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The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire: U.S. Normative Data

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Abstract

The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire is a self-report personality inventory measuring three major personality dimensions: Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, and Reward Dependence. Normative data, based on a U.S. national probability sample of 1,019 adults, are presented and the psychometric properties of the questionnaire are discussed.
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... In particular, a significant negative relationship between both variables was observed for women but not for men. Although further research is needed, we suggest that these findings could be due to gender differences in other personality traits involved in risk decision-making such as levels of impulsivity or sensitivity to reward/punishment (Baltruschat et al., 2020;Cloninger et al., 1991;Torrubia et al., 2001). ...
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Background: It is widely accepted that emotions exert a strong influence on risk decision-making. Despite this, the literature studying the role of emotional intelligence (EI) on the tendency to engage in risky behaviour is scarce, and the results appear to be inconclusive. The present study delves into the relationship between EI and risk behaviour through various risk contexts (Ethical, Health, Financial, Social, and Recreational domains). We also examined whether this relationship is age and gender-dependent. Method: A Spanish sample of 1435 participants (Mage = 29.84, from 18 to 70; 61.9% women) was assessed for levels of EI and risk-taking by the TMMS and DOSPERT scales. Results: The results revealed that EI was negatively related to risk behaviour in the Ethical and Health domains and positively related to the Social and Recreational domains. Moreover, we confirmed the influence of gender and age on both EI and risk behaviour. Conclusions: EI is differentially related to risk behaviour depending on the risk domain studied, supporting the idea that risk is a domain-specific construct. We suggest that higher levels of EI could be adaptive for risk behaviour regardless of the direction of the relationship. Practical implications and future lines of research are discussed.
... In the original Most et al. (2005) study, the authors examined the harm avoidance component of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (Cloninger et al., 1991). High harm avoidance includes being anxious, tense, risk-avoidant, and slower to recover from stress, whereas low harm avoidance includes being carefree and confident, a tendency to take risks, and a quicker recovery from stress. ...
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Scientists have long been interested in understanding the influence of emotionally salient stimuli on attention and perception. One experimental paradigm that has shown great promise in demonstrating the effect of such stimuli is emotion-induced blindness. That is, when emotionally salient stimuli are presented in a rapid stream of stimuli, they produce impairments in the perception of task-relevant stimuli, even though they themselves are task irrelevant. This is known as emotion-induced blindness, and it is a profound and robust form of attentional bias. Here, we review the literature on emotion-induced blindness, such as identifying the types of stimuli that elicit it, and its temporal dynamics. We discuss the role of dimensional versus categorical approaches to emotion in relation to emotion-induced blindness. We also synthesize the work examining whether certain individuals, such as those high in anxiety versus psychopathy, succumb to emotion-induced blindness to different extents, and we discuss whether the deficit can be reduced or even abolished. We review the theoretical models that have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. Finally, we identify exciting questions for future research, and elucidate useful frameworks to guide future investigations.
... 65 Persistence is associated with heritable bias toward continuing and persevering without rewards. 66 In addition, the characters are thought to reflect epigenetic influences on behaviors in response to social stimuli. 67-69 Self-directedness is associated with autonomy and life purpose, and cooperativeness is related to positive relationships with others. ...
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Background: Smartphone use patterns may predict daily life efficacy and performance improvements in sports. Additionally, personal characteristics may be associated with smartphone overuse. Methods: We investigated the correlation between the temperament and character inventory (TCI) and academic performance using smartphone log data. We hypothesized that the elite and general groups, divided based on academic performance, differed according to the TCI and downloadable smartphone apps (applications). Additionally, we hypothesized a correlation between smartphone app usage patterns and TCI. A total of 151 students provided smartphone log data of the previous four weeks. They also completed the TCI and provided academic records of the previous year. Results: The first and second most frequently used apps by both groups of students were social networking and entertainment, respectively. Elite students scored higher on novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and self-transcendence than general students. In all participants, the usage time of serious apps was correlated with the scores for novelty seeking (r = 0.32, P < 0.007), reward dependence (r = 0.32, P < 0.007), and self-transcendence (r = 0.35, P < 0.006). In the elite group, the usage time of serious apps was correlated with the scores for novelty seeking (r = 0.45, P < 0.001), reward dependence (r = 0.39, P = 0.022), and self-transcendence (r = 0.35, P = 0.031). In the general group, the usage time of serious apps was correlated only with self-transcendence (r = 0.32, P < 0.007). Conclusion: High usage time of serious apps can help sports majors to excel academically. Particularly among sports majors, serious apps are related to activity, the desire for rewards and recognition, and the tendency to transcend themselves.
