ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

The possibility that information can be acquired at a distance without the use of the ordinary senses, that is by “extrasensory perception” (ESP), is not easily accommodated by conventional neuroscientific assumptions or by traditional theories underlying our understanding of perception and cognition. The lack of theoretical support has marginalized the study of ESP, but experiments investigating these phenomena have been conducted since the mid‐19th century, and the empirical database has been slowly accumulating. Today, using modern experimental methods and meta‐analytical techniques, a persuasive case can be made that, neuroscience assumptions notwithstanding, ESP does exist. We justify this conclusion through discussion of one class of homogeneous experiments reported in 108 publications and conducted from 1974 through 2008 by laboratories around the world. Subsets of these data have been subjected to six meta‐analyses, and each shows significantly positive effects. The overall results now provide unambiguous evidence for an independently repeatable ESP effect. This indicates that traditional cognitive and neuroscience models, which are largely based on classical physical concepts, are incomplete. We speculate that more comprehensive models will require new principles based on a more comprehensive physics. The current candidate is quantum mechanics.
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S81
OriginalArticle
ExtrasensoryPerceptionandQuantum
ModelsofCognition
PatrizioE.Tressoldi*,LanceStorm
,DeanRadin
Abstract
Thepossibilitythatinformationcanbeacquiredatadistancewithouttheuseo
f
the ordinary senses, that is by “extrasensory perception” (ESP), is not easily
accommodated by conventional neuroscientific assumptions or by traditional
theoriesunderlyingourunderstandingofperceptionandcognition.Thelacko
f
theoretical support has marginalized the study of ESP, but experiments
investigating these phenomena have been conducted since the mid19th
century,andtheempiricaldatabasehasbeenslowlyaccumulating.Today,using
modern experimental methods and metaanalytical techniques, a persuasive
case can be made that, neuroscience assumptions notwithstanding, ESP does
exist. We justify this conclusion through discussion of one class o
f
homogeneous experiments reported in 108 publications and conducted from
1974 through 2008 by laboratories around the world. Subsets of these data
havebeensubjectedtosixmetaanalyses,andeachshowssignificantlypositive
effects. The overall results now provide unambiguous evidence for an
independently repeatable ESP effect. This indicates that traditional cognitive
and neuroscience models, which are largely based on classical physical
concepts,are incomplete. We speculate that more comprehensive models will
require new principles based on a more comprehensive physics. The current
candidateisquantummechanics.
Key Words: extrasensory perception, non local perception, ganzfeld, meta
analysis,mentalentanglement,quantummechanics
NeuroQuantology2010;4:S8187
Introduction
1
Quantum mechanics made its advent at the turn
of the 20th century through the work of Einstein,
Bohr, Heisenberg, Schrödinger, Jordan, Pauli,
and many others. Despite its unquestionable
success, interpretations of quantum mechanics
remain controversial. To avoid some of the
conceptual difficulties, von Neumann (1955)
postulated that there are two fundamentally
different types of evolution in a quantum system:
the causal evolution of the Schrödinger
Correspondingauthor:PatrizioE.Tressoldi
Address::
*
DipartimentodiPsicologiaGenerale,Universitàdi
Padova,Italy,
SchoolofPsychology,UniversityofAdelaideSouth
Australia5005,Australia,
InstituteofNoeticSciences,Petaluma,
CA,USA
email:patrizio.tressoldi@unipd.it
SubmittedforPublication:Sept12,2010;finalrevisionreceived
Sept30,2010;acceptedOct15,2010.
wavefunction, and a non-causal, irreversible
change due to measurement. The latter, sudden
change is postulated to occur “outside” the
physical system under consideration; it was
metaphorically called the “collapse of the wave
function.” This idea led Jordan, Pauli, Wigner
and others to propose that one candidate for the
something “outside” was human consciousness.
This in turn suggested that some form of mind-
matter interaction was contained in, and perhaps
required for, the formalisms of quantum theory.
However, von Neumann’s postulate - the
idea that consciousness plays a role in the
manifestation of the physical world - is still as
controversial today as it was when first proposed.
This is because many physicists are reluctant to
include anything as ephemeral as consciousness
into the study of the physical world (Rosenblum
and Kuttner, 2008), but it is also resisted because
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S82
of the success of the neurosciences, which have
shown great progress in explaining perception,
cognition, and awareness in purely classical
terms. As a result, until very recently, there was
little reason to question the paradigmatic
assumptions or conclusions of neuroscience.
This situation is possibly poised to
change because of recent mathematical
developments. Conte (2010) modeled von
Neumann’s postulate mathematically to describe
the process of wave function collapse. To do this,
he linked his model of measurement to a
cognitive act, rather than to the prevailing
concept of measurement as an irreversible,
mechanistic process. He then proposed that
quantum mechanics may be fundamentally based
on cognitive and conceptual entities rather than
on physical factors.
Among the types of experimental
evidence suggesting that some human cognitive
abilities are better explained using quantum
rather than classical formalisms, Conte et al.,
(2009) investigated and confirmed the presence
of quantum-like interference effects during
perception of ambiguous figures, in the Stroop
effect, and in cognitive anomalies such as the
conjunction fallacy (Conte et al., 2009; Franco,
2009). Briefly, the conjunction fallacy is a logical
fallacy that occurs when it is assumed that
specific conditions are more probable than a
single general condition. A classic example is
captured in the following problem: Linda is 31
years old, single, outspoken, and very bright.
She majored in philosophy. As a student, she
was deeply concerned with issues of
discrimination and social justice, and also
participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.
Given this scenario, which is more probable? (a)
Linda is a bank teller; or (b) Linda is a bank teller
and is active in the feminist movement? Most
participants, usually around 80%, choose option
(b). Conte et al., (2009) and Franco (2009)
demonstrated that the conjunction fallacy can be
considered an interference effect predicted by a
quantum formalism used to describe intuitive
judgments and, in general, any bounded-
rationality regime.
