipid fraction. Polymorphic changes were observed in thermal properties of raspberry seed oil.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Characteristics of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seed oil
B. Dave Oomah
*, Stephanie Ladet
, David V. Godfrey
, Jun Liang
, Benoit Girard
Food Research Program, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Paci®c Agri-Food Research Centre, Summerland, British Columbia V0H 1Z0, Canada
E.N.S.A.M., E
Âcole Nationale Superieure Agronomique de Montpellier, 2, Place Pierre Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
Shaanxi Fruit Crops Research Centre, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710065, China
Studies were conducted on properties of oil extracted from raspberry seeds. Oil yield from the seed was 10.7%. Physicochemical
properties of the oil include: saponi®cation number 191; diene value 0.837; p-anisidine value 14.3; peroxide value 8.25 meq/kg;
carotenoid content 23 mg/100 g; and viscosity of 26 mPa.s at 25C. Raspberry seed oil showed absorbance in the UV-B and UV-C
ranges with potential for use as a broad spectrum UV protectant. The seed oil was rich in tocopherols with the following compo-
sition (mg/100 g): a-tocopherol 71; g-tocopherol 272; d-tocopherol 17.4; and total vitamin E equivalent of 97. The oil had good oxi-
dation resistance and storage stability. Lipid fractionation of crude raspberry seed oil yielded 93.7% neutral lipids, 3.5% phospholipids,
and 2.7% free fatty acids. The main fatty acids of crude oil were C18:2 n-6 (54.5%), C18:3 n-3 (29.1%), C18:1 n-9 (12.0%), and C16:0
(2.7%). The ratio of fatty acids, polyunsaturates to monounsaturates to saturates varied depending on lipid fraction. Polymorphic
changes were observed in thermal properties of raspberry seed oil. #2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Raspberry seed; Raspberry oil; Oil quality; Tocopherols; Storage; DSC; Chemical and physical parameters
1. Introduction
About 18,000 metric tonnes of raspberries are pro-
duced annually in Canada with the total global pro-
duction at 312 thousand metric tonnes. In the
processing of raspberry juice, the seed becomes a
byproduct which is currently under exploited. Oil from
raspberry seed could amount to over 400 metric tonnes,
assuming 10% of seed in fresh berries, 23% oil content
of seeds (Johansson, Laakso & Kallio, 1997) and that
all raspberry produced in Canada is processed as juice.
The composition of raspberry seeds compiled by Win-
ton and Winton (1935) reveals that as early as 1907 oil
expressed from the seed amounted to 14.6±18%. These
raspberry seed oils contained 0.73±1.10% phytosterol,
and had a saponi®cation value of 187±192. Recently,
Johansson et al. (1997) found that linoleic, a-linolenic,
oleic and palmitic acids were typically the most abun-
dant fatty acids from seed oil of 22 common edible wild
northern berries, including raspberry. The seed mass,
100 seed weight, and seed oil content for raspberry were
10.1% (fw), 180 mg, and 23.2%, respectively.
Storage studies by Carnat, Pourrat and Pourrat
(1979) showed that raspberry seed oil oxidized very
slowly even at 60C with an increase in peroxide value
from 3 to 39 mmol/kg over 7 days. At ambient tem-
perature (22±23C), oxidation was slower yet, with per-
oxide values varying from 3 to 18 mmol/kg after 5
weeks. This resistance to oxidation of raspberry seed oil
was purported to be due to the presence of a minor
component in the unsaponi®able fraction of the oil
(Carnat et al.). In the quest to understand the oxidative
stability of raspberry seed oil, Pourrat and Carnat
(1981) stabilized the moisture content of raspberry seed
to 5±6% by drying at 50C for 4±5 h, then extracted oil
with chloroform. The oil yield was 16±18% by that process
chloroform extracted oil was: C16:0, 2.7; C18:0, 0.2; C18:1,
18.7; C18:2, 55.5; and C18:3, 32.6 (Pourrat & Carnat,
1981). The de®nitive reason for the high stability of rasp-
berry seed oil has not been fully clari®ed.
The incorporation of raspberry seed oil in cosmetics
and pharmaceutical products based on its anti-in¯am-
matory activity notably for the prevention of gingivitis,
rash, eczema, and other skin lesions has been patented
(Pourrat & Pourrat). The anti-in¯ammatory activity of
raspberry seed oil was superior compared to those of
other well-known oils such as virgin avocado oil, grape-
seed oil, hazelnut oil, and wheat germ oil (Pourrat &
0308-8146/00/$ - see front matter #2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0308-8146(99)00260-5
Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193
Paci®c Agri-Food Research Centre contribution no. 2017.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-250-494-6399; fax: +1-250-494-
E-mail address: (B.D. Oomah).
Pourrat). According to this patent, raspberry seed oil can
be used as a sun screen, in toothpaste, cremes for pre-
vention of skin irritations, bath oil, aftershave cream,
antiperspirants, shampoos, and lipsticks.
Red raspberry forms part of the Paci®c Agri-Food
Research Centre small fruit breeding program. In addi-
tion to the release of new cultivars with high yields of
large fruits with excellent quality, pleasant ¯avor, ®rm
fruit and low susceptibility to pre- and postharvest dis-
eases, there is interest in the complete utilization of the
fruit for food and non-food uses. Raspberry seed oil may
be regarded as a speciality oil and as such may attract
considerable attention because of its possible nutraceu-
tical eects. It is a rare commodity and currently retails
at $52 a litre as a fragrant oil. Our aim is to transform
raspberry seed into economically valuable ingredients
for the food and nonfood industries. In this context, the
chemical and physical properties of oil extracted from
raspberry seed has been investigated to provide guide-
lines for innovative uses of this byproduct. The proper-
ties of raspberry seed oil was also compared with those
of two commercial oils, grapeseed and saower oils used
in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
2. Materials and methods
Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) seeds from a mixture of
dierent cultivars grown for processing were obtained
from Valley Berry Inc., (Abbotsford, British Columbia).