... In the context of neuroticism research, jingle fallacy can be observed, for example, when harm avoidance scales from Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) [32] are considered to measure the same as the harm avoidance scale in Tellegen's Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) [33] falsely assuming that they measure the same construct when in fact they are measuring rather different constructs with the TPQ measure being more closely related to neuroticism and the MPQ scale related to fearfulness versus sensation seeking) [34]. In contrast, jangle fallacies in the context of NART research occur, for example, when researchers assume based on the names of scales that the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [35] measures something distinct from what would be measured with a formal neuroticism scale. ...
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Fifty years of neurobiological research on negative affect related traits (NART) has, if anything, only found relatively few and small replicable effects. Here, we outline ten issues potentially contributing to a conceptual chasm between NART and neurobiological measures relating to (A) measurements of individual differences in neurobiological variables, (B) conceptualizations of trait variables, and (C) potential relationships between trait and neurobiological variables. We believe that these issues may transfer to neurobiological research on other traits and that addressing them in future work may contribute to replicable results and valid interpretations. The issues raised also suggest the need for a comprehensive neurobiological theory of NART and for well-designed theory-based studies that may narrow the chasm between traits and neurobiological markers.
... Množstvo výskumných záverov poukazuje na to, že existuje vzťah medzi rizikovým správaním a osobnostnými vlastnosťami. Ako význam né sa javia: všeobecná tendencia riskovať (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975), vnímanie naliehavosti (Woicik et al., 2009), rýchle získanie od meny ako cieľ správania (Brunelle et al., 2009), zameranie na seba a svoje potreby (Vazire & Funder, 2006), vyhľadávanie vzrušenia (Zuc ker man, 1990), nedostatočná vytrvalosť (Cloninger et al., 1991) apod. Špecificky by sme mohli uvažovať o psychoticizme (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) prostredníctvom charakteristík ako sú klamanie, mani pulatívne tendencie, absencia empatie, absencia zodpovednosti, neresponzívnosť apod. ...
... Novelty seeking as a personality trait expressing excitement in reaction to new stimuli. Manning et al. (1995) Cloninger et al. (1991 Age Age is major contributor to the understanding of the behavioural intention to use technology of people. Martins et al. ...
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This paper examines the continuous intention by healthcare professionals to use the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) in combination with responsible artificial intelligence (AI). Using the theory of Diffusion of Innovation (DOI), a model was developed to determine the continuous intention to use IoMT taking into account the risks and complexity involved in using AI. Data was gathered from 276 healthcare professionals through a survey questionnaire across hospitals in Bahrain. Empirical outcomes reveal nine significant relationships amongst the constructs. The findings show that despite contradictions associated with AI, continuous intention to use behaviour can be predicted during the diffusion of IoMT. This study advances the understanding of the role of responsible AI in the continued use of IoMT in healthcare and extends DOI to address the diffusion of two innovations concurrently.
