Effect of Varying Protein Content and Glutenin-to-Gliadin Ratio on the Functional Properties of Wheat Dough

Plant Breeding Institute , University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Cereal Chemistry (Impact Factor: 1.23). 05/1999; 76:389-394. DOI: 10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.3.389


Gluten, starch, lipids, and water-soluble material were separated from seven wheat samples with a range of protein contents and breadmaking quality. The isolated glutens were further partitioned into gliadin- and glutenin-rich fractions using pH precipitation. Protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio were systematically altered by blending these fractions into the original flours in calculated amounts. Mixing properties, extension-tester parameters, and baking performance of composite flours were determined using small-scale techniques. Results of dough testing with blends of constant glutenin-to-gliadin ratio showed increases in the mixing time, mixograph peak resistance, maximum resistance to extension, extensibility, and loaf volume as the protein content increased. At constant protein content, increases in glutenin-to-gliadin ratio were associated with increases in mixing time, mixograph peak resistance, maximum resistance to extension, and loaf volume, and with decreases in extensibility. Thus,total protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio independently affected dough and baking properties. The results have allowed the separation of the effects of flour protein quantity and composition on breadmaking properties.

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    • "The importance of fermentation in peptide deactivation is rarely considered in many modern baking methods, and is aggravated by many cereal protein 'nutrition' advocacy policies. Another issue is that manufactured gluten is generally sold as homogenous commodity with little focus on glutenin-gliadin ratios and wheat varietal origin, and with little recent research into its baking functionality (Uthayakumaran et al, 1999), especially after the gluten is extracted and heat dried. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the identification of critical etiological factors such as wheat gluten peptides and the predisposing human gene encodement, coeliac disease remains one of the most common chronic human inflammation diseases. Whilst daily gluten intake has increased up to 50 grams per day for some individuals in some developed countries mostly through manufactured gluten additives, average gluten avoidance by consumers has increased from 15 percent in 2013 to 22 percent in 2014, with the average serves of core grain food decreasing by 29 per cent between 2011 and 2014. This study focused on wheat bread, and examined 12 different preventive and symptom-treating pathways against risk mitigation, added risk, consumer acceptance, cost effectiveness, and time efficiency, and concluded that dough fermentation type, enzyme additives, and time considerations in the baking processes offered the best solutions to achieve a consumer-safe bread from wheat gluten. While bakers are not the sole cause of coeliac disease, there needs to be better understanding and adequate education for bakers of protein hydrolysis in the fermentative microbiological processes and enzyme activities. A cost and time effective measurement of gluten residues in the baking process remains a serious limitation to increased prevention of coeliac disease.
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    • "Apart from a few cases ( each of them ratios of two different protein classes , UPP and HMW / LMW ratio ) , no significant relationship was found between any functional parameter and protein or AX contents . The everyday practice of wheat quality evaluation and also numerous research works carrying out experiments by systematically altering the chemical composition of flour using supplementary flour components have already been determined certain effects of the protein content or the Glu / Gli ratio etc ( Uthayakumaran et al , 1999 , Wrigley et al 2006 ) . The relative amount of only certain supplementary components were altered in these special designed investigations , but the interference of many other components were not taken into consideration . "
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    ABSTRACT: Damaged starch, protein and arabinoxylan (AX) content and composition have been related to water absorption (WA) in a large set of samples. We tested 20 modern bread wheat cultivars bred in Hungary, 20 old Hungarian landraces, and 17 cultivars with special biochemical/functional characteristics from all around the world, this last set for international comparison. Grain was field grown in the 2011 and 2012 harvest seasons. Alinear mathematical model has been developed to estimate WA from protein content, starch damage, AX content and the relative amount of soluble proteins with strong correlation (r2 = 0.65) between measured and estimated data. The introduction of a new parameter, related to the cultivar dependent quantitative composition of soluble proteins and determined by lab-on-a-chip (LOC) analysis, largely improved the predictability of WA. Based on the large variation among the level of AX and certain soluble protein components in wheat flour and their significant contribution toWA determination, it was concluded, that these properties could be appropriate target traits to alter them during wheat breeding programs to improve the WA of wheat flour.
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    • "Major effects on loaf quality have been demonstrated due to overall protein content (MacRitchie, 1992) and the glutenin-to-gliadin ratio (Blumenthal et al., 1994; Gupta et al., 1992; MacRitchie, 1987; Pechanek et al., 1997). This is supported by other authors (Uthayakumaran et al., 1999) who concluded that the protein content and glutenin-to-gliadin ratio (a measure of molecular weight distribution or protein size) have different roles in determining the various dough and bread quality parameters. The composition of proteins and protein subunits is genetically determined (Johansson et al., 1993; MacRitchie, 1999; Payne Journal of Cereal Science 43 (2006) 315–321 "
    Dataset: HPLCg

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