Since the moisture content of the seed was about 41.5%,
the seed samples were air-dried in a ¯uid bed dryer
(Lab-Line Instruments Inc., Melrose Park, IL) for 2 h at
25C to reduce the moisture to 13.6%. Raspberry seeds
were ground (Thomas Wiley Mill, Philadelphia, PA) to
pass a 1mm screen. Oil from milled samples was
extracted using hexane as described by Oomah, Mazza
and Przybylski (1996). Brie¯y, the sample (100 g) was
stirred for 2 h at 4C with hexane (1 l). The solvent was
removed by vacuum ®ltration and the sample was fur-
ther extracted twice. After the last ®ltration, the extract
was pooled, hexane removed (vacuum rotary evapora-
tion, 35C), purged with nitrogen and stored at ÿ20C
until analysis. A sample of raspberry seed was hydrau-
lically pressed (Carver Press, 280 kg/cm
) to extract
cold-pressed oil. A commercial grapeseed oil produced
and packed in Spain (Aceitas Borges Pont, S.A., Cata-
lonia) and saower oil (P.C.
Product, Sunfresh Ltd.,
Toronto, Canada) purchased from a local food store
were used as controls.
2.1. Analytical procedures
Ocial methods (American Oil Chemists' Society,
AOCS, 1993) were used for the determination of the
saponi®cation value (method Cd 3-25) and p-anisidine
value (method Cd 18-90) of oils. Conjugated dienoic
and trienoic acids were determined by the spectro-
photometric method outlined in the Standard Methods
for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives (Interna-
tional Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC,
1985). The peroxide value of the oils was determined
using the PeroXOquant quantitative peroxide assay kit
(Pierce, Rochford, IL, USA). Absorptivity and trans-
mission of oil solutions (0.1± 10% v/v) in hexane were
measured with a spectrophotometer (DU-640B, Beckman
Instruments Inc., Fullerton, CA, USA).
The AOAC method (958.05, Association of Ocial
Analytical Chemists, AOAC, 1990) with a few mod-
i®cations was used to evaluate carotenoid content of
oils. Carotenoid content, expressed as micrograms of b-
carotene per gram of oil, was performed by applying a
calibration curve constructed by preparing solutions of
increasing concentration, from 0.5 to 2.5 mgofb-car-
otene/ml hexane. Absorbance was recorded at 440 nm
(DU-640B, Beckman Instruments Inc., Fullerton, CA,
USA) using hexane as blank. Oil was diluted with hexane
(10% v/v for grapeseed and saower, 1% v/v for rasp-
berry) to b-carotene standard range. Moisture content
was determined by the AOAC method (AOAC, 1984).
Viscosity of the oil was measured with a controlled stress
Bohlin rheometer CVO (Bohlin Instruments Ltd.,
Gloucestershire, UK). Measurements were performed at
25C with a steel cone-plate geometry (20 mm, 2) under
a ramping shear of 2.5±10 Pa.
Tocopherols were analyzed by an HPLC system
(Waters 840 system, Milford, MA, USA) consisting of a
pump (Model 510), an autosampler (Model 712) and a
¯uorescence detector (McPherson SF-749 spectro-
¯uorometer, Acton, MA, USA) interfaced with a per-
sonal computer. A normal phase column (4.6150 mm,
Primesphere 5 silica 5 mm) with guard column (4.630
mm) (Phenomenex, Torrance, CA, USA) was used with
hexane/2-propanol/dimethyl propane (1000/5/1, v/v/v)
as a mobile phase. The system was operated iso-
cratically at a ¯ow rate of 1 ml/min. Separations were
carried out at 25C (Waters TCM temperature con-
troller) with the ¯uorescence detector excitation and
emission wavelengths set at 297 and 325 nm, respec-
tively. Typically, a 10 min equilibration period was used
between samples, requiring about 40 min/sample.
Quantitation was based on an external standard
method; the calibration curves ranged from 3.97 to
15.87, 5.41 to 21.63 and 6.0 to 24.0 mg/ml of reference
compounds a-, d-, and b-, g-tocopherols, respectively
(Sigma Chemical Co., St Louis, MO, USA). Prior to
HPLC analysis, the oil was diluted with hexane to
obtain a concentration of about 160 g/l, ®ltered (0.45
mm, Gelman Science Inc., Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and 20
ml sample was injected.
Crystallization and melting points were measured
with a dierential scanning calorimeter (DSC-2910
188 B.D. Oomah et al. / Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193
Modulated DSC-TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA).
Oil (20±25 mg) was weighed in DSC-pan (aluminium
open pan, TA Instruments T70529) and DSC runs were
performed within the temperature range of 10 to
ÿ70C. A programmed cycle was followed in which the
sample was cooled from 10 to ÿ70Cat1
maintained at this low temperature for 5 min and
heated back to 10C. An empty DSC pan was used as
an inert reference to balance the heat capacity of the
sample pan. The DSC was calibrated for temperature
and heat ¯ow using mercury (mp ÿ38.83C, TA Instru-
ments standard), distilled water (mp 0.0C), gallium
(mp 29.76C, TA Instruments standard) and indium
(mp 156.6C, 28.71 J/g, Aldrich Chemical Co.).
Separation of individual lipid classes was performed
using solid-phase extraction cartridge, (Bakerbond
amino [NH2] disposable extraction column, 500 mg, J.
T. Baker Inc., Phillipsburg, NJ), with aminopropyl
packing, essentially as described by Carelli, Brevedan
and Crapiste (1997). The cartridge was preconditioned
with 2 ml methanol, 2 ml chloroform, and 4 ml hexane
before use. A micropipet was used to inject 50±150 mg
of oil dissolved in chloroform. Lipid classes were
recovered by sequential elution under vacuum (5±10
mm Hg) with 4 ml each of chloroform/isopropanol (2/1,
v/v), diethyl ether/acetic acid (95/5, v/v), and methanol
to separate neutral lipids, free fatty acids and phospho-
lipids, respectively. The eluates were collected, evapo-
rated under nitrogen, weighed, and stored at ÿ20C for
fatty acid analysis.
The lipids were esteri®ed by the one-step methylation
method of Ulberth and Henninger (1992) with some
modi®cations. These included the omission of toluene in
the reagent and centrifugation for phase separation. The
top layer was transferred into a small vial and dried
with anhydrous Na
. Samples were analyzed for
their fatty acid methyl esters on a Hewlett±Packard
model 5890 gas chromatograph (Avondale, PA), equip-
ped with a split/splitless injector, a ¯ame-ionization
detector, an automatic sampling device, and a 100 M
SP-2560 fused-silica capillary column (Supelco, Oak-
ville, ON) with 0.25 mm i.d. The column temperature
was programmed from 140 to 240Cat4
C/min, and
the injector and detector temperatures were set at
260C. Helium was the carrier gas. Peak areas of dupli-
cate injections were measured with a Hewlett±Packard
3396 computing integrator. All assays except thermal
analysis were performed in triplicates.