Aerts (2009) also argued that quantum
mechanical principles, such as superposition and
interference, may be at the origin of effects in
cognition related to context sensitivity, such as
the guppy effect. This refers to the observation
that free associations to the word “fish” or the
word “pet” rarely elicit “guppy,” but associations
to the richer context of “pet fish” frequently
include “guppy.” Pothos and Busemeyer (2009)
showed that quantum probability models provide
better explanations than classical probability
models for results obtained with the two-stage
gambling game or the Prisoner’s Dilemma game,
two tasks commonly used to study human
decision models. Busemeyer, Wang and Lambert-
Mogiliansky (2009) demonstrated that quantum
probability theory is superior to classical (i.e.,
Markov) models in a categorization task. Bruza,
Kitto, Nelson and McEvoy (2009) postulated
quantum-like entanglement properties within the
human lexicon. And Blutner and Hochnadel
(2010) advanced a model of Jungian theory that
included quantum entanglement-like features
correlating psychological functions and attitudes.
In the present issue of this journal, Conte (this
issue) describes experimental results that further
support the superiority of quantum vs. classical
models in explaining a variety of cognitive tasks.
In sum, these recent theoretical advancements
suggest that quantum mechanical-inspired
models may be useful for describing a wide
variety of psychological processes that have been
difficult to accommodate under traditional
assumptions.
Quantum-like mental entanglement
One of the values of this new approach is that it
helps to illuminate a body of anomalous
experimental results collected over a century.
These results are reminiscent of quantum
entanglement-like cognitive processes between
people isolated by shielding or distance.
Quantum entanglement in the purely physical
sense describes what happens when two or more
elementary particles interact – a new property of
the multi-particle system arises that can no
longer be considered separate regardless of how
far apart the original particles travel in space or
time. This “spooky action at a distance” effect, as
Einstein called it, was dubbed entanglement by
Schrödinger. The principal characteristic is that
isolated particles remain instantaneously
connected through spacetime, and to date all
experimental tests of these predictions have been
confirmed (Gisin, 2009). This “nonlocal”
connection that transcends the classical
boundaries of space and time was initially
thought to apply only to microscopic particles.
But recent advances have shown that nonlocality
is a general phenomenon that also occurs in
macroscopic systems (Vedral, 2008), possibly
including living systems at room temperature
such as photosynthesis (Sarovar et al., 2010) and
DNA (Gutiérrez et al., 2010).
If quantum-like models are valid ways of
understanding certain forms of perception and
cognition and nonlocal entanglement-like
connections, are inherently contained within
such models, then it seems reasonable to expect
some aspects of those isolated systems we call
“individuals” to be more connected than they
appear to be. Gaining information without use of
the conventional senses, or “extrasensory”
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S83
perception (ESP), might be one way that those
connections might manifest.
A detailed account of possible
relationships between ESP and quantum theory
is beyond the scope of this paper, but to illustrate
how these two domains may be related, we briefly
mention three points. The first is that like the
quantum phenomenon of nuclear decay, ESP and
synchronicity (a possibly related paranormal
phenomenon) are, or would seem to be,
determined with confidence only through
analysis of statistical data. As explained by Storm
(2008);
Pauli did not accept that synchronistic
phenomena can be measured in a
statistical way as are quantum events. . . .
He recognised that “statistical
correspondence” is the kind of law that
“acts as a mediator between the
discontinuum of individual cases”
(themselves non-reproducible) “and the
continuum that can only be realized
(approximately) in a large-scale
statistical framework.” [Meier, 2001, p.
56] The parallels between the single
quantum event, individual cases of
synchronicity, and spontaneous non-
recurrent cases of Psi should be evident.
And surely the solution devised by
parapsychologists to surmount the
problem of the individual case, just as
physicists overcame a similar problem in
quantum mechanics, can be seen as
applicable to synchronicity (Storm, 2008,
pp. 262-263).
The second point is the intriguing
analogy between quantum entanglement and
telepathy, as noted by Einstein and others.
Beyond the analogy, neuronal activity may
include sub-atomic processes that incorporate
information or energy transfer at the requisite
scale to provide genuine quantum connections
(Hagan et al., 2002). The third point refers to the
quantum measurement problem’s “collapse of the
wave function,” which appears to require an
observer to transition quantum potentials into
classical actualities (Radin, 2006; pp.258-259). If
the observer includes humans, then mind-matter
interactions such as ESP should be expected.
Beyond musing about such analogies and
possibilities, one could conduct experiments to
see whether such abilities actually exist, and
indeed, experiments of this type have been
performed for over a century. Here we
concentrate on one type of telepathy experiment
that has been repeatedly performed in many
laboratories over the past 30 years.
All of these experiments share the
requirement that the participants, who are
isolated from each other by distance and/or
shielding, cannot obtain information from one
another by conventional means. Strict controls
are imposed so that no cues can be provided
about the telepathic “targets” by the
experimenters or by the experimental protocols,
and that chance identification of target
information can be precisely assessed.
In these studies, the telepathic “receiver’s” state
of consciousness is altered through use of a
procedure called “ganzfeld” stimulation. The
term ganzfeld, derived from German ganz,
meaning “whole” and feld or “field,” was coined
as a generic term for an unpatterned visual field.
The ganzfeld environment is used to induce a
hypnagogic-like state, similar to states that occur
spontaneously at sleep onset. A recent review of
the phenomenology and cerebral
electrophysiology of the ganzfeld experience is
available in Wackermann, Pütz and Allefeld
(2008).
In a typical ganzfeld telepathy
experiment, a “receiver” is left in a room relaxing
in a comfortable chair with halved ping-pong
balls over the eyes, and with a red light shining
on them. The receiver is asked to keep his/her
eyes open, and to wear headphones through
which white or pink noise is played. The receiver
is exposed to this state of mild sensory
homogenization for about a half hour. During
this time a distant “sender” observes a randomly
chosen target, usually a photograph or a short
videoclip randomly drawn from a set of four
possible targets (each as different from one
another as possible), and he or she tries to
mentally send this information to the receiver.
During the ganzfeld stimulation period, the
receiver verbally describes any impressions that
come to mind. These “mentations” are recorded
by the experimenter (who is also blind to the
target) via an audio recording or by taking notes,
or both. After the ganzfeld period ends, the
receiver is taken out of the ganzfeld state and is
presented with four photos or video clips, one of
which was the target along with three decoys. The
receiver is asked to choose which target best
resembles the image sent by the distant sender.
