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The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action

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... The performance of teaching, due to the nature of this activity, constitutes an intermittent process of reflection that combines and balances the teacher's personal and professional identity in such a way that this professional has for him/herself and others an essence built by his/her performance in class (ALARCÃO, 2003). In this sense, the teacher is a professional that reflects in action and on the action, at the moment he/she concretizes it and afterward so that these reflective movements impregnate and feed each other (SCHÖN, 1983) through the dialectical movement of teaching and learning, managing relationships, time, knowing and experiences. ...
... (PERRENOUD, 2002, p. 30), has been highlighted as an important principle of teacher development. Schön (1983) conceives reflection for teacher development because it generates knowledge based on practice. Thus, "more than just a process through which teachers look at experiences from their past practice, reviewing episodes, emotions, and events, reflection is also projected towards the practice to be developed [...]" (VIEIRA, 2021, p.61). ...
... From this perspective, it would be up to the professional to apply the knowledge acquired through the definition of adequate instruments and means to achieve an established purpose. According to Schön (1983), this understanding presupposes a hierarchy in the educational process, firstly, of knowledge -valuing a technical-scientific process; and submitting the practice to these principles. ...
Article
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The article analyzes the reflection on teaching, mobilized in a lesson study that involved mathematics teachers. The research is based on Schön and Perrenoud's concept of reflection and is guided by the question, “What reflections on teaching do mathematics teachers mobilize in a lesson study context?”. To answer this question, we did an investigation in a lesson study context, structured in twelve meetings of approximately two and a half hours each, involving eight mathematics teachers from the final years of elementary school of the state public education network of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The empirical material of the research consists of the researcher's field notes, the participants' logbooks, the transcripts of the sessions, and the interview carried out at the end of the lesson study. The qualitative and interpretative analysis showed that the reflection on teaching was characterized as retrospective and prospective, covering three themes: student learning, mathematics teaching, and teaching moral responsibility and ethics.
... As we saw in the previous section, visual representations can play multiple roles during the design process of a graphic design project, regardless of its level of complexity. Their generation indeed allows designers to think "in action" (Schön, 1983) and gradually transform the existing situation into a preferable one. Mainly developed through studies in sociology, the notion of agency is traditionally defined as "the socially constructed capacity of an individual to act independently, that is, to exercise some sort of power and demonstrate the ability to 'make a difference'" (Giddens, 1984, p. 12). ...
... The analyzed vignettes illustrate the "reflective conversation" the design teams had with some of the "materials of the situation" (Schön, 1992(Schön, , 1983, for example the different environmental label's signs communicating the lifespan of an electronic device. ...
... In our case, the consumer and the advisory committee -for example the user and the architect quoted above -were not physically present but, as I have shown, their voices could be heard through the multimodal (gesturing, sketching and talking) conversation we had with the materials of the situation, i.e., the signs and spokespersons they embodied. This is, in my humble opinion, the deep meaning of this metaphor and of Donald Schön's (1983Schön's ( , 1992 teaching, which is still particularly relevant today (Bousbaci, 2020). ...