3. Results and discussion
Raspberry seed at 13.6% moisture content had a yield
of about 10.7% (db) oil by solvent extraction. Our oil
yield was at the lower end of the seed oil content for
Rubus species (10±23% dw) reported by Johansson et al.
(1997), and lower than (14±18%) those reported earlier
for raspberry seed (Pourrat & Carnat, 1981; Winton &
Winton, 1935). The lower oil yield obtained in this
study could be partly due to dierent seed samples and
solvent used for oil extraction. Raspberry seed oil is
yellow with a slight ``®shy'' o-note. Crude raspberry
seed oil showed some absorbance in the UV-C (100±290
nm) and UV-B (290±320 nm) range (Fig. 1). In the UV-
B range, the wavelengths of ultraviolet light responsible
for most cellular damage, raspberry seed oil can shield
against UV-A induced damage by scattering (high
transmission), as well as by absorption. The shielding
power in the UV-A (320±400 nm) range depends mostly
on the scattering eect. Thus, raspberry seed oil may act
as a broad spectrum UV protectant and provide pro-
tection against both UV-A, an exogenous origin of oxi-
dative stress to the skin, and UV-B. The optical
transmission of raspberry seed oil, especially in the UV
range (290±400 nm) was comparable to that of titanium
dioxide preparations with sun protection factor for UV-
B (SPF) and protection factor for UV-A (PFA) values
between 28±50 and 6.75±7.5, respectively (Kobo Pro-
ducts Inc., South Plain®eld, NJ).
Absorptivity at 245 nm, a wavelength which is
approximately at the lower limit of detectability for the
Fig. 1. Ultra violet/visible spectra of raspberry seed oil. Figure derived
from scans (l=200±290) of oil diluted 1:100; from scans (l=290±400
and l=400±800) of oil diluted 1:10, all in hexane. Black line is absor-
bance and gray line is transmission.
B.D. Oomah et al. / Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193 189
human eye, was low for raspberry seed oil, inferring low
levels or absence of yellow pigments in the oil. Green
pigments, particularly chlorophyll content, usually
measured at 630, 670 and 710 nm, was negligible as
indicated by very low absorbance (0.003±0.007) in the
600±750 nm range for raspberry seed oil (1% oil in
hexane). The negligible amount of green pigments does
not impart undesirable color to the oil and may be
unable to promote oil oxidation, especially in the pre-
sence of light. Raspberry seed oil contained yellow col-
oring as indicated by absorbance between 0.084 and
0.108 at 440±460 nm for 1% oil in hexane and was
equivalent to the Munsell 1.25 Y 8/16 rating. These
yellow colors which include carotenoids are bene®cial,
since they simulate the appearance of butter without the
use of primary colorants such as carotenes, annatos,
and apocarotenals commonly used in the oil and fat
industry. Actual carotenoid content of raspberry seed
oil was 23 mg/100 g of oil (Table 1).
Raspberry seed oil has a low viscosity (Table 1), a
characteristic which may render it less occlusive than
hydrocarbon oils. The viscosity of raspberry seed oil
was lower than most vegetable oils and similar to that of
oleic acid (Noureddini, Teoh & Clements, 1992). Con-
jugated diene value of the seed oil was 0.837, and sig-
ni®cantly higher than those of commercial grapeseed
and saower oils analyzed under the same conditions.
This dierence is likely due to raspberry seed oil's high
18:3 content compared to the two commercial oils.
Conjugated triene was not detected in raspberry seed oil
suggesting absence or very low levels of linolenate oxi-
dation in oil. p-Anisidine value of the oil was 14.3 and
signi®cantly higher than those of the commercial oils,
indicating the presence of aldehydic carbonyl com-
pounds or secondary oxidation of the raspberry seed
oil. The peroxide value was 8.25 meq/kg oil, and lower
than those generally recommended for commercial
vegetable oils (410). However, the oil hydroperoxides
can be substantially lowered or reduced during bleach-
ing with acid-activated bleaching earth. The total oxi-
dation value (totox) of raspberry seed oil, calculated
using the peroxide and anisidine values (2Px+Av), was
30.8, and comparable to that of encapsulated ®sh oil,
but higher than those of vegetable oils (Shukla & Per-
kins, 1998). Raspberry seed oil was twice as prone to
auto-oxidation as saower oil (totox value of 12.4)
under the same test conditions. The saponi®cation value
of raspberry seed oil was high and comparable to those
of common vegetable oils indicating very high content of
low molecular weight triacylglycerols. It was similar to
the saponi®cation value of canola oil (Eskin et al., 1996)
and within the values for raspberry seed oil (187±192)
reported previously (Winton & Winton, 1935). Rasp-
berry seed oil may be prone to peroxide formation
based on its peroxide value and may be suitable for soap
production judging from the high saponi®cation value.
The major tocopherol in raspberry seed oil was the g
isomer at 75% of the total tocopherol. a- and d-Toco-
pherol contents of the oil were 71 and 17.4 mg/100 g,
respectively (Table 2). The a- and d-tocopherol levels of
Table 1
Physicochemical characteristics of raspberry, saower and grape seed
Raspberry Saower Grape
Oil yield Ð
dry matter (%)
Seed moisture (%) 13.60.1
Viscosity (mPas.s)
261.1 47.30.4 49.40.3
1910.1 191.60.6 192.90.4
Diene value 0.8370.0003 0.5140.006 0.4670.001
Triene value
0.1340.006 0.0890.001
p-Anisidine value 14.30.2 5.360.006 10.460.03
Peroxide value
8.250.1 3.520.04 0.960.01
Carotenoid content
(mg/100 g)
Means of 3.
Means of 10 measurements over ramping stress range (2.5 to 10 Pa).
Not applicable.
Not detected.
Table 2
Tocopherol contents of raspberry, saower and grape seed oils (mg/100 g)
Tocopherol Tocotrienol
abg dagTotal Vitamin E
Hexane extracted 710.5
2722.6 17.40.5
3603.6 970.8
Cold pressed 46.12.2
14411.7 7.10.7
19813.2 613.3
Saower 56.00.09 2.00.2 1.10.1
59.01.0 570.9
Grape 5.60.0 2.30.0 3.30.3
15.70.2 28.50.5 55.40.9 11.80.1
Means of 2.
