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CmapTools: A Knowledge Modeling and Sharing Environment

  • Max Jammer Research Group

Abstract and Figures

Concept maps are an effective way of representing a person's understanding of a domain of knowledge. Technology can further help by making it easy to construct and modify that representation, to manage large representations for complex domains, and to allow groups of people to share in the construction of the concept maps. CmapTools is a software environment developed at the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) that empowers users, individually or collaboratively, to represent their knowledge using concept maps, to share them with peers and colleagues, and to publish them. It is available for free for educational and not-for-profit organizations, and public servers have been established to promote the sharing of knowledge. The client-server architecture of CmapTools allows easy publishing of the knowledge models in concept map servers (CmapServers), and enables concept maps to be linked to related concept maps and to other types of media (e.g., images, videos, web pages, etc.) in other servers. The collaboration features enable remote users to asynchronously and/or synchronously collaborate in the construction of concept maps, and promote comments, criticism, and peer review. Public CmapServers have resulted in a large collection of knowledge models publicly available, constructed by users of all ages in a variety of domains of knowledge and from a large number of countries.
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Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology
Proc. of the First Int. Conference on Concept Mapping
A. J. Cañas, J. D. Novak, F. M. González, Eds.
Pamplona, Spain 2004
Alberto J. Cañas, Greg Hill, Roger Carff, Niranjan Suri, James Lott, Gloria Gómez,
Thomas C. Eskridge, Mario Arroyo, Rodrigo Carvajal
Institute for Human & Machine Cognition, USA
Concept maps are an effective way of representing a person’s understanding of a domain of knowledge. Technology can further
help by making it easy to construct and modify that representation, to manage large representations for complex domains, and to allow
groups of people to share in the construction of the concept maps. CmapTools is a software environment developed at the Institute for
Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) that empowers users, individually or collaboratively, to represent their knowledge using concept
maps, to share them with peers and colleagues, and to publish them. It is available for free for educational and not-for-profit organizations,
and public servers have been established to promote the sharing of knowledge. The client-server architecture of CmapTools allows easy
publishing of the knowledge models in concept map servers (CmapServers), and enables concept maps to be linked to related concept maps
and to other types of media (e.g., images, videos, web pages, etc.) in other servers. The collaboration features enable remote users to
asynchronously and/or synchronously collaborate in the construction of concept maps, and promote comments, criticism, and peer review.
Public CmapServers have resulted in a large collection of knowledge models publicly available, constructed by users of all ages in a variety
of domains of knowledge and from a large number of countries.
1 Introduction
Concept maps are a result of Novak and Gowin’s (1984) research into human learning and knowledge
construction. Novak (1977) proposed that the primary elements of knowledge are concepts and relationships
between concepts are propositions. Novak (1998) defined concepts as “perceived regularities in events or
objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label.” Propositions consist of two or more concept
labels connected by a linking relationship that forms a semantic unit. Concept maps are a graphical two-
Figure 1. Concept Map about CmapTools (from
dimensional display of concepts (usually represented within boxes or circles), connected by directed arcs
encoding brief relationships (linking phrases) between pairs of concepts forming propositions. The simplest
concept map consists of two nodes connected by an arc representing a simple sentence such as ‘grass is green,’
but they can also become quite intricate. Figure 1 shows a concept map about the CmapTools software. ‘IHMC
CmapTools facilitates the manipulation of Concept Maps’ is one of the propositions in this map. By convention,
links run top-down unless annotated with an arrowhead. The vertical axis expresses a hierarchical framework
for the concepts. More general, inclusive concepts are found at the highest levels, with progressively more
specific, less inclusive concepts arranged below them.
Concept maps have been demonstrated to be an effective means of representing and communicating
knowledge. When concepts and linking words are carefully chosen, these maps can be useful classroom tools
for observing nuances of meaning, helping students organize their thinking, and summarizing subjects of study.
From an educational perspective, a growing body of research indicates that the use of concept maps can
facilitate meaningful learning (Coffey, Carnot et al., 2003).
Concept maps have also been shown to be of value
as a knowledge acquisition tool during the construction of expert systems (Ford, Coffey, Cañas, Andrews, &
Turner, 1996) and performance support systems (Coffey, Cañas et al., 2003), and as a means of capturing and
sharing experts’ knowledge (Coffey, Hoffman, Cañas, & Ford, 2002).
Technology facilitates the construction of concept maps in the same way that a word processor supports the
task of writing text. However, more powerful tools enable better management of large representations for
complex domains, and facilitate sharing by groups of people in the construction of the maps. This paper
describes CmapTools, a client-server based software kit developed at the Institute for Human and Machine
Cognition (IHMC) that is designed to support the construction of concept maps by users of all ages, and to
enable collaboration and sharing during that process. We begin by providing background information on
CmapTools, proceed to list the objectives that led the design of the software, and then describe the software by
expanding on these objectives.