The evaluation of a trial is based on (a)
selection of one image by the receiver, based on
his/her assessment of the similarity between
his/her subjective impressions and the various
target possibilities, possibly enhanced by
listening to his/her mentation recorded during
the session, or (b) an independent judge’s
assessment of similarity between the various
targets and the participant’s mentation recorded
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S84
during the session. The results are then collected
in the form of ‘hit rates” over many trials, (i.e.,
the proportion of trials in which the target was
correctly identified). Because four possible
targets are typically used in these studies, the
chance hit rate is normally 25%. After many
repeated trials, hit rates that significantly exceed
chance expectation are taken as evidence for
nonlocal information transfer. Most of these
experiments are now fully automated,
eliminating the possibility of data recording
errors.
Since 1974, six meta-analyses have been
performed on ganzfeld experiments (all
references may be obtained upon request from
the first author): (1) Honorton
(1985), N = 28
studies; period of analysis: 1974 to 1981; (2) Bem
and Honorton
(1994), N = 10; period of analysis:
1983 to 1989; (3) Milton and Wiseman
(1999), N
= 30; period of analysis: 1989 to 1997; (4) Storm
and Ertel
(2001), N = 11; period of analysis: 1982
to 1989; (5) Bem et al. (2001), N = 9 (only new
studies, after elimination of one outlier), period
of analysis: 1997 to 1999, and (6) Storm,
Tressoldi & Di Risio
(2010), N = 20; period of
analysis: 1997 to 2008.
In all of these meta-analyses, the primary
measure was percentage of correct hits, and
inferential statistics were calculated via exact
binomial probabilities, which in turn were
transformed into standard normal deviates (z
scores). Effect size was expressed as ES = z/n,
where n was the number of test sessions. There is
some dispute about the optimal statistics to use
to best characterize these effects (Timm, 2000),
but to simplify interpretation of the mean effect
size across meta-analyses, we use the statistic π
(Rosenthal and Rubin, 1989), which conveniently
recasts mean chance expectation into π = .50.
Results expressed in terms of π are shown in
Table 1.
Table1.Meaneffectsizeπand95%confidenceinterval,obtainedinthesixmetaanalysis
MetaAnalysis Meanand95%CI z p
Honorton(1985) .62(.60to.66) 7.72 1.2x10
12
Bem&Honorton(1994) .59(.53to.64) 3.7 .0002
Milton&Wiseman(1999) .53(.50to.56) 2.04 .041
Storm&Ertel(1999) .58(.53to.63) 3.11 .002
Bemetal.(2001) .64(.59to.68) 6.05 1.4×10
7
Stormetal.(2010) .59(.56to.62) 5.65 8.00×10
7
Considering all reported trials, after the
elimination of 6 outliers (see Storm et al. 2010 p.
477), the hit rate was 1323 hits in 4196 trial = 31.5
%, as compared to chance expectation of 25%.
This corresponds to an ES of 0.135 (95%
confidence interval from 0.10 to 0.17). In terms of
the π statistic, π = 0.58, (95% CI from .56 to .60,
Z = 9.9, p = 1.0 × 10
-11
. The possibility that these
effects are due to inflation from selective
reporting has been considered in detail (e.g.,
Storm et al. 2010), and it is generally agreed,
including by skeptical reviewers, that the
“filedrawer effect” (referring to unpublished
papers will null results that languish in
investigators’ file drawers) cannot account for the
observed results.
Differences with other altered states of
consciousness
Using the Storm et al., (2010) database which
includes other types of ESP experiments, it was
possible to compare the outcome of 29 studies
using ganzfeld stimulation with 16 studies using
different types of altered states of consciousness
(ASC), including hypnosis, meditation and
dreaming. The mean ES and confidence intervals
for ganzfeld were π = .60 (95% CI .58 to .62; Z =
7.97; p = 2.00 × 10
-13
) and for other ASCs, π = .57
(95% CI .54 to .61; Z = 4.08; p = 4.00 × 10
-3
. This
suggests that there may not be anything
especially unusual about the use of the ganzfeld
procedure, and that there may be many ASC
approaches to enhance ESP. This outcome is
supported by a previous meta-analysis by
Stanford & Stein (1994) related to use of hypnosis
to enhance ESP and of Child (1985) and
Sherwood & Roe (2003) related to ESP in
dreams. By comparison, as reported in Storm et
al. (2010), in analysis of 14 experiments where
participants were not in a ganzfeld or ASC (after
elimination of outliers), the results was at chance
(ES π = .49 [95% CI .46 to .52], z = -.69; p = .49).
Variations in the effect
One may observe the overall hit rate of 32% in
the ganzfeld experiments (vs. chance expectation
of 25%), and, despite acknowledging the clear
statistical outcome, remain unimpressed because
after all, the yield in this type of experiment is
only 7% above chance. If telepathy were really
true, then one might wonder why hit rates are not
much higher. One reason is that this 32% hit rate
was obtained primarily with unselected
volunteers claiming no special abilities, thus the
7% effect is a general population effect. When
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S85
special populations are examined, such as
creative artists, substantially higher hit rates are
obtained (e.g., 47% reported in Holt, 2007). A
second reason is that ESP, like many perceptual
and behavioral phenomena (e.g., visual acuity
varies with light intensity; domestic violence
increases during geomagnetic storms), may be
influenced by a host of psychological and
environmental factors, and we haven’t yet found
a way to eliminate the effect of these noisy
variables.
Theoretical considerations
Despite substantial empirical evidence, the
concept of ESP has eluded scientific acceptance
for two primary reasons. The first is a belief held
within the academic mainstream that there is no
empirical evidence in support of this claimed
phenomenon, or that if there is some evidence, it
is not repeatable and therefore not amenable to
scientific inquiry. The meta-analyses reported
here, as well as a dozen other meta-analyses
investigating various other classes of ESP
experiments, unambiguously demonstrate that
this commonly held belief is simply mistaken.
The second reason is a lack of well
accepted theoretical models. The present paper
suggests that in the second decade of the 21
st
century quantum-inspired models are beginning
to become acceptable in conventional psychology
because they offer solutions to problems that
classical models cannot easily accommodate.
