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Potential role of Bamboo Plantations in Afforestation/Reforestation CDM (Clean Development Mechanism)

  • College of Forestry Thrissur


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~ Evergreen
Mixed plantations as an alternative to monocultureplantations are
tried to improve productivity, sustainability and greater carbon
sequestration in the early stages of the plantations. Examples include
Acacia with Eucalyptus and teak with Leucaena.
spl~hing and erosive surface runoff. Additionally, vast networks of
cover crop roots help to anchor the soil in place and increase soil
porosity, creating suitable habitats for soil macrofauna.
Crop residue is important for replenishment of soil organic matter
and can efficiently arrest the decline of soil organic matter.
Allelopathic studies using four cover crops, viz., Pueraria javanica,
Calapogonium mucunoides, Centrosma pubescens, Mucuna
bracteata, showed that teak plants have no inhibitory effect on these
cover crops. However, selection of the cover crop should be based on
the growth habit and tolerance to shade conditions.
Enhancing soil carbon pool through improved soil and crop
management is a prudent strategy for sustainable management of soil,
water and environment resources. A quantification of these effects is
required to evaluate soil carbon sequestration, environmental
improvement and nation's welfare. As Mahatma Gandhi put it: " A
technological society has two choices: first it can wait until
catastrophic failures expose systemic deficiencies, distortion and
,," " , c. ..c.
self-deceptions. Secondly, a culture can provide social checks and
balances to correct for systemic distortion prior to catastrophic
"Chemieal'feHiliz~rshave b(jen the fuel 'for green revolutioll-during
the last few decades, boosting plant growth and yield. Nevertheless,
it took several years to realize that chemical fertilizers are a serious
threat to soil quality by deteriorating organic matter and soil
structure, diminishing earthworm activity and proliferating weeds.
Judicious integration of organic and inorganic manuring practices
has shown promising results in sustaining productivity and
increasing soil carbon pool in the long run . K. Smitha John and M. P. Sujatha
Soil Science Department, SFM Division
Global warming is one of the most devastating problems of the new
millennium. The Kyoto Protocol is the first step towards an
international strategy to limit greenhouse gas emissions which in
turn helps to mitigate the global climate change. It commits the
member countries to reduce the emissions of six green house gases
from these countries by approximately 5 per cent below 1990 levels
within the Protocol's fIrst commitment period (2008-12). The three
key mechanisms of the Protocol include international emissions
trading between countries, joint implementation of emissions
reducing projects and the clean development mechanism (CDM).
The CDM has two purposes (a) to assist developing countries in
achieving sustainable development, thereby contributing to the
ultimate objective of the protocol and (b) to assist developed
countries in achieving compliance with part of their quantified
emission limitation and reduction commitments.
A decision was made in Marrakech Conference of Parties 7 (200 1),
to include the afforestation and reforestation as the only eligible
activities in the CDM. According to this, "Forest" is a minimum area
of land of 0.05-1.0 hectares with tree crown cover (or equivalent
stocking level) of more than 10-30 per cent with trees with the
potential to reach a minimum height of 2-5 metres at maturity in
situ). Afforestation and reforestation CDM includes establishment of
woodlots on communal lands, reforestation of marginal areas with
native species, e.g. riverine areas, steep slopes, around and between
existing forest fragments, (through planting and natural
regeneration), new large-scale industrial plantations, establishment
of biomass plantations for energy production and the substitution of
fossil fuels, small-scale plantations by land owners, introduction of
trees into existing agricultural systems (Agroforestry) and
rehabilitation of degraded areas through tree planting or assisted
natural regeneration.
Role ofbamboos in CDM
The giant grass bamboo which is a C4 plant has significant advantage
over other biomass resources due to its species diversity, vigorous
growth, early establishment, adaptability to various soil and climatic
conditions, short harvesting period, sustainability in yield and its
multifarious uses. Hence, it maybe regarded as the best among the
biomass resources. Bamboo plantations can playa significant role in
CDM as itcan fulfill all the criteria laid out for a CDM project and is
suitable for all the type of aforesaid land uses. In order to qualify for
consideration as CDM, any project activity should lead to real,
measurable and long term GHG mitigation. Moreover, it should
contribute to the social, economic, technological and environmental
well being.