2 Background
At IHMC, research efforts on concept mapping have two separate and distinct roots. The first has its origins in
the use of concept mapping for knowledge elicitation. ICONKAT (Ford, Cañas, Jones et al., 1991), a toolkit for
knowledge acquisition and the development of expert systems, had a concept mapping component. During the
development of the nuclear cardiology expert system NUCES (Ford, Cañas, Andrews et al., 1991; Ford et al.,
1996), the use of concept maps was extended beyond knowledge representation, to serve as the browsing
interface to a domain of knowledge. NUCES used a concept map-based browser as the interface for the
explanation subsystem of the expert system, as reported by Ford, Cañas, and Coffey (1993). This concept map-
based interface provided a unique way of organizing and browsing knowledge about any domain (Cañas, Ford,
& Coffey, 1994). Icons located right below some of the concept nodes provided access to auxiliary information
to explain the concept in the form of pictures, images, audio-video clips, text, or other concept maps related to
the topic. (The web had not yet been developed when this concept map-based browser was implemented.)
The second root has its origins in Quorum, a joint partnership between IHMC and IBM Latin America
(Cañas, Ford, Hill et al., 1995). In Quorum, IBM’s corporate computer network enabled collaborative projects
between students throughout Latin American countries. (The Internet had not yet arrived to these countries
when the Quorum network was implemented.) During Quorum we confronted a lack of software with a
constructivist foundation needed to facilitate collaboration among students. We developed the Knowledge Soup
(Cañas, Ford, Brennan, Reichherzer, & Hayes, 1995), which provided a unique type of collaboration among a
group of users, usually students, each constructing a concept map on the same topic. The program automatically
converted the concept map under construction to a list of propositions. The users selectively published
propositions (we called these published propositions claims) to an aggregation or database of propositions from
all students (and teachers) working on a particular topic –the Knowledge Soup— which resided on a server. It is
through these Knowledge Soups that collaboration and sharing took place. Published claims were seen by other
students and could be utilized in their own map-building process, but a student couldn’t see all claims published
by other students, as this would often be cognitively unmanageable. The only claims a student saw were those
directly related to the ones he/she contributed to the Soup. As a student published more, a wider range of other
related claims became visible. This strategy was intended to encourage and reward students for participation. A
student could query or question a claim submitted by another student, if he/she disagreed with it or found it
puzzling, and the originator of the claim could respond.
The lessons learned from these two efforts, together with the potential impact we envisioned a powerful
software tool for the construction and sharing of concept maps could have in education and organizations, led to
the development of the CmapTools software.
3 Objectives of CmapTools
CmapTools was developed with key objectives in mind:
1. Low Threshold, High Ceiling
Myers, Hudson, and Pausch (2000) referred to the “threshold” as how difficult it is to learn how to use
a system, and the “ceiling” as how much can be done using that system. Most systems have either a
low threshold and a low ceiling, or a high threshold and a high ceiling. Our aim was to combine a low
threshold (a system that can be learned in a few minutes and does not have an intimidating interface
e.g., filled with icons surrounding the canvas, so that the user is able to concentrate on concept
mapping), together with a high ceiling (an environment that supports the construction of large sets of
concept maps by experts).
2. Extensive Support for the Construction of Knowledge Models
Concept maps enable users to graphically express their understanding of a domain of knowledge. This
representation can consist of a small concept map constructed by a child, or, in the case of a detailed
representation of a domain, a large collection of related maps. In CmapTools, we refer to a set of
concept maps and associated resources about a particular domain as a knowledge model (Cañas, Hill,
& Lott, 2003). Our objective was to provide an environment that supports the development of
knowledge models of all sizes, without limitations on where the resources and maps physically reside.
3. Extensive Support for Collaboration and Sharing
The WWW was conceived by Tim Berners-Lee to be a global system to assist collaboration through
hypertext (Berners-Lee & Fischetti, 2000). Unfortunately, it has turned out to be an environment where
it is easy to browse (although not necessarily easy to find what one is looking for), hard to publish, and
much more difficult to collaborate. Berners-Lee envisioned a system that would facilitate collaboration
among scientists. We share this vision and believe that the best use of the Internet in education is to
enable and foster collaboration among students. However, there continues to be a lack of constructivist-
based collaborative learning environments. Similarly, scientists and other professionals have few tools
with which to share their knowledge and inquiries. Our goal was to develop an environment where
users of all ages and from all domains can collaborate and share in their knowledge construction
4. Modular architecture
CmapTools was designed based on a modular architecture, in which components can be added or
removed as needed from a Core module. This facilitates the development and evaluation of modules in
a research environment without affecting other parts of the program. It also allows different ideas to be
tested concurrently and independently, as well different versions of the program to be tailored to the
needs of different users. On the server side, the various components are services that can be added or
removed from the program, or started and stopped, as needed.