Not detected.
190 B.D. Oomah et al. / Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193
cold-pressed raspberry seed oil was about half that of
the hexane-extracted oil. The reason for this dierence
is unclear, but could probably be due to the presence of
non-lipid material in cold-pressed oil which may dilute
the concentration of tocopherols. The biologically
active vitamin E content relative to that of a-toco-
pherol, calculated by using the formula proposed by
McLaughlin and Weihrauch (1979), were 97.8 and 58.4
mg/100 g for the hexane-extracted and cold-pressed oils,
respectively. Raspberry seed oil is a very rich source of
gamma tocopherol since its level (137±272 mg/100 g) is
much higher than those reported for other vegetable oils
and foods (Eskin et al., 1996; McLaughlin & Weihrauch).
The ratio of the tocopherol isomers a:g:din raspberry
seed oil was 20:75:5, and resembled that in commercial
re®ned corn oil at 17:78:3 (McLaughlin & Weihrauch,
1979). The high g-tocopherol concentration of rasp-
berry seed oil may exert a signi®cant biological eect in
non-ruminant animals since g-tocopherol concentration
is easily detected in animals fed natural source of toco-
pherols at concentrations of 100 and 1000 ppm (Eng-
berg, Jakobsen & Hart®el, 1993). Raspberry seed oil with
high levels of g-tocopherol may be as important as a-
tocopherol in the prevention of degenerative diseases.
Storage studies carried out at 37C in the dark
showed similar trends of increase in peroxide value with
time for raspberry and saower oils (Fig. 2). However,
the rate of increase in peroxide value for raspberry seed
oil was lower than that of saower oil. The data
describing the rate of autoxidation ®tted the poly-
nominal model (y=ax
+bx+c). The coecients of
regressions (R
) between the peroxide value and storage
time were 0.808 and 0.864 (P<0.05) for raspberry and
saower oils, respectively. At the end of the storage
period (240 h) both oils were roughly equivalent in
terms of oxidative degradation that had occurred. A
clear induction period was not observed in this study,
even when the storage period was extended to 900 h
(data not shown). Similar observations have been
reported for raspberry seed oil stored at ambient (22±
23C) temperature for 5 weeks (Carnat et al., 1979).
Raspberry seed oil consisted primarily of neutral lipid
(93.8%) with minor amounts of free fatty acid and
phospholipids (3.5 and 2.7% of the total crude oil,
respectively) (Table 3). Similar high levels of neutral
lipids (95.7±95.9%) have been reported for raspberry
seed oil (Winton & Winton, 1935), and other berry fruit
Fig. 2. Stability of raspberry seed oil at 37C evaluated as peroxide value. *=raspberry seed oil, &=saower seed oil.
Table 3
Fatty acid composition of raspberry seed oil
Composition (mass%)
Fatty acid Crude oil
Free fatty
Fractions (%)
93.72.0 3.51.13 2.73.1
C16:0 2.690.14 2.68 10.46 10.92
C18:0 0.970.01 1.02 1.26
C18:1 11.990.01 12.11 26.62 19.24
C18:2 54.520.10 55.12 47.28 63.55
C18:3 29.110.05 28.74 14.35 6.29
Means of 4.
Means of 2.
Not detected.
B.D. Oomah et al. / Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193 191
oils such as sea buckthorn seed oil (92%) (Zadernowski,
Nowak-Polakowska, Lossow, Nesterowicz, 1997). The
phospholipid content of raspberry seed oil at 2.7% was
higher than that of fruit stone oils from the Rosaceae
species (0.4±1.1% for peach, apricot, and cherry seed
oils) at the expense of neutral lipids (97.2±98.7%) (Zla-
tanov & Janakieva, 1998). Raspberry seed oil had higher
free fatty acid content but comparable phospholipid
content than those of common edible oils (canola, soy-
bean, sun¯ower, corn) 0.3±1.8%, and 0.2±4.0%, respec-
tively. For edible purposes, these non-triglycerides
components are considered detrimental to oil quality
and should be removed through processing.
The phospholipids are useful as emulsi®ers in food
and pharmaceutical applications. In raspberry seed oil,
the phospholipids may act as a natural antioxidant
Â& Pokorny, 1995) and consequently increase
oil stability and shelf life.
The most abundant fatty acids of raspberry seed oil
were linoleic, a-linolenic, and oleic acids, which together
comprised 96% of the total fatty acid. The fatty acid
composition of raspberry seed oil was similar to that
reported previously (Pourrat & Carnat, 1981) and to
that of Rosa dumalis (Johansson et al., 1997). The lino-
leic acid content of raspberry seed oil was similar to that
of walnut oil (56±59%) (Ruggeri, Capelloni et al., 1998).
Neutral lipids which constituted about 94% of the total
lipids, had fatty acid composition similar to that of
crude raspberry seed oil. The phospholipid fraction was
richer in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (11
and 19% of the total fatty acid, respectively), but much
lower in polyunsaturates compared to the neutral lipid
fraction. The polyunsaturates of the free fatty acid
fraction amounted to only 61% of the total fatty acids,
while the monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids
amounted to 27 and 12%, respectively. Hence, the ratio
of polyunsaturates to monounsaturates to saturates
varied from 84:12:4 to 61:27:12, depending on lipid
fractions. The crude raspberry seed oil and the neutral
lipid fraction were particularly low in palmitic acid.
They contained high amounts of linolenic acid, which
makes them especially prone to oxidation, but which
may have favorable nutritional implications and bene-
®cial physiological eect in the prevention of coronary
heart disease and cancer (Oomah & Mazza, 1998). The
free fatty acid and phospholipid fractions with lower
levels of linolenic acid than the neutral fraction renders
them less susceptible to oxidation. The neutral lipid
fraction was characterized by the highest poly-
unsaturated/saturated (P/S) ratio of 22.7, while those of
free fatty acids and phospholipid fractions were 15.3
and 6.4, respectively. A high ratio of P/S is regarded
favorably in the reduction of serum cholesterol and
atherosclerosis and prevention of heart diseases (Rudel,
Kelly, Sawyer, Shah & Wilson, 1998). Similarly, the
ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids were 1.92, 3.29 and 10.10
for the neutral, free fatty acid and phospholipid frac-
tions, respectively.