Bamboo plantations are found to be suitable for any type of land uses
like clear felled forest lands, degraded lands, boundaries of
agricultural lands and non-agricultural lands and other common
property resources like coastal areas, road sides, canal banks, railway
lines etc. Bamboo being very fast in growth produces enormous
amount ofbiomass within a very short time. Commercially important
species usually mature in 4-5 years and thereafter harvesting is
possible every year. The possibility of annual selective harvesting
without damaging the total stock and environment makes it a unique
carbon sink compared to other woody crops.
Bamboo has several advantages over tree species in terms of
sustainability and carbon fixing capacity. In a compilation done by
(Clean Development Mechanism)
Evergreen I
INBAR from the available studies conclude that bamboo biomass
and carbon production may be 7-30% higher compared to the fast
growing wood species. For instance tropical Bambusa bambos has
been measured at a total above ground biomass 287 tC/ha with a
mean annual production of around 47.8 t/ha/yr, almost twice that of
the Eucalyptus clones. Interestingly, the total biomass of mature
Bambusa at 6 years is in fact higher than that of teak at 40 years: 149 t
C/ha versus only 126tC/ha for teak.
Green house gas mitigation
Since the emission of carbon into the ecosystem due to industrial and
teclmological advancement, man is one of the main causal factors of
the global warming, carbon sequestration plays an important role in
its mitigation. The 1997 Kyoto protocol recognizes that the drawing
of CO, from the air and sequestering into the biomass is the only
practical way for mitigation of this gas from the atmosphere. Trees
are proved to be the vital sinks for atmospheric carbon i.e. carbon
dioxide, since 50% of their standing biomass is carbon itself
(Ravindranath et al. 1997). Importance of forested areas in carbon
sequestration is already accepted, and well documented (FSI, 1988,
and Tiwari and Singh, 1987).
The carbon sequestration potential of bamboos in India is yet to be
unravelled. Thorny bamboo, Bambusa bambos can accumulate 122,
225 and 286 t ha-l dry matter at 4,6 and 8 years (Shamnughavel and
Francis, 1996) respectively, it is on par with the 10 year old fast
growing Causarina equisetifolia or Eucalyptus tereticornis
plantation (Mutanal et al. 2007). Similarly, the per hectare biomass
accumulation by the D. strictus at the three year old plantation is very
high compared to that of Tectona grandis, Greveillea robusta or
Acacia nilotica often year age (Singh et al. 2004). The above and
below ground biomass of bamboo is approximately in the ratio 3:1.
The unique growing capacity makes bamboo a valuable sink for
carbon storage. It is reported that the total carbon content comprises
usuallyabout 50% of the total biomass (Figure I ).
In the present scenario of climate change, bamboo plantations can
playa major role in 'carbon trading', which is also known as "cap and
trade": a method developed to reduce the carbon emissions which
contribute to global warming. This will allow the developed
countries to transfer the emission credits (Carbon credit) to other
countries that reduce their emission more than their national target
under Kyoto protocol. The CDM bamboo project execution itself
creates lot of employment to the rural people during the planting and
establishment period.
Even otherwise, the income generated during the selling of emission
credits can be invested in the social development of the rural people
which will improve their living status. Recently, The World Bank has
projected a 25 million US$ bond, linked to Certified Emissions
Reductions (CERs) to be generated by a Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) project in China.
Environmentally, bamboo plays a critical role in the balance of
oxygen and carbon-dioxide in the atmosphere, lowers light intensity
and protects against ultraviolet rays. It prevents soil erosion and
creates an effecti~/e watershed by binding soil along fragile
riverbanks, deforested areas and in places prone to land slides. It is an
important species for landscape as bamboo provides shade, and acts
as windbreak and acoustical barrier and has aesthetic beauty
(INBAR, 1997). Its immense potential as a bio-energy resource helps
in the retention of carbon already sequestered in the fossil fuels such
as coal, oil and gas and can save the vast natural forests.