However, quantum-inspired models in
psychology are not new. A half-century ago,
researchers studying ESP effects were already
proposing models based on quantum concepts
(Walker, 1979; Dunne and Jahne, 1987;
Houtkooper, 2002; Lucadou et al., 2007; Roll
and Williams, 2008). Supporting those models is
a growing body of experimental data which show
“spooky” correlations in, for example, electrical
brain activity between people isolated at a
distance (see Supplementary Information A).
While the concept that ESP may be explainable
via some form of entanglement between living
brains is still frankly speculative (Radin, 2006),
recent developments in quantum biology suggest
that entanglement may play a role in explaining
the stability of the DNA double helix (Rieper,
Anders and Vedral, 2010). That line of research
may eventually lead to testable models for
entangled brains at the neuronal level, and then
to entangled subjective experience, and thus ESP.
Final comments and a note of optimism
It is often said that extraordinary claims require
extraordinary evidence. The empirical results
presented here for the ganzfeld telepathy
experiment seem to satisfy this requirement.
More than 50 authors have reported successful
replications from laboratories across the USA,
UK, Sweden, Argentina, Australia, and Italy, and
the reported effects have been reliably repeatable
for over 30 years. In addition, a team of avowedly
skeptical researchers led by Delgado-Romero and
Howard (2005) successfully repeated the
ganzfeld experiment, and they obtained the same
32% hit rate estimated by the meta-analyses.
With the available data at hand, the nature of the
debate is shifting from earlier arguments that
ESP is impossible because it violates certain
unspecified but presumably sacrosanct laws of
nature, to quibbles over increasingly minor
technical details (Hyman 2010; Storm et al.,
2010b).
Widely accepted theoretical explanations
for ESP have continued to lag behind the
collection of empirical data, but the explanatory
playing field is rapidly advancing. For example, a
recent book by Khrennikov (2010) summarizes
the state of art of quantum-like models in
cognitive science, psychology, genetics,
economics, finance, game theory, and biology
(Arndt et al., 2009). Likewise, the Conte (2010)
mathematical model, which proposes that
quantum mechanics describes not only the
behaviour of matter and energy, but also
cognition, suggests a new vision of the human
mind where the “classical” functioning of human
cognitive abilities must be expanded with
“quantum-like” features. Such models invite
fascinating new perspectives on the study of
cognition and perception, and on natural human
capacities once thought to be impossible.
References
Aerts D. Quantum structure in cognition. Journal of
Mathematical Psychology 2009; 53: 314-348.
Arndt M, Juffmann T and Vedral V. Quantum physics
meets biology. HFSP Journal 2009; 3(6): 386-400.
Bem DJ. and Honorton C. Does Psi Exist? Replicable
Evidence for an Anomalous Process of Information
Transfer. Psychological Bulletin 1994; 115: 4-18.
Bem DJ, Palmer J and Broughton RS. Updating the
Ganzfeld Database: A Victim of Its Own Success?
Journal of Parapsychology 2001; 65;207-218.
Bennett CH. et al. Teleporting an unknown quantum state
via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen
channels. Physical Review Letters 1993; 70: 1895-
1899.
Blutner R. and Hochnadel E. Two qubits for C.G. Jung’s
theory of personality. Cognitive Systems Research
2010;11:243–259.
Bouwmeester D. et al. Experimental quantum
teleportation. Nature 1997; 390: 575-579.
Bruza PD, Kitto K, Nelson D. and McEvoy CL. Is there
something quantum-like about the human mental
lexicon? Journal of Mathematical Psychology 2009;
53:362-377.
Busemeyer JR, Wang Z, and Lambert-Mogiliansky.
Comparison of Markov and Quantum models of
decision making. Journal of Mathematical Psychology
2009; 53:423 433.
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S86
Cahn BR and Polich J. Meditation States and Traits: EEG,
ERP, and Neuroimaging Studies. Psychological
Bulletin 2006; 132: 180-211.
Conte E. On the Possibility that we think in a Quantum
Probabilistic Manner. Neuroquantology (this issue)
Conte E. A Reformulation of von Neumann’s Postulates on
Quantum Measurement by Using Two Theorems in
Clifford Algebra. International Journal of Theoretical
Physics 2010; 587-614.
Conte E, Khrennikov AY, Todarello O, Federici A, Zbilut
JP. On the Existence of Quantum Wave Function and
Quantum Interference Effects in Mental States: An
Experimental Confirmation during Perception and
Cognition in Humans. NeuroQuantology 2009; 7
(2):204-212.
Conte E, Todarello O, Khrennikov AY, De Robertis R,
Federici A & Zbilut JP. Cognitive Anomaly of
Conjunction Fallacy. Open Systems & Information
Dynamics 2009; 16 (1): 1-17.
Dalton K. Exploring the links: Creativity and psi in the
ganzfeld. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Convention
of the Parapsychological Association Brighton, UK
1997;119-134.
Delgado-Romero EA and Howard GS. Finding and
Correcting Flawed Research Literatures. The
Humanistic Psicologists 2005; 33(4): 293-303.
Dunne B. and Jahne R. Margins of Reality. The Role of
Consciousness in the Physical World. Harcourt Brace
& Co. 1987.
Franco R. The conjunction fallacy and interference effects.
Journal of Mathematical Psychology 2009; 53 (5):
415-422.
Gisin N. Quantum Nonlocality: How Does Nature Do
It? Science 2009; 326 (5958): 1357 - 1358.
Gutiérrez R, Caetano R Woiczikowski PB, Kubar T, Elstner
M and Cuniberti G.Structural fluctuations and
quantum transport through DNA molecular wires: a
combined molecular dynamics and model
Hamiltonian approach. New Journal of Physics 2010;
12: 023022
Holt NJ. Are artistic populations psi-conducive? Testing
the relationship between creativity and psi with an
experience-sampling protocol. In Proceedings of the
50th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological
Association. Petaluma, CA: Parapsychological
Association, 2007; 31–47.
Honorton C. Meta-analysis of psi ganzfeld research: A
response to Hyman. Journal of Parapsychology 1985;
49: 51-92.