Raspberry seed oil has unique thermal characteristics
(Fig. 3). The oil presented a crystallization peak
atÿ62C with enthalpy of 38.3 J/g. Polymorphism was
detected in raspberry seed oil: after melting of the low
temperature modi®cation at ÿ45C, an additional
modi®cation crystallized with an exothermic peak at
ÿ43C. At ÿ23C, peak temperature, this modi®cation
melted with an originally existing crystallite of the same
kind. Similar DSC tracings were observed for grapeseed
oil in this study and by Kaisersberger (1990) and saf-
¯ower oil (data not presented). These polymorphic
changes can be hindered by addition of emulsi®ers (Kai-
sersberger). According to Garti, Schlichter and Sarig
(1988), the ®rst small endothermic peak at ÿ45C repre-
sents the melting of the unstable acrystal form followed
by the crystallization of the more stable bform which is
characterized by an exothermic peak. The melting
enthalpy of raspberry seed oil was 75 J/g. The amount of
melting according to DSC determinations (ratio of enthal-
pies) was 50.9%, i.e. the solid±liquid ratio of approxi-
mately 1:1 at ÿ23C. This solid±liquid ratio and, melting
and recrystallization characteristics of raspberry seed oil
can impinge on its consistency, taste and texture.
The potential for production of oil as a byproduct of
raspberry seed appears to be excellent. The unique fatty
acid composition, high tocopherol content and quality
and hence high protection against oxidative stress, rela-
tively good shelf life, and other desirable physicochem-
ical characteristics indicate potential uses of raspberry
seed oil in food, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, and other
nonfood industries. The microconstituents of raspberry
seed oil with its rich array of phytochemicals, especially
the omega-3 fatty acids and tocopherols suggest that it
is a nutraceutical and may be marketed as a dietary
supplement with a structure/function claim about heal-
thy blood circulation. The production of oil from rasp-
berry seed provides the use of a renewable resource, and
at the same time adding value to agricultural products
and improving the environment.
Fig. 3. DSC pro®le of raspberry seed oil.
192 B.D. Oomah et al. / Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193
Association of Ocial Analytical Chemists (1984). Ocial methods of
analyses. Washington, DC: Association of Ocial Analytical Che-
Association of Ocial Analytical Chemists (1990). Ocial methods of
analyses. Washington, DC: Association of Ocial Analytical Che-
American Oil Chemists Society (1993). Ocial methods and recom-
mended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Champaign,
IL: American Oil Chemists' Society.
Carnat, A. P., Pourrat, H., & Pourrat, A. (1979). E
Âtude de l'activite
antioxidante de l'huile de pe
Âpins de framboise Rubus idaeus L.
Âes). Annales Pharmaceutiques Francaises, 37, 119±123.
Carelli, A. A., Brevedan, M. I. V., & Crapiste, G. H. (1997). Quanti-
tative determination of phospholipids in sun¯ower oil. Journal of
American Oil Chemists' Society, 74, 511±514.
Engberg, R. M., Jakobsen, K., & Hart®el, W. (1993). The biological
activity of natural source tocopherols in pigs fed on a linoleic acid
rich diet. Fat Sci. Technol, 95, 537±542.
Eskin, N.A.M., McDonald, B.E., Przybylski, R., Malcolmson, L.J.,
Scarth, R., Mag, T., et al. (1996). Canola oil. In Y.H. Hui, Bailey's
industrial oil and fat products (5th ed., Vol. 2), Edible Oil and Fat
Products: Oil and Oilseeds (pp. 1±95). New York: Wiley.
Garti, N., Schlichter, J., & Sarig, S. (1988). DSC studies concerning
polymorphism of saturated monoacid triglycerides in the presence
of food emulsi®ers. Fat Science and Technology, 90, 295±299.
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists (1985). Standard
methods for the analysis of oils, fats and derivatives (7th Ed.).
Oxford, UK: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
Johansson, A., Laakso, P., & Kallio, H. (1997). Characterization of
seed oils of wild, edible Finnish berries. Zeitschrift fu
Èr Lebensmitte-
luntersuchung und-Forschung A, 204, 300±307.
Kaisersberger, E. (1990). Application of heat-¯ux DSC for the char-
acterisation of edible fats and oils. Analytical Proceedings, 27, 64±65.
McLaughlin, P. J., & Weihrauch, J. L. (1979). Vitamin E content of
foods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 75, 647±665.
Noureddini, H., Teoh, B. C., & Clements, L. D. (1992). Viscosities of
vegetable oils and fatty acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists'
Society, 69, 1189±1191.
Oomah, B. D., & Mazza, G. (1998). Flaxseed products for disease
prevention. In G. Mazza, Functional foods biochemical and proces-
sing aspects (pp. 91±138). Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing.
Oomah, B. D., Mazza, G., & Przybylski, R. (1996). Comparison of
¯axseed meal lipids extracted with dierent solvents. Lebensm.-
Wiss.u.-Technol, 29, 654±658.
Pourrat, H., & Carnat, A. P. (1981). Chemical composition of raspberry
seed oil (Rubus idaeus L. Rosaceae). Rev. Fr. Corps Gras, 28, 477±479.
Pourrat, H., & Pourrat, A. (1973). Compositions cosme
Âtiques et
pharmaceutiques. French patent 7345501.
Â, Z., & Pokorny, J. (1995). Eect of lecithin on the stabiliza-
tion of foods. In G. Cevc, & F. Paltauf, Phospholipids: character-
ization, metabolism, and novel biological applications (pp. 378±383).
Champaign, IL: AOCS Press.
Rudel, L. L., Kelly, K., Sawyer, J. K., Shah, R., & Wilso, M. D. (1998).
Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids promote aorti atherosclerosis in
LDL receptor-null ApoB100-overexpressing transgenic mice. Arterio-
sclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 18, 1818±1827.
Ruggeri, S., Cappelloni, M., Gambelli, L., Nicoli, S., & Carnovale, E.
(1998). Chemical composition and nutritive value of nuts grown in
Italy. Italian Journal of Food Science, 10, 243±252.
Shukla, V. K. S., & Perkins, E. G. (1998). Rancidity in encapsulated
health-food oils. Intn. News Fats,Oils Rel. Mat, 9, 955±961.