In the next sections we expand on the first three objectives listed above to describe CmapTools. Discussing
the fourth objective is more technical and beyond the scope of this paper.
4 Low Threshold, High Ceiling
The user interface of CmapTools was designed to be nonintrusive, allowing the user to concentrate on the task
of constructing the concept map without distractions. Figure 1 shows the canvas window on which the user
builds (and browses) concept maps. The interface is model-less (e.g., there is no “concept” mode or “link”
mode), and the map components (concepts, linking phrases, connecting lines) can be put together by direct
clicks of the mouse on the canvas. This allows the user to concentrate on building the map as opposed to moving
the mouse around to select boxes, lines, and so forth, as in drawing programs. Note the lack of intimidating
collections of “icons” – we aim to provide a clean, simple interface. Style options (e.g., fonts, colors, curved
lines, etc.) are provided via a style palette that can be hidden at any time. Constructing a simple map is
straightforward, and new users are up and “mapping” after just a few minutes. At the other end, the style palette
allows the creation of graphically more sophisticated maps, as is demonstrated by the concept maps that form
the websites for both CmapTools itself (, e.g., Figure 1) and the CMC2004 conference
( At these websites images and colors are combined to provide visually more appealing
designs while preserving the strong communication characteristics of concept maps.
The user interface and functionality of CmapTools was designed to be simple enough to be appropriate for
children and naïve users without much technical expertise, but powerful enough to support the advanced needs
of expert knowledge engineering users. As a result, thousands of users from over 150 countries are using it to
construct knowledge models based on concept maps. They range from preschoolers in Italy (e.g., Giombini,
2004), to professionals in a variety of organizations who have applied CmapTools to a broad range of
applications (Beirute & Barahona, 2004; Dumestre, 2004; Moon, 2004; Peacock, Schaffer, & Zelik, 2004).
5 Construction of Knowledge Models
CmapTools has a number of features intended to support the development and publication of collections of
interlinked concept maps and associated resources. The program supports both the constructing and browsing
aspects of publishing and navigating: At the same time it is the editor and the browser. Alan Kay, recipient of
the 2004 Turing Award, “decries what he sees as a fundamental failing of the web—it is primarily an
environment for displaying information, not for authoring it. ‘You can read a document in Microsoft Word, and
write a document in Microsoft Word. But the people who did web browsers I think were too lazy to do the
authoring part.’” (Kirkpatrick, 2004) Tim Berners-Lee (2004) considered that “There are many parts of the
original dream which are not yet implemented. For example, very few people have an easy, intuitive tool for
putting their thoughts into hypertext.” Although it could be argued that most people are more interested in
searching for information than in creating it, this distinction has a potentially huge impact in the educational
arena, where there is a gigantic difference pedagogically between students as knowledge constructors and
students as information (web) consumers.
To show the relationships among concept maps in a set, CmapTools facilitates the linking of concept maps
through simple drag-and-drop operations, enabling the navigation from one map to another. Additionally, the
user can establish links to all types of resources (e.g., images, videos, sound clips, texts) that are related and
complement the information in the map, and can reside anywhere on Internet. The links are depicted as icons
underneath the concepts (or linking phrases). The icon itself portrays the type of resource targeted by the link,
and labels are displayed explaining each link when the icon is clicked. Figure 2 shows several opened windows,
the result of navigating through a knowledge model that includes possible landing site craters on Mars (Briggs et
al., 2004). The “Mars (Root)” concept map is the top-level map, the entry point to this knowledge model. Some
concepts in the “Mars” map have small icons underneath them. After clicking on the “concept map” icon
underneath the “Space Missions since 1965” concept, from the list of concept maps displayed the user can select
and open, for example, a “Space Missions” concept map (not displayed in Figure 2). The “Gusev Crater” map
window in the figure was opened after navigating through several maps, starting at the concept “Space
Exploration” (not shown) in the root map. The other images displayed were opened by similar navigation
through the icons in the maps. Briggs et al. (2004) provided a detailed account of the construction of a large
knowledge model that includes over 100 concept maps and over 600 MBs of resources. Using concept maps as a
browser for navigation through a large domain has been found to be particularly effective, as discussed by
Carnot et al. (2001).
CmapTools provides a rich collection of additional features that aid users in the manipulation of knowledge
models. The Views window (see Figure 3) allows the user to create a hierarchy of folders in the user’s computer
or at a server to organize concept maps, images, videos, or URLs, all resources associated with a project.