Thesis
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Nowadays and in the future, we will interact more and more often with visual representations that will invite us to take actions that contribute, for example, to the fight against climate change. Thus, a self-declaration, an eco-label or a multi-criteria environmental label will encourage us (or not) to recycle a product, to choose it or to compare it with other products according to the information that this representation and the signs that constitutes it should convey. In this scenario, the typography, shapes, colors and configuration of this environmental label will possess multiple forms of agency, the capacity to act, that is, to make a difference (Castor & Cooren, 2006), a capacity that has to be anticipated. The design of these visual representations, apparently inanimate but which nevertheless communicate and make people do things, is part of my professional practice: graphic design. Because of the more or less complex information they convey, these signs — icons, index and symbols, according to Peirce’s classification — will often have to be designed by a multidisciplinary team of experts, anticipating the multiple forms of agency they might possess once configured. However, although the process of designing visual representations has been extensively studied, we still know little about the collaborative design of the different forms of agency these representations may (or should) possess at the end of the process. Design studies suggest that a “shared professional vision” of the project to be designed emerges through visual representations — boundary and intermediary objects (Vinck, 2009) — encountered early in the trajectory (Comi, Jaradat, & Whyte, 2019). In this context, I propose to address the following research question: What is the collaborative and multidisciplinary design trajectory of the multiple forms of “anticipated agency” of a visual representation? To answer this question, I drew on ethnomethodology, (Garfinkel, 1984), the sociology of associations (Latour, 2006; Callon, 1986) as well as the communicative constitution of organization approach (CCO, Schoeneborn et al., 2014) to document and analyze the interactions between key actants — humans and other-than-human — that are making a difference during the design trajectory of an environmental label conceived to inform about the life span of an electronic device. The six-beat and four-movement trajectory (zooming-out and past/ future), that I analyse through the Prezi® presentation online platform, oscillates between key moments of collaboration between members of our multidisciplinary design team and consultation sessions conducted with an advisory committee of experts also from different disciplines. My reflective vision through the design of the “anticipated agency” of visual representations with visual representations — the first contribution of this dissertation — suggests that the environmental label materialized primarily through situated interactions with heterogeneous (in)tangible actants belonging to the past, present, or future. Indeed, multiple spokespersons speaking on behalf of, for example, the public (the consumer or the user), the manufacturer, the repairer, the political authorities or the (eco)designers of products have thus expressed themselves through the visual representations designed. The configuration of these signs — letters, numbers, shapes, colors, etc. — has induced multiple (dis) agreements generated by our respective professional and/or personal visions. However, these (un)shared visions of the “anticipated agency” of those visual representations, however, greatly contributed to the design process by revealing previously unseen actants and their power relations. This collaborative and multidisciplinary “(un)shared understanding” of the design process — the second contribution of this dissertation — could be a way forward to create visual devices that further mobilize human and other-than-human toward a successful ecological transition (Brullot et al., 2017).
... Reflection is a key component in understanding the complexity of the nature of classrooms and teaching procedures (Artzt & al., 2015;Gelfuso, 2016;Margolis, 2002;Mayes, 2001). Through reflection, teachers reshape, reinterpret, review, and understand their practice from a variety of perspectives, based on data generated by their self-assessment (Loughran, 2002;Munby & Russell, 1990;Postholm, 2008;Schön, 1983Schön, , 1987. Teachers' experiences play an important role in their professional development (Kalk et al., 2014;Korthagen, 2001;Liston & Zeichner, 1990;Schön, 1983Schön, , 1987 and reflection supports their utilization, helping teachers gain more control over their experiences (Seikkula-Leino et al., 2010;Spalding et al., 2002;Zeichner & Liston, 1987). ...
... Through reflection, teachers reshape, reinterpret, review, and understand their practice from a variety of perspectives, based on data generated by their self-assessment (Loughran, 2002;Munby & Russell, 1990;Postholm, 2008;Schön, 1983Schön, , 1987. Teachers' experiences play an important role in their professional development (Kalk et al., 2014;Korthagen, 2001;Liston & Zeichner, 1990;Schön, 1983Schön, , 1987 and reflection supports their utilization, helping teachers gain more control over their experiences (Seikkula-Leino et al., 2010;Spalding et al., 2002;Zeichner & Liston, 1987). ...
... Through reflection, teachers are transformed into autonomous professionals, who are responsible, self-aware and confident (Brookfield, 1995;Loughran, 2002). Reflection is considered to be a particularly important characteristic of an effective teacher (Kalk et al., 2014;Perryman et al., 2017;Schön, 1983). ...
... Finally, each interaction and the subsequent alteration in the individual's system's state provides an opportunity to interact with by itself. Using those experiences to learn from is at the heart of experiential and reflexive learning theories (Schön, 1983;Brookfield, 1998;Kolb, 2015). ...