Houtkooper JM. Arguing for an Observational Theory of
Paranormal Phenomena. Journal of Scientific
Exploration, 2002;16(2):171–185,
Hyman R. Meta-analysis that conceals more than it
reveals: Comment on Storm et al.(2010).
Psychological Bulletin 2010; 136(4):486-490.
Khrennikov AY. Ubiquitous Quantum Structure from
Psychology to Finance. 2010, Springer-Verlag Berlin
Heidelberg.
LucadouW, Römer H. and Walach H. Synchronistic
phenomena as entanglement correlations in
generalized quantum theory. Journal of Consciousness
Studies 2007; 14: 50-74.
Meier CA. (ed.) Atom and the archetype: The Pauli/Jung
letters, 1932-1958. Routledge, London 2001.
Milton J and Wiseman R. Does Psi Exist? Lack of
Replication of an Anomalous Process of Information
Transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 1999; 125: 387-391.
Pothos EM and Busemeyer J. A quantum probability
explanation for violations of ‘rational’ decision theory.
Proceeding of the Royal Society B 2009; 276 (1665):
2171-2178.
Radin D. Entangled Minds. Extrasensory Experiences in a
Quantum Reality. Paraview Pocket Books, NY 2006
Raffone A, Srinivasan N. The exploration of meditation in
the neuroscience of attention and consciousness 2010;
11(1):1-7.
Rosemblum B and Kuttner F. Quantum Enigma. Physics
encounters consciousness. Oxford University Press
2008.
Rieper E, Anders J and Vedral V. The relevance of
continuous variable entanglement in DNA.
http://arxiv.org/abs/1006.4053 2010.
Roll WG and Williams BJ. Parapsychology and Quantum
Entanglement. Proceedings of The Parapsychological
Association Convention 2008; 1-22.
Rosenthal R. and Rubin DB. Effect size estimation for
one-sample multiple-choice-type data: Design,
analysis, and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin
1989; 106: 332-337.
Sarovar, M, Ishizaki, A, Fleming, GR, and Whaley, KB.
Quantum entanglement in photosynthetic light-
harvesting complexes. Nature Physics 2010; 6: 462 -
467.
Sherwood SJ and Roe CA. A Review of Dream ESP Studies
Conducted Since the Maimonides Dream ESP
Programme. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2003;
10: 85–109.
Standord RG and Stein AG. A Meta-Analysis of ESP
Studies Contrasting Hypnosis and a Comparison
Condition, Journal of Parapsychology 1994;58: 235-
269.
Storm L. Archetypes, causality, and meaning. In L. Storm
(Ed.), Synchronicity: Multiple perspectives on
meaningful coincidence (pp. 259-272). Pari Publishing
Pari, Italy, 2008.
Storm L and Ertel S. Does PSI Exist? Comments on Milton
and Wiseman's (1999) Meta-Analysis of Ganzfeld
Research. Psychological Bulletin 2001;127: 424-433.
Storm L, Tressoldi PE and Di Risio L. Meta-Analysis of
Free-Response Studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the
Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology.
Psychological Bulletin 2010;136: 471-485.
Storm L, Tressoldi PE and Di Risio L. A meta-analysis
with nothing to hide: Reply to Hyman (2010).
Psychological Bulletin 2010b; 136(4):491-494.
Timm U. The problem of finding an optimal measure of
effect size for psi experiments. Journal of
Parapsychology 2000; 64: 253-254.
Von Neumann J. Mathematical foundations of quantum
mechanics. Princeton University Press 1955.
Wackermann J, Pütz P and Allefeld C. Ganzfeld-induced
hallucinatory experience, its phenomenology and
cerebral electrophysiology. Cortex 2008; 44: 1364-
1378.
Walker EH. The quantum theory of psi phenomena.
Psychoenergetic Systems 1979; 3: 259-299.
NeuroQuantology|December2010|Vol8|Issue4|SupplementIssue1|PageS8187
Tressoldietal.,Extrasensoryperceptionandquantummodelsofcognition
ISSN13035150 www.neuroquantology.com
S87
Supplementary Information A.
Studies related to brain activity correlation at distance
Ambach W. Correlations between the EEGs of two spatially separated subjects a replication study. European
Journal of Parapsychology 2008; 23 (2): 131-146.
Achterberg J, Cooke K, Richards T, Standish LJ, Kozak L and Lake J. Evidence for Correlations Between Distant
Intentionality and Brain Function in Recipients: a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis. The
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2005; 11 (6): 965–971.
Duane TD and Behrendt T. Extrasensory electroencephalographic induction between identical twins. Science
1965; 150: 367.
Grinberg-Zylberbaum J and Ramos J. Patterns of interhemispheric correlation during human communication.
International Journal of Neuroscience 1987; 36: 41–53.
Grinberg-Zylberbaum J, Delaflor M, Attie L and Goswami A. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the brain:
The transferred potential. Physics Essays 1994;7: 422–427.
Hasson U, Nir Y, Levy I, Fuhrmann G and Malach R. Intersubject synchronization of cortical activity during
natural vision. Science 2004;303: 1634– 1640.
Kalitzin S and Suffczynski P. Comments on “Correlations between brain electrical activities of two spatially
separated human subjects”. Neuroscience Letters 2003;350: 193–194.
Kittenis M, Caryl PG, Stevens P. Distant psychophysiological interaction effects between related and unrelated
participants, in The Parapsychological Association, 47
th
Annual Convention, Proceedings of Presented Papers,
Vienna 2004; 67-76.
Orme-Johnson DW, Dillbeck MC, Wallace RK and Landrith GS. Intersubject EEG coherence: is consciousness a
field? International Journal of Neuroscience 1982;16: 203–209.
Persinger MA, Koren SA and Tsang EW. Enhanced power within a specific band of theta activity in one person
while another receives circumcerebral pulsed magnetic fields: A mechanism for cognitive influence at a
distance? Perceptual and Motor Skills 2003; 97: 877 – 894.
Radin DI. Experimental investigation of event-related EEG correlations between isolated human subjects. Journal
of Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2004;10: 103–112.