Yet another criterion for a project to be considered under CDM is the
technological well being which indicate transfer of environmentally
safe and sound practices that are comparable to best practices in order
to assist in upgradation of the technological base. Divergent use of
bamboos as for gasification, production of bamboo charcoal and
activated charcoal, beers, vinegar, perfumes, medicines, boards,
plywood, strip boards, particleboards etc involve technologies which
are eco- friendly.
0B.bamboo D.stlictus G.aJliseffolia Eterfiicomis
G.robusta Anildica
Fig. Biomass production by different bamboo and tree species
; Evergreen
INBAR. 1997. International Network for Bamboo and Rattan News
Magazine 5(3), 56pp.
Mutanal, S. M., Patil, S.J. and Shahapurmath, G. 2007. Investigation
on the productivity of multipurpose tree species in degraded
waste lands. KarnatakaJournal ofAgric. Sci. 20: 804-806.
Ravindranath, N. H., Somashekhar, B.S and Gadgil, M. 1997. Carbon
flow iDIndian forests, Climate change 35: 297-320.
Saralabai, V.C. Vivekanandan, M. and Babu S. 1997. Plantresponses
to high CO, concentration in the atmosphere.
Photosynthetictl33 :7 -35.
Shanmughavel, P. and Francis, K. 1996: Biomass and nutrient cycling
in bamboo (Bambusa bambos) plantations of tropical areas.
Biology and Fertility of Soils 23(4): 431-434
Singh, P., Dubey, P. and Jha, K. K. 2004. Biomass production and
carbon storage at harvest age in Dendrocalamus strictus
plantation in dry deciduous forest region of India. In: VII
World bamboo congress, 27 February to 4 March, New
Delhi, India 122 pp.
Thammincha, S. 1996. Bamboo shoot industry and development
(Eds. Rao, I. V.R., Sastry, C. B. ) Bamboo, People and the
Environment, Vo14. Socio-Economic and Culture.
Proceedings of the Vth International Bamboo Congress,
Bali, Indonesia 19-22 June 1995. International Network
for Bamboo and Rattan New Delhi, India, 33-39.
Tiwari, A, K, and Singh J. S. 1987. Analysis ofForest Land use and
vegetation in a part of Central Himalaya, using aerial
photographs. Environment and Conservation 14: 233-244.
Jijeesh, C. M. and Seethalakshmi, K. K.
Plant Physiology Department, SFM Division
Even though, the bamboos with their vigorous growth and
sustainable yield have the potential to replace the wood in
sequestering carbon, hardly any attempts have been made to
investigate that potential.
Bamboo plantations can be well fitted into the CDM criteria.
Afforestation and reforestation has been included in the land use
practice that comes under the acceptable activities in the CDM. In
order to qualify as the CDM practice an afforestation/reforestation
project should mitigate the green house gas emission and contribute
to social, ecot)omic,.eavironmental and technological well being of
man. It has the unique vigorous growing capacity, annual and
sustained yield and a short harvesting period which h~lps to
sequester huge amount of atmospheric CO2, one of the causal factors
of global warming. On an economic perspective, bamboo is capable
for generating employment for rural poor, skilled and semi-skilled in
plantation and in semi industrial and industrial activities. Bamboo
and it~ provide income, food and housing to over
2.5 billion people in the developing regions.
About 1500 documented traditional uses are recorded for bamboo
which can be grouped into household, industry, weapons,
transportation, fisheries, food, agriculture and construction
(INBAR, 1997). The employment potential of bamboo is very high
and the major work force involved are rural poor especially women.
Adkoli, N. S. 1994. Bamboo in the Indian pulp Industry. In: Bamboo
in Asia and the Pacific; Proceedings of the 4th International
B~mboo Workshop Ghiang Mai. Thailand 27-30 November,
1991, Intematiol\al Development Research Centre, Ottawa,
Canada, Forestty Research support Programme for Asia and
the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 250-254.