... Compared to a more practical-oriented approach to vocational training, higher educational settings focus on the development of broader skills sets such as such as emotional, cognitive, social and moral skills (Blumberg et al., 2019) as well as scientific thinking and reflective practice (Huisjes et al., 2018) in policing. Recently it has been argued that reflexivity is a key aspect in modern policing (Wood and Williams, 2017;Staller et al., 2022b), a metacognitive capacity and learning content especially prevalent in professional education (Schön, 1983). However, police recruits and officers sometimes wish for more hands-on practical skill experience, indicating a lack of perceived relevance to their daily work (Frevel, 2018;Edwards, 2019). ...
Article
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For professional policing, learning is key. Since learning can be viewed as a complex process between the individual and information, learning takes place both within and outside the police system as well as during and before employment. The current conceptual analysis delineates different areas of (non-)learning related to policing and argues for the management of learning as a key issue for the police’s professionalization. According to this assumption a Police Learning Management Framework is presented, in which the relevant areas of learning as well as the related challenges for police learning on an individual and organizational level are specified. The proposed model calls for a more focused view on police learning which is a prerequisite for professionally coping with the pressing challenges of contemporary policing.
... As explained in the previous section, VRs can play multiple roles during the creative process of design projects (labels, machines, buildings, etc.). Their creation or use indeed allows designers (by themselves or in teams) to think "in action" (Schön, 1983) and gradually transform the existing situation -for example, the negative impact of electronic devices on the environmentinto a preferred one (Simon, 2008): a more sustainable environment for future generations (Brundtland, 1988), from resource extraction and consumption of energy to landfill ultimate waste. Mainly developed through studies in sociology (Emirbayer and Mische, 1998), the notion of agency is traditionally defined as "the socially constructed capacity of an individual to act independently, that is, to exercise some sort of power and demonstrate the ability to 'make a difference'" (Giddens, 1984 p. 12). ...
... Consequently, as both teams reflected "in the course of action" (i.e. while designing or discussing about the environmental label), the signs that the "situation" (Schön, 1983) sent helped them to better understand the complexity of the issue at stake, despite the (dis)agreements encountered, and gradually nuanced their vision of the design situation. Thus, the identity and the configuration of these signs were discussed, negotiated, and then, finally, led to meaningful propositions that could be endorsed by the audience. ...
Preprint
Purpose : This research seeks to understand, through a collaborative and multidisciplinary “reflective conversation with the materials of [an unsustainable] situation” (Schön, 1992, p. 3), how visual representations are designed so as to get organizations and people to change the way they conduct themselves towards more sustainable ways of doing things. Methodology : Over a twenty-month ethnography, we documented and analyzed “through design” (Findeli et al., 2008) and the constitutive communication of organizations (CCO, Schoeneborn et al., 2014), the communication design process of an environmental label that displays the lifespan of electronic devices. This experimental label was meant to invite people and organizations to build and choose an electronic device that has the capacity to be kept for a longer period of time, according to the information this visual representation communicates. Findings : Our analysis reveals how human stakeholders such as consumers, manufacturers or policy-makers as well as standards, habits or values, etc. — coming from multiple spatiotemporalities — manage to speak through this “reflective conversation.” These findings show how various human and other-than-human elements of a design situation can make a difference through their staging in such conversation. Originality : The non-anthropocentric CCO lens we chose to understand our reflective conversation illustrates that, even though our “professional visions” (Comi et al., 2019) of the visual representations and the spokespersons they embodied was “(un)shared,” we can “increase, or at least preserve, the habitability of the world” (Findeli, 2015, p. 51 — our translation).
... Αναστοχαστική διαδικασία Ο αναστοχασμός γίνεται αντιληπτός ως μια βασική δεξιότητα που χρειάζεται να αναπτύξουν οι εκπαιδευτικοί για να μπορέσουν να εντοπίσουν, να αναλύσουν και να επιλύσουν ένα πρόβλημα, μια προβληματική κατάσταση που αντιμετωπίζουν (Dewey 1933· Korthagen 2001, 2004· Schön 1983· Toom et al., 2015.Σύμφωνα με τον Dewey, ο αναστοχασμός μάς επιτρέπει να αντιληφθούμε τον τρόπο με τον οποίον ενεργούν οι επαγγελματίες και θεωρείται ως μέσο επαγγελματικής ανάπτυξης των εκπαιδευτικών (Dewey, 1933· Hatton & Smith, 1995· Καλαϊντζοπούλου, 2001· Korthagen & Kessels, 1999· Κώστας, 2015· Κώστας & Σοφός, 2013· Παπακώστα, 2010· Schön, 1983, 1987 και απαραίτητο στοιχείο για να γίνει κάποιος καλός εκπαιδευτικός (Braun & Crumpler, 2004· Dewey, 1933· Korthagen, 2004· Schön, 1983, 1987·Tateo, 2012. ...