Richards TL, Kozak L, Johnson C and Standish LJ. Replicable Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Evidence
of Correlated Brain Signals Between Physically and Sensory Isolated Subjects. The Journal of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine 2005; 11: 6, 55–963.
Sabell A, Clarke C and Fenwick P. Inter-subject EEG correlations at a distance – the transferred potential. In
Proceedings of the 44th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association, ed. byC. Alvarado,
Parapsychological Association, New York 2001; 419–422.
Seiter C, Keibel H, Walach H and Wackermann J. Preliminary evidence for non-locally correlated EEGs of
spatially separated subjects – a pilot study. International Journal of Psychophysiology 2002; 45-59.
Standish LJ, Johnson LC, Kozak L and Richards T. Evidence of correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging
signals between distant human brains. Alternative Therapies 2003; 9: 122–125.
Standish LJ, Kozak L, Johnson LC and Richards T. Electroencephalographic evidence of correlated event-related
signals between the brains of spatially and sensory isolated human subjects, Journal of Alternative and
Complementary Medicine 2004; 10: 307-314.
Targ R and Puthoff H. Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding. Nature 1974; 251: 602 –
607.
Wackermann J, Seiter C, Keibel H and Walach H. Correlations between brain electrical activities of two spatially
separated human subjects. Neuroscience Letters 2003; 336: 60–64.
... The term implies acquisition of information by means external to the basic limiting assumptions of science, such that organism can only receive information from the past to the present. (Shekhar, A. 2017). ...
... To avoid the connotations of haunting and the séance room, they renamed it to parapsychology. (Shekhar, A. 2017). ...
... The study of psychic phenomena (psi), such as ESP called parapsychology. The consensus of the parapsychological association is that certain types of psi phenomena as Psychokinesis (PK), telepathy, etc. (Shekhar, A. 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this theoretical article, I discussed first, the nature of sensation,in general. I represented the concept of sixth sense, compared to similar terms. Then I introduced the nature of sixth sense experience, and psychical eight senses, compared to five ordinary senses. At the end of talking about sensation, after previous logic representation, I suggested and deducted hypothesis one; exchanging sixth sense with remote sense, which detects and senses stimulations far from the current point. Second, I introduced the nature of perception in general, then extra-sensory perception (ESP) types and brief history about, the nature of Psychokinesis (PK), and how science interpreted such phenomena. At the end of this article, I suggested, as above, hypothesis two; ESP is a function of remote sensor organ that gives us the ability to act through distance, subjectively through entangled entity.
... Operationally, it is the influence of future stimuli on one's present psychological processes. Recent experimental research has demonstrated precognitive effects relevant to reinforcement, priming, habituation, and memory, such that effects operate "backwards in time" (Bem, 2011;Bem, Tressoldi, Rabeyron, & Duggan, 2014;Tressoldi, Lance, & Radin, 2010). For example, Bem (2011), in a package of nine studies published in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, found that participants were more likely to respond in ways that were later reinforced, when by guest on November 29, 2016 Downloaded from both the random assignment of reinforcement and the reinforcement itself occurred after the responses in question were already made. ...
... These findings have been met with a fair amount of critical skepticism, in part because results have been inconsistently replicable (e.g., see Galak, LeBoeuf, Nelson, Leif, & Simmons, 2012), and more frequently due to both a lack of theoretical explanation and a limited understanding of the potential underlying mechanism(s) of precognitive effects (Bem, 2011). Although we also share a skeptical view in part for these same reasons, it is worth noting that data from a recent meta-analysis of 90 experiments attempting to replicate precognitive effects-using either exact or modified methods outlined in Bem (2011)-provide support overall for the existence of precognition (Bem et al., 2014; for a review of other meta-analytic evidence, see Tressoldi et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support). Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.
... Most recently, Tressoldi, Storm, and Radin (2010) examined all the ganzfeld evidence reported in 108 publications from studies conducted during the years 1974 through 2008 by laboratories in six countries. Subsets of this evidence have been analyzed in six meta-analyses, including a meta-analysis by skeptics Milton and Wiseman (1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
Throughout the debate on psi, skeptics have almost universally insisted on different standards for evaluating the evidence, claiming that psi represents a radical departure from our current scientific understanding. Thus, there is considerable ambiguity about what standard of evaluation psi must meet. Little attention has been paid to the possible harm to the integrity of scientific investigation from this resulting inconsistency in testing standards. Some have proposed using a Bayesian framework as an improvement on this dilemma in order to more explicitly model beliefs, assumptions, and background scientific knowledge, especially when evaluating a controversial hypothesis. Recently, Kuhn's notion of paradigms, which constrains scientific research within boundaries believed to be most productive, has been incorporated into a Bayesian framework. Within this framework, I explore a likely paradigm or meta-theory used by skeptics that typically constrains research and makes it difficult for psi evidence to be accepted. It appears that such a paradigm would in many respects have difficulty accounting for consciousness, which is fundamental to an understanding of psi. I discuss why psi data are likely to play a key role in making progress in solving the problem of consciousness. Thus, applying different standards of evaluation to psi data is likely counterproductive.
... One might also note that, on the surface, the lack of attenuation with spatial distance in telepathy would appear to be akin to the kind of nonlocal correlation that two entangled particles seem to exhibit, regardless of the spatial distance at which they are separated-an observation that would hint at a possible conceptual analogy with quantum mechanics (Atmanspacher, Römer, & Walach, 2002;Josephson & Pallikari-Viras, 1991;Radin, 2006;Tressoldi, Storm, & Radin, 2010). Reber and Alcock (2019) take issue with such a possibility, stating that such an analogy ". . . ...
Article
Full-text available
A critical commentary is offered on a skeptical rebuttal made by Arthur Reber and James Alcock in the July/August 2019 issue of Skeptical Inquirer, which came in response to an article by Etzel Cardeña (published in the mainstream journal American Psychologist in 2018) that reviewed the extensive evidence from parapsychological experiments which seems to collectively offer support for the existence of psychic (or psi) phenomena. At the heart of their rebuttal, Reber and Alcock seek to make the counterargument that this evidence cannot be meaningful because psi phenomena are "impossible," appearing to violate four fundamental principles of physics. It is shown here that rather than being based on any kind of substantial evidence, the criticisms that Reber and Alcock put forth in support of this counterargument are instead based on a combination of narrow personal opinion, unfounded assumption, and superficial rhetoric, leaving their claims unsound and ultimately unconvincing.