FSI, (1988). The State of Forest Report 1987, Ministry of
Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.
Soil is defined as a naturally occurring, unconsolidated material on the earth's surface that is capable of supporting plant growth. Soil properties
and horizon development vary from place to place depending on climate, organisms, topographic position, parent material and time. Different
Soil profile from the evergreen forests
Located at an elevation of 600 m
Forest Division is protected from
agents by the thick vegetation.
organic residues and the soil cc
above the parent rock (Fig. la, b).
Soil profile Evergreen forests
in the Sholayar range, Vazhachal
the intense actions of weathering
Surface layer is enriched with
.lumn extends only up to 56 cm
... Using a selective harvest approach, Moso bamboo can be harvested every two years [34], and bamboo in some village landscapes can be felled yearly [35]. Bamboo can be a unique carbon storage resource that exceeds many other woody crops as long as annual selective harvesting does not damage total carbon sequestration and the ecosystem [36]. ...
... Also, intensive harvesting can induce significant soil disturbance, increasing greenhouse gas emissions and hence lowering long-term net carbon sinks [43,76]. Annual selective harvesting is an effective and unique method to store additional carbon (harvested bamboo products) without affecting the total carbon sink in a bamboo forest ecosystem [36]. Taking Moso bamboo as an example, biennial selective harvesting can contribute to a higher level of carbon sequestration than observed for other fast-growing species [39]. ...
... For instance, the Moso bamboo forest can sequester around 22% more carbon than the fastgrowing Chinese fir forest per 60-year cycle [11]. In addition to carbon sequestration and its potential for carbon offset projects, bamboo forests also play an essential role in rural poverty alleviation and diverse ecosystem functions, including soil erosion prevention and maintaining the atmospheric oxygen-carbon balance [36]. However, there are limitations to including bamboo in REDD projects, as the core management strategy of selectively cutting bamboo forests is considered unsustainable for REDD projects [82]. ...
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Bamboo, a rapidly growing woody grass prevalent in pan-tropical zones, holds promising potential as a nature-based solution (NbS) for climate change mitigation. In this systematic review of 91 research articles, we critically assess the scope and constraints of bamboo’s role in mitigating climate change across three dimensions: as a carbon sink in biomass form, as carbon storage in bamboo products, and as a contributor to carbon project credits. Our analysis reveals that existing studies disproportionately focus on 36 limited species, such as Phyllostachys pubescens and Bambusa vulgaris, with geographic concentration in Asia (91%) and limited studies from Africa (7%) and South America (1%). While many studies emphasize the carbon-saving benefits of bamboo products compared with traditional goods, there is a noticeable gap in comprehensive evaluations of carbon pools from individual bamboo forests encompassing all product varieties. While bamboo forests offer significant carbon trading potential, their global role is restricted by the absence of internationally accepted methodologies and the presence of debates about classifying bamboo as a tree species. This extensive review highlights the multifaceted value of bamboo in climate change mitigation, thereby highlighting its significance as a critical component for informed policymaking and the development of sustainable practices in future climate strategies worldwide.
... Besides, they are also sustainable in yield, cheap and have supported livelihood through ages. These factors make bamboos a reliable resource for meeting the needs of increasing population, markets and development (Honfo et al. 2015;Cm & Seethalakshmi 2009). Bamboos are also a versatile group, known to survive in a wide range of climatic and edaphic conditions (Tewari et al. 2015). ...
... In addition, they also serve as effective windbreaks against soil erosion (INBAR 2018, Song et al. 2011. The Government of Ghana successfully implemented the use of bamboo for closing the gap of vegetation cover (FAO & INBAR 2018); After the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the bamboo shoots were the sighted plants (Lobovikov et al. 2007); a study by Cm and Seethalakshmi (2009) reports that the amount of biomass from Bambusa bamboos is almost twice as that of the widely planted Eucalyptus. ...