... Κλείνοντας, ένας επιτυχημένος αναστοχασμός απαιτεί και συνεργασία μεταξύ των εκπαιδευτικών. Κάτι για το οποίο δέχτηκαν κριτική οι θέσεις του Schön (1983), καθώς τονίστηκε ότι επικεντρώνονται στον ατομικό αναστοχασμό χωρίς να λαμβάνουν υπόψη τους τη συμβολή των άλλων, την κοινωνική αλληλεπίδραση στην αναστοχαστική διαδικασία (Cunliffe & Easterby-Smith, 2004· van Woerkom & Croon, 2008· Zeichner & Liston, 2013. Άλλωστε, οι εκπαιδευτικοί, για να αναστοχαστούν για την εκπαιδευτική διαδικασία και τη διδασκαλία, χρειάζεται να συζητούν με τους συναδέλφους τους που εργάζονται στη σχολική μονάδα, για να είναι σε θέση να εξετάσουν διαφορετικές θέσεις και απόψεις (Ab Rashid, 2018· York-Barr et al., 2001· Zeichner & Liston, 2013. ...
... 9). Taking a similar path, Schön (1983) coined two new concepts in the realm of reflective thinking: reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action. Reflection-in-action is teachers' reflection while confronting a problem during teaching experiences. Reflection-on-action occurs before or after application (Akbari et al., 2010). ...
Article
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It is deemed that teachers' job performance is highly entangled with the psycho-emotional constructs, such as reflective teaching (RT), emotion regulation (ER), and immunity (i.e., the processes through which teachers try to come up with a defense mechanism to buffer the effects of unpleasant disturbances that might threaten their motivation to teach). Given this importance, it is essential to disclose if these psycho-emotional constructs are correlated with each other. Despite this, there has been a paucity of research on the correlation between English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' RT with ER and immunity, as well as the correlation between their ER with immunity in Iran. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore if Iranian EFL teachers' RT was significantly correlated with ER and immunity, as well as if their ER was significantly correlated with immunity. For these purposes, a total of 384 EFL teachers, including male (n = 182) and female (n = 202) were selected using a convenience sampling method from non-profit language institutes in Mashhad, Iran. They were invited to fill out digital forms of the English Language Teacher Reflective Inventory (ELTRI), Language teacher Emotion Regulation Inventory (LTERI), and Language Teacher Immunity Instrument (LTII). The results of the path analysis documented that the EFL teachers' RT was significantly correlated with ER and immunity. Additionally, the findings evidenced that the EFL teachers' ER significantly related to immunity. The findings underscore the significance of incorporating reflective approaches, emotion regulatory strategies, and immune enhancement into teacher development programs.