... One might also note that, on the surface, the lack of attenuation with spatial distance in telepathy would appear to be akin to the kind of nonlocal correlation that two entangled particles seem to exhibit, regardless of the spatial distance at which they are separated-an observation that would hint at a possible conceptual analogy with quantum mechanics Josephson & Pallikari-Viras, 1991;Radin, 2006;Tressoldi, Storm, & Radin, 2010). take issue with such a possibility, stating that such an analogy ". . . ...
... 7 Perhaps the strongest evidence for telepathy is provided with the ganzfeld method, which uses a technique of inducing a mild altered state of consciousness to facilitate a link between sender and receiver. Tressoldi, Storm, and Radin (2010) recently examined all the ganzfeld evidence reported in 108 publications and conducted from 1974 through 2008 and found an overall hit rate across all of the data of 31.5%, above chance expectation of 25%, with a p value of 1.0 × 10 −11 . ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, I explore the link between consciousness and quantum mechanics. Often explanations that invoke consciousness to help explain some of the most perplexing aspects of quantum mechanics are not given serious attention. However, casual dismissal is perhaps unwarranted, given the persistence of the measurement problem, as well as the mysterious nature of consciousness. Using data accumulated from experiments in parapsychology, I examine what anomalous data with respect to consciousness might tell us about various explanations of quantum mechanics. I examine three categories of quantum mechanics interpretations that have some promise of ftting with this anomalous data. I conclude that explanations that posit a substratum of reality containing pure information or potentia, along the lines proposed by Bohm and Stapp, o?er the best ft for various categories of this data.
... In 2010 in the journal NeuroQuantology, consciousness researchers Patricio Tressoldi, Lance Storm, and Dean Radin analyzed the experimental database for extrasensory perception. 72 They state: ...
... Second, the move toward quantum theory, still remains decidedly scientific, in the sense that it relies, at least methodologically, on notions from legendary science such as statistical analyses, control and the adjudication of findings against some pre-established set of practices. This is not necessarily 'bad' insofar as it contributes to the growing literature (Tressoldi, Storm & Radin, 2010) that supports "spooky" action at a distance; what used to be considered the paranormal. It is, however, anathema to the central premise of my argument, which understands psi through its originary 'trickster' manifestations making it therefore not amenable to such an easy kind of agreement-i.e., quantum theory as a paragon explanatory model. ...
Article
Full-text available
The privileging of physicalist ontologies and rigid experimentalism within parapsychology helps to expose a 'hole' in the praxis of the discipline proper; what psychoanalysis generally refers to as a " lack ". Certain not to fill this hole, using the psychoanalytic approach pioneered by Jacques Lacan (i.e., Lacanian psychoanalysis), the following reading aims to develop theoretically a scene by which parapsychology can come, more self-reflectively, to better take in its scientific practice—the unconscious of its subject, how the discipline has chosen to carve itself out within, what Lacan calls the chaotic, polysemic pool of lalangue, that place where meaning slides around. Indeed, such a return to the unconscious actually opens up the field to more counter-hegemonic phenomena that are typically viewed as fringe. To illustrate this point, I deploy the Lacanian après-coup, otherwise known as retroaction (a causality not from the present time), in conjunction with extrasensory perception research to stage just such an encounter, between the subject of parapsychology and its lack. This not only thwarts the so-called 'source of psi' problem by showing how parapsychology is running from itself, but also reveals a homology between psi and the objet petit a—the little object of desire that must always be tamed. As such, the disciplinary contouring of parapsychological science evokes the wily qualities of the trickster. It follows that, in the future, a further psychoanalysis of parapsychology could work to develop the theoretical insights of this article with some of Lacan's other concepts, such as the jouissance of the body (i.e., the anxious pleasure that animates the subject), and the relationship between drive and desire.
Article
Full-text available
The huge progress made in recent decades in the medical-health field, together with the large-scale introduction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and other emergency techniques and procedures, has made it possible to save a growing number of human lives. Also because of this, the testimonies classified as Near Death Experiences (NDEs) have increased exponentially, mostly in Western countries. The present work aims at first to identify six basic inclusion-exclusion clinical criteria to be adopted for the definition of a Near Death State (NDS), distinguishing between an objective NDS and a subjective Near Death Like State (NDLS). This classification leads to having NDEs split into two distinct groups: Near Death Experiences associated to NDS and Near Death Like Experiences (NDLEs) associated to NDLS. A general frame of reference, namely Tenso-Relational Model, within which consciousness and the mind-body system (MBS) can be located is discussed. In conclusion it is introduced a bio-physical frame of reference to be adopted for a possible explanation 1) of the so called Out of Body Experience (OBE), which can occur while experiencing an NDS or an NDLS, 2) of the so-called Electromagnetic After-Effects (EAEs), namely electro-sensitivity, which can be caused both by an NDS or by an NDLS, and 3) of others NDS-NDLS aftereffects such as the so-called Energy Healing Abilities (EHA) and the psi abilities, i.e. psychokinesis, telekinesis and psychic-teleportation, and Extra-Sensory Perceptions (ESPs) such as telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition and psychometry.
Article
Full-text available
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations between human brains are studied to verify if the brain has a macroscopic quantum component. Pairs of subjects were allowed to interact and were then separated inside semisilent Faraday chambers 14.5 m apart when their EEG activity was registered. Only one subject of each pair was stimulated by lOO flashes. When the stimulated subject showed distinct evoked potentials, the nonstimulated subject showed "transferred potentials" similar to those evoked in the stimulated subject. Control subjects showed no such transferred potentials. The transferred potentials demonstrate brain-to-brain nonlocal EPR correlation between brains, supporting the brain's quantum nature at the macrolevel.