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Background: Bamboos are group of plants of wide ranging cultural and economic values to local communities. The present study was carried out to understand the importance of bamboos for the Mao-Naga community of Manipur, India, and the associated Traditional Knowledge. Methods: Ten artisans (two females and eight males) were selected purposively for the study. Open-ended interviews conducted in person, and telephonic interviews were used to collect data. Prior Informed Consent (PIC) was taken from the knowledge partners prior to the interview. Voucher specimens have been deposited in Central National Herbarium (CAL), India. Results: Our study records the uses and associated traditional knowledge on six bamboo species. The Mao-Naga are capable of distinguishing species from their taste, texture and physical appearance. Except Bambusa pallida, all other species are consumed. In addition, the Mao-Naga also consume bamboo borers (Omphisa fuscidentalis) infesting bamboos. Bamboos are used in traditional soil conservation techniques. Bamboos also play an important role in the community’s calendric system, as seasonal indicators. Conclusions: The traditional knowledge recorded in this study would be of help to the community in planning bamboo harvesting, mitigating soil erosion, soil conservation and maintain agricultural productivity. We recommend that value addition in bamboo crafts, bamboo shoots and bamboo borers should be promoted for enhancing livelihood security
... Flowering of majority of the bamboo species occurs during August to December (Venkatesh 1984;Banik 1998;Jijeesh et al., 2009) and flowering of O. wightii also followed this season. Dichogamy is observed in most of the bamboo species and protogyny is common. ...
... Dichogamy is observed in most of the bamboo species and protogyny is common. Opening of florets, time of stigma receptivity, type of pollination etc. agrees with the earlier reports from other bamboo species such as Melocanna baccifera, Ochlandra travancorica, Bambusa vulgaris, B. bambos, D. strictus etc (Venkatesh 1984;Banik 1998;Nadguada et al., 1993;Jijeesh et al., 2009.). However some erratic nature was observed in the anthersis and pollen dehiscence in some of the flowers of the species. ...
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The carbon sequestration potential and litter dynamics of four priority bamboo species viz. Bambusa balcooa Roxb, B. bambos Voss, Ochlandra travancorica Benth and Thyrsostachys oliveri Gamble was studied in Thrissur and Palakkad districts of Kerala during 2010-2012. The bamboo clump and culm growth was recorded annually. Biomass production was estimated by destructive sampling of the six and seven year old clumps. Litterfall of the four bamboo species were quantified using litter traps and litter decomposition was studied by adopting standard litterbag techniques. The results of the study indicated that the average culm production of B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri at the age of seven years was 7799, 7000, 29945 and 3725 culms ha-1 respectively. The frequency distribution of bamboo culms within a clump in different girth classes varied with species. The biomass production of bamboo clumps increased with age. The average biomass accumulation in six year old B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri clumps was to the tune of 116.079, 31.660, 12.145 and 99.067 kg and that of seven year old clumps was 159.935, 51.334, 17.731 and 111.286 kg, respectively. Among the clump components like culm, branch, leaf, rhizome and root, culms contributed major share of biomass accumulated in a clump. Annual productivity of B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri between sixth and seventh years was 18.57, 7.07, 0.89, and 5.92 Mg ha-1 year-1 , respectively. Linear and exponential allometric models used to predict above ground biomass (culm, branch, leaf and total) using height and girth at breast height was found to be significant and the log: log allometric equations were the best fit in most of the cases. Carbon concentration of the clump components varied significantly irrespective of species and the average carbon concentration in the components was 40.53 per cent. Above ground biomass components recorded a higher carbon concentration than below ground in all the bamboo species. Carbon sequestration of B. balcooa at the age of six and seven years was to the tune of 22.34±6.87 and 30.66±10.01 Mg ha-1 and that of B. bambos was 7.19±0.53 and 10.33±2.58 Mg ha-1 respectively. Meanwhile, carbon sequestration of