Through drag-and-drop operations, resources and knowledge models can be moved around or copied to servers
(as explained in the next section), while links are preserved or updated. Among other features we cite: importing
and/or exporting as images, web pages, outline, Topic Map format, XML, and so forth; recording for playback
the steps in constructing a map; a full-screen presentation module; and a concept suggester that mines the web
for relevant concepts (Cañas, Carvalho et al., 2004).
6 Collaboration and Sharing
The CmapTools program works well as a stand-alone tool, allowing the user to construct concept map-based
knowledge models and store them on his or her computer’s hard drive, establish links among maps and to
resources in the hard drive, and print the maps. However, the ease with which knowledge models can be shared,
and collaboration can be established through shared Places, is what makes CmapTools unique. Physically, a
Place is a server computer running the CmapServer software. From the user’s perspective, a Place is a shared
location, accessible through the Internet or an Intranet, where he/she can construct knowledge models
collaboratively with colleagues or peers, where these knowledge models can be shared with others, and where
he/she can access, browse, and comment on others’ knowledge models.
The purpose of the CmapTools network is not limited to allowing users to share in the construction of their
knowledge models. The network is designed to encourage and facilitate public sharing of knowledge. To
achieve this, two key features were included in its design:
a) The CmapTools program must be able to automatically locate new Places that are installed in the
network, so that new knowledge models are available to all users, and
b) Public Places must be available on the network so that anybody can publish and share their knowledge
models, even if they are not associated with an organization that has a CmapServer.
To automatically locate new Places, every time the CmapTools program is launched it automatically
contacts a Directory of Places: a special-purpose server with which Places register periodically (Cañas, Hill,
Granados, Pérez, & Pérez, 2003). Figure 4 shows four Places (Public Cmaps, KM Cmaps, Science Cmaps, and
History Cmaps) that periodically register with the Directory of Places, letting it know their network location and
what services they can provide. It also shows a CmapTools user whose program has contacted the Directory of
Places and thereby located the Places available. The CmapTools program continues contacting the Directory of
Places periodically, making sure it is aware of any new Places that are made available. The window on the left
of Figure 3 shows the list of Places available to a user at a particular point in time. Some of these Places appear
Figure 2. A knowledge model proposing the Gusev Crater as a possible landing site in Mars
grayed out, either because they may be behind a firewall or because CmapTools is aware that they were recently
registered, but for some reason are not reachable at this moment. As new Places are installed on the network, the
CmapTools program discovers them automatically and adds them to this list.
The Public Places are computers running the CmapServer program, configured in such a way that any user
on the Internet can create his/her own folder, construct concept maps in it, copy knowledge models from his/her
computer to it, and share that knowledge with others. Certain permissions are set on these Public Places such
that any user on the Internet, without any prior authorization, is able to create a new folder. The permissions also
make the user the Administrator of the folder and any subfolders that he/she creates under it. The user
determines who has permission to read, modify, or annotate the resources in the folder (Cañas, Hill, Lott, &
Suri, 2003). For example, the annotate permission allows a user to add comments (annotations or post-it notes)
or discussion threads to concept maps in those folders, without having permission to modify or delete the maps.
This way, a user can publish his/her concept maps and set permissions such that others can comment on them
and provide feedback, without being able to modify the maps. This Public Places network, together with the
permissions scheme, is particularly suited for peer review and collaborative projects where users, whether
students or scientists, can easily share and collaborate in the construction of their knowledge models.
Collaboration through shared folders, annotations, and discussion threads is asynchronous: Users don’t need
to be working on the maps at the same time. CmapTools also supports synchronous collaboration: If two or
more users located anywhere on the Internet attempt to edit the same concept map located at a Place, the system
confirms with the users that they want to collaborate and begins a synchronous collaboration session. During
this session, users can simultaneously modify the map, and changes are reflected on the screens of all
participating users. Each modification made on the map is identified on the screen by the userID of the user
performing it, and a chat window is available for text communication among participating users. Also
asynchronously, users can collaborate at the ‘knowledge level’ through the Knowledge Soups described earlier
in this paper.
Figure 3. The Views window (left) showing available Places, and a partial view of the IT IS Divini Public Place
in Italy (right).
The window on the left in Figure 3 has the Place “IT IS Divini – Public Cmaps – Italy” selected. Teachers
and students of all ages from schools throughout Italy and from other countries take advantage of the public
availability of this server to collaborate and share in their knowledge model construction. The window on the
right shows a partial view of the folders available at the root level of that Place. The list of Places in the Figure
also includes Public locations in Spain, Brazil, and Colombia. Thousands of users are sharing their knowledge
models in these Public Places. As of June 2004, approximately 20,000 concept maps were being shared on these
servers. Of course, additional maps are stored in the users’ personal computers and Places that are not public.