... Das gilt auch für das Verhältnis von praktischen zu wissenschaftlichen Begriffen, gerade weil im berufspädagogischen (Rauner 2010, S. 99ff.) wie im praxeologischen Diskurs (Schön 1983;Reckwitz 2003;Elkjaer 2004;Nohl 2006), aber auch in psychologischen und erziehungswissenschaftlichen Lerntheorien (Holzkamp 1995;Meyer-Drawe 2012) betont wird, dass wissenschaftliche und praktische Begriffe unterschiedliche semantische Reichweiten und Relevanzspektren haben. Berufspädagogisch ist eine nichthierarchische Begriffsanlage deshalb wichtig, weil berufliche Handlungskompetenz nicht allein durch Theorieausbildung erworben werden kann. ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Der Beitrag diskutiert das Verhältnis von allgemeiner und beruflicher Bildung mithilfe einer pädagogischen Theorie der Organisation. Allgemeine Erwachsenen- und berufliche Bildung treffen sich darin, Prozess und Ergebnis der wechselseitigen Auseinandersetzung zwischen Organisationen und Individuen zu sein. Organisationen sind nicht nur Kontext von Bildung, sie sind selber gebildet und wirken pädagogisch. Der Beitrag erschließt die Funktion und Eigenlogik der Organisation in ihrem Verhältnis zu den Grundbegriffen der Erziehungswissenschaft. Der Vorschlag ermöglicht es, Lernen, Sozialisation, Erziehung, Bildung und Kompetenz in ihrer Geltung für die ineinander verflochtene Strukturdynamik von Organisation und Subjekt zu differenzieren. Als Alternative zur geläufigen Organisationsvergessenheit der Pädagogik integriert die differenzierende Ordnung dieser Begriffe eine erziehungswissenschaftliche Perspektive auf Individuum und Organisation.
... Perera et al. (2003) argued that changes to culture and values and the part played by influential actors were key factors in the re-adoption of internal transfer pricing at Energy. As a "reflective practitioner" (Schön, 1983), we wonder whether each of Energy's internal units gained the status of a legal entity as a result of the government's decision to separate the distribution network from its trading activities. The change in legal status meant that the income and expenditure generated by the transactions between units had to be recorded in the statutory accounts of each unit that had the status of a legal entity. ...
Article
Based on a longitudinal ethnographic case study in an organization that has implemented internal transfer pricing, this research contributes to the literature on this important yet thorny issue in three ways. First, by providing a rather thick account of the unexpected and complex consequences generated by the use of this management tool, enlightened by Schatzki’s practice theory, it contributes to the limited body of knowledge on the consequences of internal transfer pricing. Second, by confirming the previous empirical studies conducted by researchers outside the organizations studied and complementing them with new evidence, it provides a scientific validation of practice turn methodology: doing research as a practitioner. As such, it narrows the research–practice gap.
... Experience-and action-based pedagogy requires the learner to interact, collaborate, solve problems, face difficulties, and make decisions (Arpiainen & Kurczewska, 2017;Rasmussen & Sørheim, 2006). To make sense of one's own engagement in these actions also requires reflection (Hägg, 2021;Williams-Middleton & Donnellon, 2014), situating the individual as a reflective practitioner (Schön, 1983) of their own entrepreneurial activity. ...
Article
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Entrepreneurship education is an increasingly distinct domain with particular approaches emphasizing experiential and action-based design. Action-based entrepreneurship education aims to deliver authenticity in entrepreneurial experiences while simultaneously facilitating learning and fair assessment. A venture creation program (VCP) is one such type of action-based entrepreneurship education which uses the creation of a new venture as the main vehicle for students' learning, complemented with more traditional educational content. Engaging students in creating real-life ventures enables unique opportunities for learning but introduces a tension between didactic and pragmatic approaches and thus various challenges for educators. This paper's purpose is to address current controversies related to VCPs and offer research-driven suggestions to key challenges. The empirical investigation, consisting of focus group data and individual interviews , builds on the accumulated knowledge of a global collaborative forum for VCPs-the VCP Forum-which consists of 11 VCPs in six countries in Europe and North America. The findings highlight three main areas that present challenges to educators: (1) facilitating students' venture creation processes, (2) assessment of the students' work connected to real-life activity, and (3) mitigating interaction with external stakeholders. The present paper contributes to entrepreneurship education research by suggesting areas for pedagogic development that need further investigation.
... Theories were frequently borrowed from philosophy with particular interest in the pragmatist tradition (e.g. Dewey [1934Dewey [ ] 2005Schön 1983). The Swedish Institute for Work Life played a main role, accompanied by influencers like Bernt Gustavsson (1991;2004), Bo Göranzon (1990), Ingela Josefson (1988;, Bengt Molander (1996), and Bertil Rolf (1991). ...