Article
Full-text available
According to a procedure previously introduced from Y. Ilamed and N. Salingaros, we start giving proof of two existing Clifford algebras, the Si that has isomorphism with that one of Pauli matrices and the Ni,±1 where Ni stands for the dihedral Clifford algebra. The salient feature is that we show that the Ni,±1 may be obtained from the Si algebra when we attribute a numerical value (+1 or −1) to one of the basic elements (e1, e2, e3) of the Si. We utilize such result to advance a criterium under which the Si algebra has as counterpart the description of quantum systems that in standard quantum mechanics are considered in absence of observation and quantum measurement while the Ni,±1 attend when a quantum measurement is performed on such system with advent of wave function collapse. The physical content of the criterium is that the quantum measurement with wave function collapse induces the passage in the considered quantum system from the Si to Ni,+1 or to the Ni,−1 algebras, where each algebra has of course its proper rules of commutation. After a proper discussion on the difference between decoherence and wave function collapse, we re-examine the von Neumann postulate on quantum measurement, and we give a proper justification of such postulate by using the Si algebra. Soon after we study some applications of the above mentioned criterium to some cases of interest in standard quantum mechanics, analyzing in particular a two state quantum system, the case of time dependent interaction of such system with a measuring apparatus and finally the case of a quantum system plus measuring apparatus developed at the order n = 4 of the considered Clifford algebras and of the corresponding density matrix in standard quantum mechanics. In each of such cases examined, we find that the passage from the algebra Si to Ni,±1, considered during the quantum measurement of the system, actually describes the collapse of the wave function. Therefore we conclude that the actual quantum measurement has as counterpart in the Clifford algebraic description, the passage from the Si to the Ni,±1 Clifford algebras, reaching in this manner the objective to reformulate von Neumann postulate on quantum measurement and proposing a self-consistent formulation of quantum theory.
Article
Full-text available
We introduce the quantum theoretical formulation to determine a posteriori, if existing, the quantum wave functions and to estimate the quantum interference effects of mental states. Such quantum features are actually found in the case of an experiment involving the perception and the cognition in humans. Also some specific psychological variables are introduced and it is obtained that they characterize in a stringent manner the quantum behaviour of mind during such performed experiment.
Article
Full-text available
My discussion is articulated under the neurological as well as the psychological profile. I insist in particular on the view that mental events arise in analogy with quantum probability fields. I review some results obtained on quantum cognition discussing in detail those that we obtained on quantum interference in mental states during perception-cognition in ambiguous figures. Frequently, I use the approach to quantum mechanics by Clifford algebra. I insist in particular on two recent results. The first is the justification that I obtain of the von Neumann postulate on quantum measurement and the second relates my Clifford demonstration on the logical origins of quantum mechanics and thus on the arising feature that quantum mechanics relates conceptual entities. The whole discussion aims me to support the conclusion that we think in a quantum probabilistic manner.
Article
Full-text available
We review the dream ESP studies conducted since the end of the Maimonides research programme. Combined effect size estimates for both sets of studies suggest that judges could correctly identify target materials more often than would be expected by chance using dream mentation. Maimonides studies were significantly more successful than post-Maimonides studies, which may be due to procedural differences, including that post-Maimonides receivers tended to sleep at home and were generally not deliberately awakened from REM sleep. Methodological shortcomings of some studies are discussed. Nevertheless, home dream ESP research has been successful and continues to be a less expensive and less labour-intensive alternative to sleep-laboratory-based research. We hope that interest in dream ESP research will be re-awakened.
Book
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
Article
Chronologies of the Lives of C. G. Jung and Wolfgang Pauli vii Lexicon of Terms in Psychology and Physics xvii Jung and Pauli: A Meeting of Rare Minds, by Beverley Zabriskie xxvii Translator's Note li Editorial Note, by James Donat lii Abbreviations liv Foreword, by C. A. Meier lvii The Correspondence 1 APPENDIXES 173 1: Pauli, Dream of 23 January 1938 175 2: Comments on Appendix 3 176 3: Unpublished Essay by Pauli 179 4: Two Letters from Pauli to H. R. Schwyzer 197 5: Letter from Max Knoll to Pauli Concerning UFOs 200 6: Two Lectures by Pauli at the Psychological Club of Zurich 203 7: Pauli's Observations on Cosmic Rays 210 8: Note by Jung on Synchronicity 211 9: Correspondence between Pauli and the C. G. Jung Institute 212 10: Articles on Parity Violation from The New York Times, January 16, 1957 218 11: Facsimiles of the Handwriting of Pauli and Jung 226 12: The Letters Listed in Chronological Order 229 BIBLIOGRAPHY 233 INDEX RERUM 241 INDEX OF TERMS 243
Book
Quantum-like structure is present practically everywhere. Quantum-like (QL) models, i.e. models based on the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and their generalizations can be successfully applied to cognitive science, psychology, genetics, economics, finances, and game theory.This book is not about quantum mechanics as a physical theory. The short review of quantum postulates is therefore mainly of historical value: quantum mechanics is just the first example of the successful application of non-Kolmogorov probabilities, the first step towards a contextual probabilistic description of natural, biological, psychological, social, economical or financial phenomena. A general contextual probabilistic model (V model) is presented. It can be used for describing probabilities in both quantum and classical (statistical) mechanics as well as in the above mentioned phenomena. This model can be represented in a quantum-like way, namely, in complex and more general Hilbert spaces. In this way quantum probability is totally demystified: Born's representation of quantum probabilities by complex probability amplitudes, wave functions, is simply a special representation of this type. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010. All rights are reserved.
Article
The existence of psi—anomalous processes of information transfer such as telepathy or clair- voyance—continues to be controversial. Earlier meta-analyses of studies using the ganzfeld procedure appeared to provide replicable evidence for psi (D. J. Bem & C. Honorton, 1994), but a follow-up meta-analysis of 30 more recent ganzfeld studies did not (J. Milton & R. Wiseman, 1999). When 10 new studies published after the Milton-Wiseman cutoff date are added to their database, the overall ganzfeld effect again becomes significant, but the mean effect size is still smaller than those from the original studies. Ratings of all 40 studies by 3 independent raters reveal that the effect size achieved by a replication is significantly corre- lated with the degree to which it adhered to the standard ganzfeld protocol. Standard replica-