Thesis
ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Hintergrund und Ziele: Internetspiele und Soziale Netzwerke (Social Network Sites = SNSs) bergen ein hohes Suchtpotential. Es ist wichtig die passionierte Nutzung der genannten Medien von der pathologischen Nutzung zu unterscheiden. Die Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) und die Social Network Use Disorder (SND) gehen mit verschiedenen negativen Auswirkungen auf das Individuum und sein Umfeld einher, die denen in substanzgebundenen Süchten beobachteten Effekten gleichen. Jungen und Männer spielen mehr Internetspiele und haben ein größeres Risiko eine IGD zu entwickeln. Für Mädchen und Frauen scheint das Gleiche für SNSs und SND zu gelten. Es bestehen Geschlechtsunterschiede in verschiedenen Bereichen der Suchtentwicklung und -Aufrechterhaltung. Frauen haben beispielsweise eine höhere Tendenz den Substanzgebrauch oder das Glückspiel zu nutzen, um negative Emotionen zu modulieren, entwickeln nach im Vergleich zu Männern kürzeren Konsumzeiten ein süchtiges Verhalten und weisen höhere Rückfalltendenzen auf. Ein Ansatz die auch bei SND und IGD 2 beobachteten geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschiede zu erklären, sind die bereits in substanzbasierten Süchten und in der Glücksspielsucht (die bereits als Verhaltenssucht klassifiziert ist) beobachteten Effekte der weiblichen Sexualhormone Östrogen und Progesteron auf das Suchtverhalten und das mesolimbische Dopaminsystem. Östrogen hat bei Frauen und weiblichen Individuen eine das Suchtverhalten (Eskalation, Craving u.a.) fördernde Wirkung. Progesteron hingegen scheint in beiden Geschlechtern eine das Suchtverhalten hemmende Wirkung zu haben. Erklärt werden diese Effekte unter anderem über den Einfluss der Hormone auf das dopaminerge Belohnungssystem und GABA-erge Synapsen. Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es zu untersuchen, ob die von anderen Autoren beobachteten Geschlechterunterschiede bezüglich IGD und SND reproduziert werden können und ob ein Zusammenhang zwischen den Östrogen- und Progesteronkonzentrationen im Serum und der IGD und SND besteht. Methoden: Über einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren wurden insgesamt 192 Probanden rekrutiert (99 Frauen und 93 Männer). Die Rekrutierung erfolgte in drei Schritten. Im Onlinescreening (1), Telefonscreening (2) und der Testung vor Ort in der Psychiatrischen und Psychotherapeutischen Klinik (3). Es erfolgte jeweils die Erhebung des Internetnutzungsverhaltens mittels DSM-5 Kriterien für IGD und von uns adaptiert für SND, der Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), der Internetnutzungszeiten und ein vor Ort durchgeführtes Craving Experiment. Die Ausschlusskriterien waren u.a. Substanzsüchte, Hinweise auf eine Schizophrenie oder schwere körperliche Erkrankungen. Die Testung vor Ort und die Blutentnahme fanden immer zur gleichen Zeit zwischen 09:00 und 12:00 Uhr am Vormittag statt. Die Bestimmung der Hormone im Serum erfolgte nach Abschluss der Rekrutierung für alle Proben zum gleichen Zeitpunkt. Für die verschiedenen Formen des Estradiols Gesamtestradiol (E2), freies Estradiol (fE2) und bioverfügbares Estradiol (bE2) wurde eine ELISA und für Progesteron die Massenspektrometrie verwendet. Ergebnisse und Beobachtungen: Für die Auswertung der Hormonkonzentrationen im Serum erfolgte die Einteilung der Kohorte in drei Gruppen: Frauen mit hormoneller Kontrazeption (FmH), Frauen ohne hormonelle Kontrazeption (FoH) und Männer. Frauen beider Gruppen erfüllten mehr SND-Kriterien (Männer vs. FmH p = 0,016; Männer vs. FoH p = 0,001), wählten signifikant häufiger SNSs für das Craving-Experiment (Männer vs. FmH p < 0,001; Männer vs. FoH p < 0,001) und FoH verbrachten signifikant mehr Zeit in SNSs (Männer vs. FoH p = 0,004) als Männer. Diese hingegen erfüllten mehr IGD-Kriterien (Männer vs. FmH p = 0,001; Männer vs. FoH p = 0,002) wählten häufiger das Internetspielen für das Craving-Experiment (Männer vs. FmH p < 0,001; Männer vs. FoH p < 0,001) und verbrachten signifikant mehr Zeit mit dem Spielen im Internet als Frauen (Männer vs. FmH p < 0,001; Männer vs. FoH p < 0,001). Insgesamt erfüllten wenige Proband:innen fünf oder mehr IGD-/ bzw. SND-Kriterien. Die 3 Werte für Östrogen und Progesteron waren bei FoH am höchsten und bei FmH am niedrigsten, die Männer lagen dazwischen. Die Estradiolkonzentrationen bei den Männern lagen über den angenommenen Referenzwerten. Bei Männern korrelierte die Estradiolkonzentration signifikant negativ mit den erfüllten SND-Kriterien (bE2) (p = -0,046) und dem maximalen Craving für das Spielen im Internet in den letzten 7 Tagen (E2, fE2, bE2) (p = -0,013; -0,008; -0,007). In der Gruppe FmH zeigte sich eine signifikant positive Korrelation der Estradiolkonzentrationen und