Chapter
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This is the introductory chapter for the book Craft sciences. The field of ‘Craft Sciences’ refers to research conducted across and within different craft subjects and academic contexts. This book aims to build on the breadth of topics, source material, methods, perspectives, and results that reside in this field, and to explore what unites the research in such diverse contexts as, for example, the arts, conservation, or vocational craft education. The common thread between each of the chapters in the book is the augmented attention given to methods—the craft research methods—and to the relationship between the field of inquiry and the field of practice.
... Reflective practice is 'learning through and from experience towards gaining new insights of self and practice' [Finlay, 2008] A key aspect of engaging in PBL that emerged from our case studies was the need for teacher to 'tweak' their project as they progressed. Though many of the teachers we interviewed and worked with did not explicitly follow a reflection cycle, such as Kolb's Learning Cycle (1984) or Gibb's reflective cycle (1988), their comments suggested that they were both reflecting-in-action and reflecting-on-action (Schön, 1984) as their projects progressed. ...
Technical Report
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This guide is the result of a two year project undertaken by a research team from the Centre for Learning and Teaching, Newcastle University and funded by the Edge Foundation. Our aim was to work with teachers interested in developing Project Based Learning (PBL) through providing them with brokerage, resources, professional development activity and perhaps most importantly encouragement.
... In berufsbiographischer Perspektive hingegen wird die Krisenbewältigung im Zusammenhang mit der Bearbeitung von beruflichen Entwicklungsaufgaben als grundlegend für Professionalisierungsverläufe betrachtet. Das in der berufsbiographisch orientierten Studie von Kosinár (2014) angeführte Konzept des Reflexionswissens ist angelehnt an die Theorie des "reflective practicioner" (Schön 1983). Dieses verweist auf die Notwendigkeit, aber auch die Möglichkeit von Reflexion im Handeln selbst (in action) und über das Handeln (on action) und betrachtet Reflexion als zentrales Werkzeug pädagogischer Professionalität und Professionalisierung. ...
... Hence, it is common for practitioners to be encouraged to use Schön's methods to achieve meaningful reflection. The application of Schön's (1983) reflection 'in and on practice' therefore illustrates the relevance of facilitating change and development for the benefit of society. The reflection 'in practice' definition describes the process of responding to a challenge which is different to that expected, whereas reflection 'on practice' involves 'retrospectively looking back' to view the situation, exploring the actions and learning from the result (Kinsella et al., 2012: 213-214). ...
... The practice of reflection is not a new one and there are numerous research papers showing the advantages and sometimes the necessity of a reflective teaching practice in education (see McGarr, 2021; Minnot, 2019; Rufinelli, de la Hoz & Álvarez, 2020; Mulryan-Kyne, 2021 for some recent examples). Schön (1983) argues that reflection and reflective practice is one of the most important aspects of good teaching practice. Teachers who reflect on their practice are more aware of their flaws, are able to identify and address problems to avoid/work for solutions for them, and think critically and analytically about their own teaching practices (Fraser, 2019). ...
Article
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Reflection in education is usually associated with teachers reviewing their own practices in order to identify problems and find possible solutions to be applied in practice. Following the scoping review design suggested by Arksey and O'Malley (2005), the paper focuses on the existing theses written on reflection in education in the Turkish context as well as the major frameworks employed in the field on reflection in teaching and teacher education. Based on this review, the aim of this paper is to argue that the term "reflection", which is used to represent a deep cognitive and metacognitive process about teaching and learning experiences is misleading and insufficient. Thus, relying on mainly the concepts used by Gestalt psychologists, a new term to be used instead of reflection is proposed: insighting. This new term, not only represents the inward look and deep philosophical questioning needed for successful reflection, but it also represents a positive conceptualisation of the act of deep thinking, removing it from being conceptualised as an aspect of "problem solving" alone.
... The course reported on here includes microteaching, a strategy combining reflective practice (Schön, 1983), and situated learning . Microteaching is a "condensed lesson plan used to practise, rehearse and reflect on action…often delivered within a role-play context for real-time feedback and reflection" (Ledger & Fischetti, 2020, p. 37). ...