Ulberth, F., & Henninger, M. (1992). One-step extraction/methylation
method for determining the fatty acid composition of processed
foods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 69, 174±177.
Winton, A. L., & Winton, K. B. (1935). The structure and composition
of foods, Vol. II, vegetables, legumes, fruits. New York, NY: John
Wiley & Sons.
Zadernowski, R., Nowak-Polakowska, H., Lossow, B., & Nester-
owicz, J. (1997). Sea-buckthorn lipids. Journal of Food Lipids, 4,
Zlatanov, M., & Janakieva, I. (1998). Phospholipid composition of
some fruit-stone oils of Rosaceae species. Lipids, 100, 312±315.
B.D. Oomah et al. / Food Chemistry 69 (2000) 187±193 193
... The following settings were applied to ESI: Spray voltage -3.5kV (ESI-) +4kV (ESI+); Sheath gas 60; Aux gas 20; Capilary temperture 380 • C. A control blank sample was analysed at the start and end of the analytical block, thus providing a measure of the sample back-ground and a measure of compound carry over throughout the sample run. In addition, accurate mass (profile mode) data were obtained for selected samples using an Accela 600 HPLC-PDA-LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific, Hemel Hempstead, UK) applying matching chromatographic and MS conditions as described above [19]. ...
... Examining the MS profiles of the raspberry pomace extracts (Fig. 1c), there were later eluting components which were not apparent in the UV traces. These were putatively identified as triterpenoid (TTPN) derivatives from previous work [19,22,37]. The TTPNs were also differentially extracted by the different solvent treatments. ...
... This is illustrated by an expanded view of this region (see Supplementary data; Fig. S3). Indeed, the relatively high extractability of most TTPNs from raspberry pomace in low % ethanol solutions was used as starting point to facilitate their purification from polyphenolic components for bioactivity studies [19]. ...
BACKGROUND: Berry pomaces obtained after commercial juice production contain phytochemicals which may find use as antioxidants, food additives and biomedical products. Oil extraction from seeds provides additional value but the availability of phytochemicals before and after oil extraction is not well established. OBJECTIVE: This pilot study defines the content and composition of phytochemicals from raspberry and black currant pomaces after extraction with water-ethanol mixes, but also before and after milling/ oil extraction. METHODS: The total phenol (TPC), total anthocyanin (TAC) and antioxidant content of extracts was assessed. Their phytochemical composition was studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MSn). RESULTS: TPC and TAC increased with increasing % ethanol. Anthocyanins were major components in blackcurrant pomace and were more readily extracted than total phenols. Total oil content and composition was not influenced by solvent pre-extraction. Milling/ oil extraction markedly increased TPC from raspberry but not from blackcurrant pomace. LC-MSn confirmed characteristic phytochemical compositions and that increasing % ethanol increased yield of certain components. Milling increased specific ellagitannins, proanthocyanins and triterpenoids from raspberry. CONCLUSIONS: Milling/ oil extraction increased the yield and phytochemical diversity of extracts from raspberry but not from blackcurrant pomace which suggests that the phytochemicals from blackcurrant pomace are largely available on the pomace surfaces.
... Similar amounts of the above-mentioned fatty acids were found by Bada et al. (2014) in raspberry seed oil from the region of Asturias (Spain) and Oomah et al. (2000) in oil obtained from a mixture of seeds of various raspberry varieties grown for processing in British Columbia (Canada). Parry and Yu (2004) showed that cold-pressed black raspberry seed oil contained about 35% of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) and 55% to 58% of linoleic acid. ...
... The result of research conducted by Fotschki et al. (2015), confirmed that raspberry seed oil contain the greater level PUFA n-6. Strawberry and raspberry seed oil has a favorable ratio of PUFA n-6 to n-3 FAs (1-1,5 to 1) and it was better ration than was noticed by Oomah et al. (2000) and Parry and Yu (2005) (2-3 to1). As was mentioned earlier, this differences resulting by the use of different varieties of raspberry and strawberry grown under different climatic conditions as well as by different oil extraction techniques. ...
Full-text available
Currently, alternative plant oils with pro-health properties are sought. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oils in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue. Adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=7) and fed with the addition of rapeseed, raspberry or strawberry seed oil, respectively, or control group. After a 6-week treatment period, the fatty acid profile in m. latisssimus dorsi, was analyzed using gas chromatography. The dietary strawberry or raspberry seed oil led to a significant increase in C-18:2 n-6 ad C-18:3 n-3 level in muscle fat when compared to control group. At the same time, in the group receiving raspberry oil, an unfavorable phenomenon of lowering the EPA content was observed, while a tendency towards a decrease in DHA level was observed in groups supplemented with both raspberry and strawberry oil. Both oils as a source of PUFA n-3 and n-6, increased ALA n-3 and LA n-6 fatty acids in latissimus dorsi muscle, but due to different activity of enzymes taking apart in conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their long chain derivatives in rats, the research on pig model would be advisable.
... Previous studies have shown that RO exhibits antioxidant activity [4,[8][9][10], due to the presence of minor bioactive components such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds [11,12]. However, despite these notable antioxidant properties, the shelf life Nonionic surfactants: Polysorbate ® 80 (polyoxyethylene-20 sorbitan monooleate) produced by Fagron, Trikala, Greece and polyglycerol ester-based mixture prepared from Tego Care ® PL4 (polyglyceryl 4-laurate) and Tego Solve ® 61 (polyglyceryl-6 caprylate, polyglyceryl-3 cocoate, polyglyceryl-4 caprate, polyglyceryl-6 ricinoleate at 1:1:1:1 ratio). ...
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to assess and improve the oxidative stability of red raspberry seed oil–RO, a potential topical ingredient derived from food industry by-products, on its own and when incorporated in low energy nanoemulsion (NE). The RO’s oxidative stability was assessed at 5, 25, and 40 °C during one month of storage and expressed in: peroxide value, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric reactive substances—TBARS value, while for NEs, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS values were monitored. Both synthetic (butylated hydroxytoluene—BHT and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid—EDTA), and natural (oregano essential oil—ORE and oak fruit extract—OAK) antioxidants were used. Pure RO and RO with BHT or ORE were stable at 5 °C and 25 °C, but at 40 °C BHT showed only moderate protection, while ORE was prooxidant. NEs prepared with new biodegradable polyglycerol esters-based surfactants, with droplet sizes of < 50 nm and narrow size distribution, showed improved physicochemical stability at room temperature, and especially at 40 °C, compared to NEs with polysorbate 80, which required the addition of antioxidants to preserve their stability. Natural antioxidants ORE and OAK were compatible with all NEs; therefore, their use is proposed as an effective alternative to synthetic antioxidants.