The growing number of Places and the increasing number of concept maps and resources stored in them
makes it impossible to “browse” through the folders for maps and information of interest. Each CmapServer
keeps an index of the content of all concept maps and resources stored in it (and of web pages linked to by the
concept maps), which makes searching through the Places easy and fast. In addition, all of these indexes are
copied to an IndexServer, making searching through all servers just as easy. Users can also refine the search by
indicating where to search, and what type of resources to search for.
CmapTools also offers the capability of searching the web for information that is relevant to a concept map.
Users can select a concept within a map, and ask the system to search through the web for information relevant
to the concept within the context of the map. The program takes advantage of the structure and semantics of
concept maps to construct a query, send it to Google, rank the results, and present them to the user. (For more
details, see Carvalho, Hewett, & Cañas, 2001; Leake et al., 2004).
The web is the best medium to offer information to the largest possible number of users. The objective of
making knowledge models publicly available would be incomplete if the concept maps were not accessible on
the Internet using a web browser. CmapTools facilitates publishing through the web by automatically converting
concept maps saved on Places to HTML (web pages) that can be browsed immediately using an Internet web
browser (e.g., Internet Explorer, Safari, Netscape). The concept map in Figure 1 has a URL at the bottom of the
window that is the HTML version of the map’s web address. The CmapServer includes a web server that
delivers HTML versions of the concept maps it stores, and as such can support concept map-based websites.
The concept maps in the CmapTools and CMC2004 websites (, are all
stored in CmapServers. Alternatively, the user can explicitly export a concept map or a knowledge model as
web pages that can then be uploaded to a website for publication (Cañas, Carvajal, Carff, & Hill, 2004). Thus,
any user can publish on the web the concept map-based representation of his/her understanding of a domain by
constructing the concept maps in a Public Place, or constructing them in his/her computer and copying the maps
to a Public Place.
Figure 4. The CmapTools program locates Places that are registered with the Directory of Places.
7 Summary
The CmapTools software toolkit was designed to support constructing and sharing concept map-based
knowledge models. Emphasis was placed on implementing a software program that is easy to learn, but
powerful enough to support sophisticated uses. Based on lessons learned from previous research efforts, tools to
enable the construction of concept map-based multimedia systems and strong support for collaboration are key
components of the toolkit.
The software is available in many languages, and has enabled tens of thousands of users throughout the
world to share and collaborate through a network of Public Places where any user, whether a student, a teacher,
or a scientist, can create their own space and publish their knowledge models.
This work was partially supported by grants and contracts from the Intelligent Systems Program at NASA, and
from the Office of Naval Research and Chief of Naval Education and Training.
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... Groups completed their map electronically using software (CMap Tools) specifically designed for shared construction and visualization of concept maps (Cañas et al., 2004). Being able to see each group's large computer monitor, educators could observe progress and identify significant content deviations or egregious errors. ...
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Both physiology and pathophysiology are essential disciplines in health professional education however, clinicians do not use this knowledge in isolation. Instead, physicians use inter-disciplinary concepts embedded within integrated cognitive schema (illness scripts) established through experience/knowledge that manifest as expert-level thinking. Our goal was to develop a pre-clerkship curriculum devoid of disciplinary boundaries (akin to the physician’s illness script) and enhance learners’ clerkship and early clinical performance. As well as developing curricular content, the model considered non-content design elements such as learner characteristics and values, faculty and resources and the impact of curricular and pedagogical changes. The goals of the trans-disciplinary integration were to develop deep learning behaviors through, 1) developing of integrated, cognitive schema to support the transition to expert-level thinking, 2) authentic, contextualization to promote knowledge transfer to the clinical realm 3) allowing autonomous, independent learning, and 4) harnessing the benefits of social learning. The final curricular model was a case-based approach with independent learning of basic concepts, differential diagnosis and illness scripting writing, and concept mapping. Small-group classroom sessions were team-taught with basic scientists and physicians facilitating learners’ self-reflection and development of clinical reasoning. Specifications grading was used to assess the products (written illness scripts and concept maps) as well as process (group dynamics) while allowing a greater degree of learner autonomy. Although the model we adopted could be transferred to other program settings, we suggest it is critical to consider both content and non-content elements that are specific to the environment and learner.
... Ainda que seja a forma preferida de muitos mapeadores, os mapas manuscritos tornam exaustivo o processo de revisão contínua do conteúdo representado (muitas vezes é preciso "passar o mapa a limpo" para implementar as mudanças necessárias) e o compartilhamento do mapa é restrito aos presentes. Em 1997, Alberto Cañas e sua equipe lançaram o programa gratuito CmapTools (ver nº 10 na Figura 1), dedicado à elaboração de mapas conceituais no computador (Cañas et al., 2004). Com a chegada da Internet, o impacto do CmapTools foi amplificado por conta da possibilidade de revisar e compartilhar os mapas conceituais de forma ágil. ...