Book
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The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in immediate and necessary changes to many aspects of K-12 and postsecondary education. In order to support teachers and teacher educators during this challenging time, a call was released in April of 2020 for short articles to be published in a special issue of the Journal of Technology and Teacher Education (JTATE). The process mirrored what was happening in medicine at the time; in other words, hapters were short (1000-2000 words), the timeline for submission was compressed (2 weeks), and reviewers were given limited time to critique (1 week). While the fast-track publishing was relatively new to education, the goal was to quickly identify and then share best practices for teaching and learning during a very challenging time. The call resulted in an overwhelming number of manuscripts (N = 266) describing important and innovative work around the globe. After careful but rapid peer review, and in consultation with the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE), a decision was made to publish both an open-access special issue in JTATE titled Preservice and Inservice Professional Development During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Hartshorne et al., 2020) and an eBook titled Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Stories from the Field (Ferdig et al., 2020). There were thirty-three articles in the special issue and 133 chapters in the eBook that were all submitted, reviewed, and published in 8 weeks (Ferdig et al., 2021). Existing data to measure the success of either publication, at least quantitatively, include the number of downloads and citations of the book, the editorials for both publications, the articles, and the chapters. Having said that, anecdotally, authors and readers have shared that the publications gave them both specific strategies and hope during a difficult time. The hope came from ideas for moving forward and the knowledge that they were not alone in their frustrations, needs, and concerns. While such quantitative and anecdotal outcomes are desirable, and while the rapid publication process was relatively novel for many in the field, there was one significant and acknowledged weakness. The speed at which the pandemic swept the world meant that there was limited time to propose a research project, gain institutional review board (IRB) approval, collect and analyze data, and then prepare an article or chapter for submission. There were a few articles and chapters that did have data because they were working in areas related to pandemic solutions (e.g., online learning). However, most of the writings lacked their own empirical data to support their claims. Authors wrote about their ideas and current work and then used other research to attempt to triangulate and theoretically support their proposed solutions. At the time of conception in 2020, the value of supporting educators outweighed empirical needs (vs. theoretical or conceptual publications). However, it did provide an opportunity to be able to return to the topic two years later. In April of 2022, authors from both the special issue and the book were invited to share the research they had conducted since 2020 on the issue they presented in either of the earlier publications. They were asked to be transparent about what had worked, what had not worked, and what direction they had taken since their previous initiative. And, as with both earlier publications, they were asked to draw implications related to technology and teacher education.
... Reactions to those situations involve "an intellectualization of the dilemma (Dewey, 1933) which can lead to problem setting (Schön, 1983)" (Mansfield & Loughran, 2018, p. 2). Consequences of that intellectualization are the modes of action that bring teachers back to the pedagogical equilibrium they seek. ...
Article
Despite warrants for classroom discussion, research consistently finds that discussions in K-12 classrooms remain rare. Our research investigates whether and in what ways practice-based teacher learning opportunities focused on discussion facilitation influence opportunities for student talk. Grounded in data from a job-embedded professional development program for fourth- to eighth-grade literacy teachers, we analyzed videos of teachers co-planning and co-facilitating discussions with students. Findings indicate that, across 1 year, during co-facilitated classroom discussions, teacher talk decreased, while student talk increased. In a parallel finding, our analysis of co-planning sessions revealed that the ways teachers planned for discussions also changed. Teachers went from engaging only in what we call proactive pedagogical reasoning to balancing that with what we have come to call responsive pedagogical reasoning.
... To begin with, a teacher may draw on past experiences to guide what they will or won't do in their own teaching contexts. Then, in the moment, judgements are made that shape how an academic proceeds (Schön, 1983). Important feedback is garnered from students' reactions, or non-reactions, comments and participation, and adjustments are made based on this information. ...
Article
This paper will challenge readers to consider their approach to supporting academics who are writing a teaching portfolio. What comes first? The literature, collecting evidence or something else? In this reflection on practice, I offer an approach that centralises practice as the core focus for starting this process. Grounded in theoretical principles that espouse the inseparability of practice and knowledge, the paper offers simple, practical steps for prioritising a practice-based approach to support writing a teaching portfolio.