der maximalen mit dem Spielen im Internet verbrachten Zeit (p = 0,049), sowie eine signifikant positive Korrelation der Progesteronkonzentration und den erreichten Punkten in der CIUS (p = 0,027). FoH wiesen keinerlei signifikante Korrelationen der untersuchten Parameter auf. Praktische Schlussfolgerungen: Die bereits durch andere Autoren beschriebenen Geschlechterunterschiede bezüglich IGD und SND konnten reproduziert werden. Die Männer erfüllten mehr IGD-Kriterien und verbrachten mehr Zeit mit dem Internetspielen, während die Frauen mehr SND-Kriterien erfüllten und mehr Zeit mit SNSs verbrachten. Höhere Estradiolkonzentrationen scheinen bei Männern im Hinblick auf SND und Craving für Internetspielen protektiv zu sein, während sie bei FmH mit längeren maximalen Internetspielzeiten korrelieren. FoH zeigten in unserer Kohorte keinen Zusammenhang zwischen den Serumkonzentrationen von Östrogen und Progesteron und der IGD bzw. SND. Ursächlich hierfür können unter anderem die geringe Stichprobengröße und die Schwankungen der Hormonkonzentrationen während des Zyklus in dieser Gruppe sein. Insgesamt werden größere Kohorten mit ≥ 5 Kriterien für IGD und SND unter gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung des hormonellen Status bei weiblichen Probandinnen benötigt. Aufgrund der geringen Stichprobengröße und der bei multipler Testung bestehenden Gefahr falsch positiver Ergebnisse bedürfen unsere Ergebnisse der Replikation.
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As the previous studies have mainly focused on the reward system and the corresponding brain regions, the relationship between brain morphology and excessive internet use (EIU) were not clear; the purpose of the study was to investigate if the brain regions other than the reward system were associated with EIU. Data were acquired from 131 excessive internet users. Psychological measures included internet use, life quality, personality, mental illness symptoms, impulsivity, and thought suppression. The brain was scanned with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and six types of brain morphological indexes were calculated. Lasso regression methods were used to select the predictors. Stepwise linear regression methods were used to build the models and verify the model. The variables remaining in the model were left precentral (curve), left superior temporal (surface area), right cuneus (folding index), right rostral anterior cingulate (folding index), and harm avoidance. The independent variable was the EIU score of the worst week in the past year. The study found that the brain morphological indexes other than the reward system, including the left precentral (curve), the left superior temporal (surface area), the right cuneus (folding index), and the right rostral anterior cingulate (folding index), can predict the severity of EIU, suggesting an extensive change in the brain. In this study, a whole‐brain data analysis was conducted and it was concluded that the changes in certain brain regions were more predictive than the reward system and psychological measures or more important for EIU.
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Active exploration of novel spatial environments enhances memory for subsequently presented explicit, declarative information in humans. These effects have been attributed to novelty promoting dopamine release via mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways in the brain. As procedural motor learning has been linked to dopamine as well, we predict that novelty effects extend to this domain. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined whether spatial novelty exploration benefits subsequent sensorimotor adaptation. Participants explored either two different virtual environments (i.e., novelty condition; n = 210) or two identical environments (i.e., familiar condition; n = 253). They then performed a manual adaptation task in which they had to adapt joystick movements to a visual perturbation. We assessed the rate of adaptation following the introduction of this perturbation, and the rate of deadaptation following its removal. While results showed reliable adaptation patterns and similar adaptation rates across both conditions, individuals in the novelty condition showed slower deadaptation. This suggests that exposure to spatial novelty induced stronger sensorimotor representations during adaptation, potentially through novelty-induced dopaminergic effects in mesocortical and/or nigrostriatal pathways. Novelty exposure may be employed to promote motor learning on tasks that require precision movements in altered sensory contexts, for example, in astronauts moving in microgravity or patients with impaired motor processing.
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