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As origens históricas dos mapas conceituais se localizam na área de Ensino de Ciências. Em 1972, Joseph Novak criou esta técnica de representação do conhecimento para identificar mudanças conceituais sobre temas da Biologia. Passados 50 anos, os mapas conceituais se aproximam da maturidade num momento de enormes transformações sociais provocadas pela pandemia de Covid-19 que impactam a Educação. Os autores aproveitam a celebração dos 50 anos de criação dos mapas conceituais para refletir sobre a estagnação ou crescimento das pesquisas sobre os mapas conceituais, considerando a produção específica da área de Ensino de Ciências. O objetivo do artigo é refletir sobre o atual momento das pesquisas sobre mapas conceituais a partir da análise da literatura acadêmica e de uma perspectiva histórica do desenvolvimento e da aplicação dos mapas conceituais. As perspectivas que se encontram no horizonte sugerem que o crescimento é mais provável do que a estagnação, desde que duas condições sejam observadas por pesquisadores e professores: (1) a ampliação das perspectivas teóricas que informam o uso dos mapas conceituais e (2) a adoção de um novo conjunto de valores que enfatizem a práxis educativa como um processo, evitando o foco no produto que caracteriza um ponto de chegada no processo de aprendizagem.
... Knowledge Modeling Cañas et al. (2004), published an article in which they showed how the free software Cmap Tools (ihmc, Florida) which can be downloaded at the following link (, made it possible to model knowledge (Meichenbaum and Biemiller, 1998) and share virtual environments through the design of interconnected concept maps. ...
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It is undeniable that climate change has become one of the greatest global challenges facing humanity in the coming decades. Since the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, all climate summits have emphasized the importance of sustainability through commitments that set the framework for a low-emission development model. Education, as a training field for the rest of the professions, has the responsibility to promote sustainability and this would be feasible considering environmental education as the backbone of the rest of the subjects of the different educational stages. This article presents the visual methodology of knowledge modeling through the use of concept maps and the free software Cmap Tools ( ihmc , Florida) as a possibility to promote environmental awareness and sustainability in teachers in training. In compliance with the 4th and 15th sdg s of the 2030 Agenda, the theme of “biosphere reserves” was selected. The intention was to develop conceptually transparent audiovisual teaching material which would enhance environmental education. This material can be used by any primary school anywhere in the world as an alternative to textbooks and as a proposal for motivation and meaningful learning for their future primary school students.
... Although there are many objects of interest in this question, such as 'role', 'in-house', 'automotive industry in Turkey', the researcher believes that the main object that is being studied and asked about is the 'automotive designer'. The concept map ( Figure 19) was created using the application IHMC CmapTools (Canas, et al., 2004). ...
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This thesis investigates the roles of automotive designers currently working in the design departments of companies in the automotive industry in Turkey. The thesis aims to give a full account of the roles that in-house automotive designers currently partake in in companies, how they are situated in the companies, and their relationships to other participants in the design process. The study includes face-to-face interviews conducted with a total of 24 participants, including in-house automotive designers, automotive design managers, and automotive industry experts, on the subject of automotive designer roles and other factors that influence the situation of the automotive designer in automotive industry in Turkey. Various roles of automotive designers in the companies in the automotive industry in Turkey were identified. However, a clearly defined and accepted role for the automotive designer is not present in the automotive industry. The visions and goals of the automotive industry in Turkey require the presence of a strong automotive design presence for the automotive industry in Turkey to compete in the global automotive industry. The study suggests that the role of the automotive designer needs to be defined as a creator and as a strategy definer for these visions and goals to be achievable by the automotive industry in Turkey. The study concludes with strategic recommendations for the automotive industry in Turkey to achieve higher success through automotive design and automotive designers.
... A origem desse protocolo verbal se deu a partir dos estudos da introspecção no campo da psicologia, hoje também utilizado em outras áreas especialmente na educação, baseada na ideia de que é possível observar eventos que ocorrem na consciência, a partir do que se pode observar no mundo exterior via discurso. Cmap Tools é um software gratuito, desenvolvido pelo Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), que auxilia na representação de conhecimentos por meio da construção de mapas conceituais, individuais ou colaborativos, além de permitir seu compartilhamento e publicação(CAÑAS, 2004). ...