... The course reported on here includes microteaching, a strategy combining reflective practice (Schön, 1983), and situated learning . Microteaching is a "condensed lesson plan used to practise, rehearse and reflect on action…often delivered within a role-play context for real-time feedback and reflection" (Ledger & Fischetti, 2020, p. 37). ...
Chapter
This chapter revisits proposed suggestions and implications of utilizing virtual worklabs to complete coursework when the COVID-19 pandemic impacted the education system in 2020. Using reflexivity and ongoing data collection, this chapter evaluates how worklabs build upon accountability and goal setting (e.g., structure, attendance, macro and micro goals). Reviewing strategies and tools from that period of time forward brings a deeper understanding to what is still relevant in learning today (e.g., flexibility in settings, collaboration, choice) and how reflecting on these processes during the last two years continues to evolve and provide implications for teacher educators, professional development, and K-12 classroom learning environments.
... Therefore, imagination with-making provides a more concrete experience. Moreover, Schön (1983) described thinking-in-action as the tacit, intuitive, spontaneous thinking that can be enabled from actions. As an individual can experience many variations of types of action, he/she develops a repertoire of images. ...
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... Los cuestionamientos del actuar proponen también una postura ética y una práctica reflexiva (Schön, 1983). El ethos del diseñador se ve comprometido en las escalas comunales, diseñar con y en comunalidad representa a menudo una indeterminación ontológica, un ser moldeado en sus experiencias y de rumbo flexible, que diseña mientras su actuar lo diseña , quizá una prueba más de una redundancia implícita en el término coloquial de Diseño Social. ...
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This chapter is a brief overview of the Global Workforce Forecast (GWF), a document made public by Airbus presenting the results of a large study launched by the group in 2018. The aim of the GWF is to provide every employee, every reader with relevant information and data to be prepared for the 2019–2029 competence challenge the company will face by 2030.
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Moving from the military to civilian organisations, this chapter discusses the key points of Gérard de Boisboissel’s contribution about the impact of autonomous systems on safety issues. We comment on these points from two angles: (1) human–system interaction and (2) organisational reliability. Stressing differences in context and in resulting implications, we strongly recommend that the upcoming invasion of work organisations by autonomous systems should be viewed (also) through the lens of the social sciences.
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This chapter explores aspects of researching and disseminating experiential knowledge through an example of ceramic practice. It further gives suggestions on how video can be a useful tool to revisit experiences when used as an autoethnographic re-call of the situation of practicing. Video documentation further enables a slow and more detailed analysis of the events, that are often too rich in content to be noted in the situation of practicing the craft. Video recordings show the context of the situation and the multiple overlapping events and details that words may not capture. In addition, video clips in presentations of craft research have the ability to awaken the audience’s possible previous experiences of similar events and thus bring about an illusion of a multimodal experience that point to the more implicit aspects of the situation.
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Algorithms have always been a key topic in safety science, whether they are governing technology through computer programming or human actors through organisational procedures. However, when the term “algorithm” is not limited to the static pre-programming of expert knowledge algorithms with the ability to change themselves, a new branch of uncertainties appears. With the concepts of epistemic uncertainty and epistemic accidents as a backdrop, I discuss safety-related challenges with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in high-risk industries. The aim is to highlight uncertainties inherent in AI, paradoxes for safety management and risk governance, as well as the human contribution to safety in future.
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This chapter proposes to discuss work transformation management as a key issue to designing working conditions to ensure safe, healthy and performant work in a context of technological transitions. Here, we view the design of future work as a transition process and as a set of projects—social, organisational, technological—that will together shape a “future of work”. We consider lessons from the past regarding: (1) cooperation between workers and technology and (2) project management of work transformations, as resources to manage this transition. These lessons will be discussed with reference to ongoing research dealing with introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) or collaborative robotics at work in the French industrial context, as an illustration of the transformation of industry at a global level.
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