The authors describe the results of the first experience gained with the use of recombinant alpha 2-interferon in children with acute viral hepatitis B. The drug was administered rectally in combination with antioxidants (tocopherol). The study was carried out by the double blind method with randomization and two control groups (given tocopherol alone or placebo alone). 73 children with acute viral hepatitis B were examined. The therapeutic combination reaferon plus tocopherol was established to favour more rapid elimination of dyspeptic and abdominal phenomena, to shorten the time of the liver and spleen size increase, duration of hyperfermentemia, to provide for an accelerated reduction of HBsAg titers, elimination of HBeAg and seroconversion, to stimulate alpha-interferon production by leukocytes, and to activate the system of mononuclear phagocytes.