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A argumentação é uma organização discursiva específica em que movimentos de justificação e negociação de perspectivas são observados. Por outro lado, a negociação de ideias também é marca da aprendizagem significativa, caracterizada pela ocorrência dos processos cognitivos de diferenciação progressiva e reconciliação integrativa. Esse artigo é parte de um estudo que se propôs a investigar a relação entre os movimentos discursivos da argumentação e os processos cognitivos da aprendizagem significativa no decurso de mapeamentos conceituais. Observamos a elaboração de mapas conceituais por dois estudantes de licenciatura em física do Centro Acadêmico do Agreste da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco em duas situações distintas: 1) na elaboração de mapas conceituais individuais e 2) na elaboração de um mapa conceitual coletivo. Essas observações foram videogravadas, transcritas e analisadas. A partir delas, encontramos indícios de que os movimentos discursivos da argumentação têm o potencial de evocar e manter os processos cognitivos da aprendizagem significativa.
... Vztah je dle filozofického kontextu charakterizován jako kategorie vyjadřující charakter rozmístění prvků určité soustavy a jejich vzájemných souvislostí. 33 ...
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Předmětem publikace je zkoumání problematiky pojmových map a jejich edukačního potenciálu na základní škole s cílem přispět k rozpracování teoretické báze pedagogiky ve vztahu k oblasti didaktických prostředků a rozvoji konstruktivně orientovaného způsobu edukace. Publikace vymezuje pojmové mapy jako didaktický prostředek, analyzuje jejich teoretická východiska z pohledu psychologie a pedagogiky, popisuje pojmové mapy z pohledu funkčních a didaktických specifik a charakterizuje možnosti jejich využití v rámci edukačního procesu. Publikace se dále zaměřuje na determinanty ovlivňující implementaci pojmových map do výuky, analyzuje metody hodnocení pojmových map a ukazuje možnosti a způsoby zapojení informačních a komunikačních technologií pro podporu práce s pojmovými mapami. Prostřednictvím empirických šetření práce dokládá didaktický potenciál pojmových map a naznačuje způsoby jejich zapojení do výuky. Svým pojetím představuje komplexní studii nahlížející na pojmové mapy z různých pohledů a směrů ve vztahu ke vzdělávání. This publication aims to examine the educational potential of concept maps in elementary schools and contribute to the expansion of pedagogic theory in the area of didactic resources, as well as develop a constructively oriented method of education. This work defines concept maps as didactic tools; describes them in terms of functional and didactic specifics; analyzes their theoretical results from psychological and pedagogical perspectives; and describes their potential usage in the educational process. This publication further focuses on the determinants that influence concept map implementation in teaching, analyzes potential assessment methods, and demonstrates several approaches for utilizing ICT to support work involving concept maps. Empirical research results are used to illuminate the didactic potential of concept maps and methods to incorporate them in teaching. This work represents a comprehensive study overview of concept maps that examines the topic from various angles and directions as they pertain to education.
The learning process for a Biology topic regarding organisms and animal kingdom diversity was investigated through an innovative Interactive Didactic Sequence (IDS) which integrated the idea of “concept maps” with the Hermeneutic-Dialectic Circle (HDC). HDC is a tool for data collection and a reference for pluralist-constructivist thinking, considered a form of fourth-generation evaluation. Hofstede's cultural dimensions were also integrated into the investigation in order to facilitate mediation in an evaluative context. Students' performances (N = 25) from a São Paulo-Brazil public school were statistically evaluated. Their cultural profile was determined via the Hofstede Value Survey Model 1994 questionnaire. The elaborative process of arranging concept maps was individual (CM-individual) and integrated with HDC in groups (CM-HDC). Concept map assessment methods were based off existing literature. An improvement in students' performances (p < 0.05) that presented concept maps integrated to HDC in a more complex structure when compared to individually-built maps was observed. Employment of HDC helped form motivational/interactive dialogues between students and teachers, which, in turn, assisted in achieving greater learning through the use of concept maps. The application of the fourth-generation evaluation was improved via knowledge regarding students' cultural profiles.
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O objetivo do trabalho foi mapear sistemicamente os principais elementos tático-estratégicos do jogo de futsal. Para tanto, foi utilizado o programa CmapTools para listar e articular os conceitos de uma dimensão genérica do jogo (invariante) e outra referente ao comportamento de jogadores e equipes (variável). Com base em uma pesquisa bibliográfica, foram levantados os principais conceitos tático-estratégicos do jogo. Em seguida, os conceitos foram definidos operacionalmente, organizados (agrupados) em um mapa semiestruturado e articulados em um mapa conceitual. Foi utilizada a Tabela de Clareza Proposicional para analisar o conteúdo das proposições apresentadas. Como resultado, a partir de ajustes realizados, originou-se um mapa conceitual final. A tecnologia de mapeamento conceitual mostrou-se útil para a descrição dos elementos tático-estratégicos do futsal, pois permitiu clarificar e organizar os conteúdos do jogo de maneira sistêmica. Espera-se que o trabalho auxilie na definição dos conteúdos de ensino-treinamento e avaliação do desempenho no futsal.