O. travancorica at the age of six and seven years was 2.690±0.14 and 3.02±0.23 Mg ha-1 and that of T. oliveri was 18.66±2.19 and 21.14±6.15 Mg ha-1, respectively. Soil also played an important role in carbon sequestration. Soil carbon content and density declined with increasing depth. Total carbon density of soil under B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri at the age of seven was 56.95±4.34, 62.86±6.26, 46.28±4.31 and 54.02±3.17 Mg ha-1, respectively. Monthly litter production of four bamboo species varied at different ages. Annual Litter production at the age of six years was to the tune of 4.064, 3.340, 1.846 and 4.488 Mg ha -1 year-1 in B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri, respectively. Litter production increased with age and the litter production at the age of seven years in B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri was 5.087, 3.909, 2.227 and 5.522 Mg ha-1 year-1, respectively. A biphasic pattern of litter decomposition, comprising an initial rapid phase followed by a slower phase was observed in all bamboo species. Mass loss rate in different bamboo species exhibited a good fit to exponential decay model. Decomposition rate of litter mass in different bamboo species was in the order O. travancorica > B. balcooa > B. bambos > T. oliveri. Concentration (per cent) of nutrients in the litter mass retrieved at monthly intervals varied in four species and the nutrient content in general was lower towards the end of decomposition. Concentration of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the residual litter mass was highly variable at monthly intervals. Nutrient (%) remaining in the litter calculated from nutrient concentration and litter mass remaining declined with time in the case of all the nutrients in general with some accumulation phases. The nutrient release from the decomposing litter mass of bamboo species was in the order Mg> N> Ca> P> K. Results of the study indicated the greater carbon sequestration potential of bamboos compared to some tree species and possible huge Certified Emission Reduction generation. Litter dynamics studies suggest that B. balcooa, B. bambos, O. travancorica and T. oliveri have tremendous potential in regulating soil nutrient pool through litter decay and nutrient release and therefore can help in soil nutrient restoration and there by ecosystem reconstruction. Nowadays, cultivation of bamboo in non-forest areas is in focus to enhance the resource base to meet the raw material requirements of large and small scale industries. The four species studied are included in the list of priority species by National Mission on Bamboo Applications. Planters also have shown great interest in these species. Hence, results of the study will be useful as it will throw light on performance of these four species in non-forest areas under Kerala conditions.
... These factors make bamboo a reliable resource for meeting the needs of an increasing population, market, and development. [23][24] Thus, it has been so intricately related to the livelihood of Asia people, representing the bamboo civilization on the continent. 25 These grasses are found throughout Africa, Latin America, and Asia, but their origins can be traced back to Southeast Asia. ...
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Plants are considered a great source of various herbal medicines in the treatment of certain diseases and ailments. There is a growing interest in the utilization of indigenous medicinal plants as the source for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) due to the significant contribution of plant-based materials to the pharmaceutical field. Bambusoideae is a large grass family of Poaceae, comprising approximately 119 genera and 1482 described species. About 70% of the bamboo forests are covered throughout Asia. This study aims to provide an informative review of the ethnobotanical significance and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants belonging to the Bambusoideae. This review comprises informative data on medicinal plants, their uses, and parts used by indigenous people and native communities in Asian regions. In line with this review, bamboo has made significant contributions to the ethnobotanical field, specifically as therapeutics for specific diseases. Ethnobotanical data has also made a successful contribution to the CAM. Therefore, the present review on ethnobotany and traditional knowledge of bamboo is expected to have many benefits and could be a good starting point for future work in the pharmaceutical field, both locally and internationally.