... According to the study of Khanal et al. (1) more than 50% of proanthocyanidins from fresh blueberry remain in skin and pulp residue after juice production. Raspberry pomace was found to be rich source of essential fatty acids, dietary fibers and antioxidants (2,3) since it consists mainly of seeds (80%) and pulp (4,5). ...
Full-text available
The fruit juice industry generates pomace as a valuable by-product especially rich in polyphenols, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fatty acids. In the cookies used in this study, 30% of the gluten-free flour was replaced with dried and ground blueberry and raspberry pomace, rich source of polyphenols, dietary fibers, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid. In order to examine whether the addition of blueberry and raspberry pomace in cookie formulation can have beneficial effects on certain blood parameters and anthropometric measurements, the designed cookies were tested in 20 healthy, normally fed female subjects, aged 30–50 years (41.35 ± 8.58 years) over four-week dietetic intervention study. Significant changes in the composition of fatty acids serum phospholipids, decrease in LDL-cholesterol level (20.16%), increase in adiponectin level (25.52%) and decrease in ALT and AST values were observed, thus indicating that inclusion of cookies containing blueberry and raspberry dried and ground pomace to usual diet might have positive effects on certain cardiovascular risk factors and liver function indicators.
... From a nutritional point of view, melon and black cumin seed oils seem to be good sources of essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid C18:2 n-6 as compared to the other oil samples. According to Oomah et al. 43 , this fatty acid may have beneficial physiological effects in the prevention of both coronary heart disease and cancer. ...
Full-text available
The present study provides the fatty acid, tocopherol, phytosterol, and polyphenol profiles of some Mediterranean oils extracted from pumpkin, melon, and black cumin seed oils and those of dietary argan seed oil. Gas chromatography analysis revealed that oleic and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids. Argan and melon seed oils exhibited the highest levels of oleic acid (47.32±0.02%) and linoleic acid (58.35±0.26%), respectively. In terms of tocopherols, melon seed oil showed the highest amount (652.1±3.26 mg/kg) with a predominance of γ-tocopherol (633.1±18.81 mg/kg). The phytosterol content varied between 2237.00±37.55 µg/g for argan oil to 6995.55±224.01 µg/g for melon seed oil. High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis also revealed the presence of several polyphenols: vanillin (0.59 mg equivalents Quercetin/100 g) for melon seed oil, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid (0.04 mg equivalents Quercetin/100 g), coumarine (0.05 mg equivalents Quercetin/100 g), and thymoquinone (1.2 mg equivalents Quercetin/100 g) for black cumin seed oil. The “Kit Radicaux Libres” (KRL) assay used to evaluate the scavenging properties of the oils showed that black cumin seed oil was the most efficient. On the light of the richness of all Mediterranean oil samples in bioactive compounds, the seed oils studied can be considered as important sources of nutrients endowed with cytoprotective properties which benefits in preventing age-related diseases which are characterized by an enhanced oxidative stress. graphical abstract Fullsize Image
Lupin seeds are indispensable as valuable sources of proteins that possess good technological properties and show health-beneficial effects. Unfortunately, because of the relatively low content, lupin seed oil has not been studied in such a detailed manner as the proteins. Therefore, this study aimed to provide comprehensive data on the chemical composition and technological parameters of the seed lipid fraction isolated from four cultivars of Lupinus angustifolius as well as two cultivars of L. albus and L. luteus. Among the analyzed seeds, L. albus had the highest fat content (10.52-12.06%) and total tocopherols (125.55-130.22 mg/kg dm), while L. angustifolius were marked with the highest carotenoids content (17.20-62.52 mg/kg oil). The fatty acid profile of the seeds studied was determined to be species-specific. From a technological point of view, L. albus seed oils show the highest oxidative stability. The principal components analysis revealed that the chemical composition and technological parameters were markedly different between the different lupin seeds species. The obtained results expand our knowledge of the chemical composition of lupin seed lipids fraction and will help it better utilization as a valuable food ingredient.
The present chapter focused on the antibacterial potency of African medicinal plants and their constituents against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. Based on collected data, we have established rationale cut-off values for the classification of antibacterial agents towards the Gram-positive bacteria. For botanicals: Outstanding activity: minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 8 µg/mL; Excellent activity: 8 < MIC ≤ 40 µg/mL; Very good activity: 40 < MIC ≤ 128 µg/mL; Good activity: 128 < MIC ≤ 320 µg/mL; Average activity: 320 < MIC ≤ 625 µg/mL; Weak activity: 625 < MIC ≤ 1024 µg/mL; Not active: MIC values> 1024 µg/mL; (ii) For phytochemicals: Outstanding activity: MIC ≤ 2 µg/mL; Excellent activity: 2 < MIC ≤ 4 µg/mL; Very good activity: 4 < MIC ≤ 8 µg/mL; Good activity: 8 < MIC ≤ 32 µg/mL; Average activity: 32 < MIC ≤ 64 µg/mL; Weak activity: 64 < MIC ≤ 512 µg/mL; Not active: MIC> 512 µg/mL. Based on the above cut-off points, we have identified five African plants displaying outstanding to excellent activities on Gram-positive bacteria. They include Macaranga capensis Benth. (Euphorbiaceae); Macaranga kilimandscharica Pax. and Macaranga conglomerata Brenan (Euphorbiaceae), Salvia africana-lutea L. (Lamiaceae), Erythrophleum lasianthum Corbishley (Caesalpinioideae). Compounds with the corresponding inhibitory effects were plumbagin, emodin, and rapanone. These botanicals and phytochemicals deserve further in-depth studies to develop new medicine to combat Gram-positive bacteria.
