Cross-cultural feasibility, reliability and sources of variance of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The Multicentre WHO/ADAMHA Field Trials.

Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie, München, Germany.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 12/1991; 159:645-53, 658.
Source: PubMed


The CIDI is a fully standardised diagnostic interview designed for assessing mental disorders based on the definitions and criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-III-R. Field trials with the CIDI have been conducted in 18 centres around the world, to test the feasibility and reliability of the CIDI in different cultures and settings, as well as to test the inter-rater agreement for the different types of questions used. Of 590 subjects interviewed across all sites and rated by an interviewer and observer, 575 were eligible for analysis. The CIDI was judged to be acceptable for most subjects and was appropriate for use in different kinds of settings. Many subjects fulfilled criteria for more than one diagnosis (lifetime and six-month). The most frequent lifetime disorders were generalised anxiety, major depression, tobacco use disorders, and agoraphobia. Percentage agreements for all diagnoses were above 90% and the kappa values were all highly significant. No significant numbers of diagnostic disconcordances were found with lifetime, six-month, and four-week time frames.

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    • "The test-retest reliability of the CIDI is high with kappa values ranging of 0.64–0.84 for the different anxiety disorder diagnoses (Wittchen, 1994) and an interrater kappa value above 0.90 for all anxiety disorder diagnoses (Wittchen et al., 1991). The interviews were conducted by a specially trained clinical research staff. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Stability of diagnosis was listed as an important predictive validator for maintaining separate diagnostic classifications in DSM-5. The aim of this study is to examine the longitudinal stability of anxiety disorder diagnoses, and the difference in stability between subjects with a chronic versus a non-chronic course. Methods: Longitudinal data of 447 subjects with a current pure anxiety disorder diagnosis at baseline from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used. At baseline, 2-, 4-, and 6-year follow-up mental disorders were assessed and numbers (and percentages) of transitions from one anxiety disorder diagnosis to another were determined for each anxiety disorder diagnosis separately and for subjects with a chronic (i.e. one or more anxiety disorder at every follow-up assessment) and a non-chronic course. Results: Transition percentages were high in all anxiety disorder diagnoses, ranging from 21.1% for social anxiety disorder to 46.3% for panic disorder with agoraphobia at six years of follow-up. Transition numbers were higher in the chronic than in the non-chronic course group (p=0.01). Limitations: Due to the 2 year sample frequency, the number of subjects with a chronic course may have been overestimated as intermittent recovery periods may have been missed. Conclusions: These data indicate that anxiety disorder diagnoses are not stable over time. The validity of the different anxiety disorder categories is not supported by these longitudinal patterns, which may be interpreted as support for a more pronounced dimensional approach to the classification of anxiety disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
    • "Diagnoses of anxiety disorders (SAD, panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA), panic disorder without agoraphobia (PD), agoraphobia (AP) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)) and depressive disorders (major depressive disorder (MDD) and dysthymia) were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) lifetime version 2.1 (World-Health-Organization, 1997) by specially trained clinical research staff. This instrument has been used worldwide for WHO field research and has been shown to possess high validity for the detection of anxiety and depressive disorders (Wittchen et al., 1989; Wittchen, 1994) as well as high inter-rater (Wittchen et al., 1991) and test–retest reliability (Wacker et al., 2006). The CIDI assessment was used again to evaluate the course of disorders after 2 years, determining the presence of a DSM-IV classified anxiety or depressive disorder during the period between baseline and follow-up. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is strongly associated with the subsequent development of a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder or dysthymia), no underlying biological risk factors are known. We aimed to identify biomarkers which predict depressive episodes in SAD patients over a 2-year follow-up period. One hundred sixty-five multiplexed immunoassay analytes were investigated in blood serum of 143 SAD patients without co-morbid depressive disorders, recruited within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Predictive performance of identified biomarkers, clinical variables and self-report inventories was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves (ROC) and represented by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Stepwise logistic regression resulted in the selection of four serum analytes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, vitronectin, collagen IV) and four additional variables (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory somatic subscale, depressive disorder lifetime diagnosis, BMI) as optimal set of patient parameters. When combined, an AUC of 0.86 was achieved for the identification of SAD individuals who later developed a depressive disorder. Throughout our analyses, biomarkers yielded superior discriminative performance compared to clinical variables and self-report inventories alone. We report the discovery of a serum marker panel with good predictive performance to identify SAD individuals prone to develop subsequent depressive episodes in a naturalistic cohort design. Furthermore, we emphasise the importance to combine biological markers, clinical variables and self-report inventories for disease course predictions in psychiatry. Following replication in independent cohorts, validated biomarkers could help to identify SAD patients at risk of developing a depressive disorder, thus facilitating early intervention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
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    • ") was used to assess the DSM-IV criteria for anxiety and depressive disorders. The CIDI has high inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability and validity for depressive and anxiety disorders (Wittchen et al., 1991). "
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking, especially nicotine dependence is associated with more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We investigated the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism on the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms in never-smokers, former smokers, non-dependent, and nicotine-dependent smokers with a current diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety. Patients with depressive or anxiety disorders and with available BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism data (N=1271) were selected from Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Dependent variables were severity of symptoms. Independent variables were smoking status and BDNF genotype. Age, sex, education, recent negative life events, alcohol use, body mass index, and physical activity were treated as covariates. After controlling for covariates, nicotine-dependent smokers had more severe depressive symptoms than non-dependent smokers, former and never-smokers. The latter three groups did not differ in severity of depression. In Val(66)Val carriers, nicotine-dependent smokers had more severe symptoms of depression and anxiety than the other three groups, which were comparable in symptom severity. In Met(66) carriers, there were no group differences on severity of depression and anxiety. Nicotine dependence was the strongest predictor of severity of symptoms only in Val(66)Val carriers. In patients with a current diagnosis of depression or anxiety, the relationship between nicotine dependence and symptom severity may be moderated by BDNF Val(66)Met. These results suggest that inherent genetic differences may be crucial for the worse behavioral outcome of nicotine, and that Val(66)Val carriers may benefit most in mental health from smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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