... Bamboo plantations can play major role in carbon sequestration (Seethalakshmi et al., 2009) and Afforestation/Reforestation CDM (Jijeesh and Seethalakshmi, 2009). Bamboos have extensive underground rhizome and root systems which can live even up to 100 years ( ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Global warming and associated climate change is one of the greatest challenges of this millennium. Emission of carbon into the ecosystem due to industrial and technological advancement is one of the strongest causal factors of the global warming. Three common options viz., mitigative, adaptive and indirect are adopted to control it. One of the major mitigation measures is the carbon dioxide sequestration. With global climate change, aspects such as carbon sequestration and biomass production potential of bamboo have been receiving increasing attention. Bamboos, also known as 'poor man's timber' or 'Green Gold' belonging to the family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae, can play a major role in carbon sequestration due to vigorous growth and addition of biomass annually both above and below ground. Bamboos which can act as great carbon sink have significant advantage over other biomass resources due to species diversity, vigorous growth, early establishment, adaptability to various soil and climatic conditions, short harvesting period, sustainability in yield and multifarious uses. Hence, bamboos may be regarded as the best among the biomass resources. The growth pattern in bamboos is known to be exponential i.e., each year a fresh set of vegetative shoots originate from the base of the clump soon after monsoon showers. India is one of the major bamboo producing countries in Asia, (almost 11.4 million hectares) which accounts for roughly half the total area of bamboo in Asia. Bamboo occurs in almost all the states of India, from the tropical to the temperate regions and the alluvial plains to the high mountains. Bamboo has been successfully integrated in various Agroforestry systems, monocropping and in restoration of marginal lands. Bamboo has several advantages over tree species in terms of sustainability and carbon fixing capacity. International network on Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) reports that bamboo biomass and carbon production may be seven to 30 per cent higher compared to the fast growing wood species. However, only limited studies have been carried out at International and national level on biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of bamboo species. Studies on carbon sequestration potential of many Indian bamboo species are still lacking. Perusal of literature indicates that most of the studies on biomass production are limited to above ground biomass and the methodology adopted to calculate the biomass are assumptions and regression. The present paper depicts an over
A field experiment was conducted to assess the performance of multipurpose tree species suitable for agroforestry system in degraded gravelly soils at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad during the year 1990. Ten multipurpose tree species viz.,Casuarina equisetifolia, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Grevillea robusta, Tectona grandis, Dalbergia sissoo, Anogeissus latifolia, Albiza labbek, Hardwickia binata, Azadirachta indica and Acacia nilotica were planted at 2 x 2m spacing (except C. equisetifolia at 1x1m) with three replications in randomized block design. At the end of tenth year height was significantly higher in C.equisetifolia and was followed by E.tereticornis as compared to rest of tree species tried. Diameter of breast height was higher in E.tereticornis as compared to other tree species. Biomas was significantly higher in C.equisetifolia (109.18 kg/tree) followed by E.tereticornis (108.5 kg/tree). Lowest was observed in A.indica (7.54 kg/tree) and was followed by D.sissoo (12.69 kg/tree).
Biomass productivity and nutrient cycling in a Bambusa bambos plantation aged 4, 5, and 6 years were studied. The dry matter production of above-ground biomass increased progressively with age. Nutrient quantities in bamboo stands were in a range of 1–2 t ha-1 for N and K, 0.5–1 t ha-1 for Ca and Mg, and 0.1–0.2 t ha-1 for P. Nutrient concentrations increased with the age of the plantation. About 10% year-1 the nutrients present in the biomass of the bamboo stand are recycled to the soil by litter fall.
The State of Forest Report
FSI, (1988). The State of Forest Report 1987, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India.
Bamboo in the Indian pulp Industry In: Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific; Proceedings of the 4th International B~mboo Workshop Ghiang Mai
  • N S Adkoli
Adkoli, N. S. 1994. Bamboo in the Indian pulp Industry. In: Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific; Proceedings of the 4th International B~mboo Workshop Ghiang Mai. Thailand 27-30 November, 1991, Intematiol\al Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, Forestty Research support Programme for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 250-254.
Bamboo in the Indian pulp Industry
  • N S Adkoli
Adkoli, N. S. 1994. Bamboo in the Indian pulp Industry. In: Bamboo in Asia and the Pacific; Proceedings of the 4th International B~mboo Workshop Ghiang Mai. Thailand 27-30 November, 1991, Intematiol\al Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, Forestty Research support Programme for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 250-254.