Full-text available
Malina właściwa (Rubus idaeus L.) to krzew rosnący głównie w strefie umiarkowanej. Owoce maliny wyróżniają się doskonałym aromatem i czystą rubinową barwą; nadają się do konsumpcji i przetwórstwa. Surowcem leczniczym wykorzystywanym w przemyśle farmaceutycznym jest owoc maliny (Rubi idaei fructus) dojrzewający od lipca do października oraz liść maliny (Rubi idaei folium), zbierany wiosną i latem. Surowiec pozyskuje się z upraw i ze stanu naturalnego. Owoc maliny zawiera witaminy, kwasy organiczne, antocyjany, a liście są bogate w garbniki i flawonoidy. Surowce wykazują działanie ściągające, antyseptyczne, przeciwgorączkowe i wspomagające pracę układu pokarmowego.
The object of this paper was to utilize the plum seed oil for the preparation of the topical formulation for skin care since it can improve elasticity and prevent accelerated skin aging. Soxhlet extraction of plum seed oil was performed using n-hep-tane. The spectrophotometric methods were applied to estimate the photoprotec-tive effect and antioxidant activity of the samples. The warm-warm emulsification process was used for the preparation of topical formulation based on plum seed oil. The antioxidant activity of the plum seed oil was estimated based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (9.39 mg/mL). After the incorporation of the oil in the topical formulation, the IC 50 value of 9.33 mg/mL was not significantly changed. The viscosities of the topical formulation and plum seed oil were 1.56×10 6 mPa·s (at the shear rate of 5 s-1) and 60.48 mPa·s (at the shear rate of 50 s-1), respectively. Rheological analysis showed that the plum seed oil and topical formulation were Newtonian and non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluids, respectively. The formulation adsorbed the light in the UV-Vis range so that it can be used as a w/o emulsion photoprotective cream. The cream with adequate pH value was stable and micro-biologically safe for application to the skin. Due to the use of cheaper ingredients, the formulation is acceptable and suitable for manufacturing.
Full-text available
Cultivars of almonds, hazelnuts, pecans, pistachios, walnuts grown in Italy and commercial samples of pine nuts were evaluated. Lipids were the main component: (from 50 to 74%) in all nuts, with oleic and linoleic acids representing more than 75% of the total fatty acids and linolenic acid in walnuts reaching 15%. Levels of saturated fatty acids were about: 10% in all nuts. Almond cultivars and pistachios were a good source of dietary fiber (up to 13%). Sucrose was the main sugar constituent; raffinose and stachyose were only found in hazelnuts, pine nuts and pistachios. The amino acid composition was similar in all the nuts with glutamic acid, arginine and aspartic acid accounting for about 40% of the protein. The Chemical Score ranged from 0.38 to 0.56, lysine being the limiting amino acid. Protein and lipid composition of walnut cultivars showed higher variability than almonds.
L'influence de la composition, de la teneur en eau, de la methode de preparation sur les caracteristiques des lipides (melange et congelation) est recherchee par calorimetrie differentielle a balayage. La methode permet de mettre en evidence l'oxydation des lipides dans certaines conditions
The phospholipid composition of five types of vegetable oil extracted from the nuts of plum (Prunus domestica L.), peach (Prunus persica L.), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), cherry (Prunus aviumL.), and morello-cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) was determined spectrophotometrically after fractionation and separation to individual components by means of two-directional thin-layer chromatography. The content of phospholipids in the oils varied from 0.4% to 1.1%, while in the corresponding nuts it varied from 0.2 to 0.5%. The major components in the phospholipid fraction were phosphatidylcholine (37.1–59.0%), phosphatidylinositol (13.8–31.6%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (12.9–19.5%). The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols and of the major phospholipids was determined by capillary gas chromatography. Larger quantities of saturated fatty acids, mainly palmitic and stearic acid, were identified in the phospholipids. Phospholipidzusammensetzung der Steinglyceridöle der Familie Rosaceae Mit Hilfe der zweidimensionalen Dünnschichtchromatographie wurde die Phospholipidzusammensetzung von fünf pflanzlichen Glyceridölen der Familie Rosaceae untersucht: Pflaume (Prunus domestica L.), Pfirsich (Prunus persica L.), Aprikose (Prunus armeniaca L.), Kirsche (Prunus avium L.) und Sauerkirsche (Prunus cerasus L.). Der Phospholipidgehalt der Glyceridöle beträgt 0,4% bis 1,1%, der Gehalt in den Früchten lag zwischen 0,2% und 0,5%. Die Hauptkomponenten der Phospholipidfraktion sind: Phosphatidylcholin 37,1%–59,0%, Phosphatidylinositol 13,8%–31,6% und Phosphatidylethanolamin 12,9%–19,5%. Die Fettsäurezusammensetzung der Glyceridöle und der Hauptkomponenten der Phospholipidfraktion wurde mittels Kapillargaschromatographie untersucht. Größere Mengen an gesättigten Fettsäuren, hauptsächlich Palmitin- und Stearinsäure, wurden in den Phospholipiden nachgewiesen.
The Polymorphism of saturated monoacid triglycerides C12–C18 in the presence of food emulsifiers was investigated using the differential scanning calorimetry. ΔHf values of α and β polymorphs in the presence and in the absence of emulsifiers were compared. Difference was found between the effects of the various emulsifiers in the diverse triglycerides. The change in ΔHf was correlated to the change in the proportion of the same polymorph which melts. The inhibition of β crystallization in C18 by solid emulsifiers is shown to be minimized at slower heating rates, confirming the kinetic effect of the surfactant on the α–β transition. DSC-Untersuchungen zur Polymorphie von gesättigten einsäurigen Triglyceriden in Gegenwart von in Nahrungsmitteln verwendeten Emulgatoren Es wurde mit Hilfe der Differentialthermoanalyse die Polymorphie von gesättigten einsäurigen Triglyceriden von C12–C18 in Gegenwart von in Nahrungsmitteln verwendeten Emulgatoren untersucht. Die ΔHf–Werte von α- und β- Formen wurden mit und ohne Emulgatoren verglichen. Es wurden Unterschiede in der Wirkung der verschiedenen Emulgatoren in den zahlreichen Triglyceriden gefunden. Die Änderung im ΔHf-Wert war korreliert mit der Änderung des Anteils der schmelzenden gleichen polymorphen Form. Die Hemmung der β-Kristallbildung in C18 durch feste Emulgatoren wird bei niedrigeren Heizraten verringert; dies bestätigt den kinetischen Effekt des Emulgators auf die α-β-Umwandlung.