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Finding relevant information on the Internet can be a daunting task that would be enhanced if the material were organized and could be accessed in an efficient manner. Browsers based on a concept map-based interface and on a World Wide Web page-based interface were compared for ease in finding information necessary to answer a series of search questions based on the same domain material (developmental psychology). Users differed in the amount of concept map training they received and the type of learner they tended to be (meaningful vs. rote learners). The results indicated that the concept map-based interface resulted in better search performance for all learners although this difference was most pronounced for meaningful learners. Training in concept map construction appeared to have no more effect on search performance using the concept map-based interface, than control conditions. Taken together, the results suggest that organizing information via a concept map-based interface leads to more accurate search performance than the typically used web page-based browser.
Conference Paper
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This paper describes CMEX Mars, an effort to create a comprehensive set of concept maps to describe all aspects of Mars exploration. These concept maps, created using the CmapTools software developed by the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, are available on the Internet at and are linked among themselves as well as to resources on the Internet. The work described took place mainly between 1998 and 2001 and combined the goals of: 1) developing a library of concept maps for educational outreach, while also 2) refining the capabilities of the software used to create the interactive maps, and 3) making them available on the Internet. Here we focus on the library of Mars exploration concept maps that has been created.
Conference Paper
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Electronic concept mapping tools provide a flexible vehicle for constructing concept maps, linking concept maps to other concept maps and related resources, and distributing concept maps to others. As electronic concept maps are constructed, it is often helpful for users to consult additional resources, in order to jog their memories or to locate resources to link to the map under construction. The World Wide Web provides a rich range of resources for these tasks—if the right resources can be found. This paper presents ongoing research on how to automatically generate Web queries from concept maps under construction, in order to proactively suggest related information to aid concept mapping. First, it examines how concept map structure and content can be exploited to automatically select terms to include in initial queries, based on studies of (1) how concept map structure influences human judgments of concept importance, and (2) the relative value of including information from concept labels and linking phrases. Second, it examines how a concept map can be used to refine future queries by reinforcing the weights of terms that have proven to be good discriminators for the topic of the concept map. The described methods are being applied to developing “intelligent suggesters” to support the concept mapping process.
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In this article, we describe a continuing project directed toward the design and development of a knowledge-based expert system (NUCES), used to aid interpretation of radionuclide imaging in the heart. NUCES comprises a multimedia user interface, a diagnostic system, testing facility, and a novel explanation system. We describe its potential use in training clinicians, and discuss its implications for the delivery of widespread screening for heart disease.
This paper will describe one method used by the Navy to identify jobs, duties and tasks as part of the Job Task Analysis (JTA) process. It will also show the advantages of using knowledge acquisition and concept mapping techniques along with the elegant simplicity of CmapTools software to facilitate structured workshops. The implications of using concept mapping methodology for JTA are considered. Using anecdotal results from the Professional Mariner (PM) JTA workshop, the outcome shows that it is more efficient and more effective to achieve group consensus with the concept mapping and with CmapTools than with ordinary note taking and summarizing. Having a clear focus during the analysis optimized group performance. The concept-map oriented approach to grouping tasks in terms of major concepts (rather than linear lists of tasks) may add to current job understanding and a more meaningful approach to training. Having the projected maps to center their attention, the groups were able to get a firm grip on the task at hand. Those who participated were well informed and actively engaged in the concept mapping process. The facilitators and the mapping modelers were able to lead the groups to the desired end more quickly than with earlier JTA methods.
In this paper, we report on a continuing research effort aimed at the development of an integrated knowledge acquisition system, ICONKAT. We describe the components of the tool and discuss how they may be used to facilitate the design, construction, testing, maintenance and explanation of knowledge bases. ICONKAT's knowledge elicitation subsystem, based on both personal construct theory and assimilation theory, interactively assists the domain expert in the task of building a model of his or her expertise. ICONKAT employs a collection of modeling primitives (i.e. the glue) as the material basis for the construction of a conceptual domain model. The maintenance subsystem provides support tools for use by the knowledge engineering team, as well as the domain expert, when testing the system's performance, refining the knowledge base, and maintaining the overall system. The components of the maintenance subsystem employ a variety of mediating representations (e.g. concept maps, repertory grids) to furnish various perspectives of the evolving domain model as embodied in the modeling primitives. Moreover, the domain model that emerges from the knowledge acquisition process is subsequently exported from the development environment to the delivery environment where it serves as the foundation of the explanation capability for the deployed system. ICONKAT is currently employed in the design and construction of an expert system for the diagnosis of first pass functional cardiac images.