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Glycaemic response to maize, bajra and barley

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The postprandial glycaemic response to maize (Zea mays), bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was studied in a pool of 18 healthy volunteers and 14 patients having non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In response to maize, none of the variables examined was significantly different as compared to white bread. The glycaemic response to bajra was significantly lower than that to white bread in healthy subjects, but the two responses were indistinguishable in NIDDM subjects. The insulinaemic responses to bajra and white break were not significantly different in either group of subjects. The glycaemic response to barley was significantly lower than that to white bread in both groups of subjects. But the insulinaemic response to barley was significantly lower than that to white bread only in healthy subjects. In NIDDM subjects, there was a tendency for the response to barley to be higher than that to white bread 0.5 h after ingestion. Barley, with a low glycaemic index (68.7 in healthy and 53.4 in NIDDM subjects) and a high insulinaemic index (105.2) in NIDDM subjects seems to mobilize insulin in NIDDM. This makes it a specially suitable cereal for diabetes mellitus.
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... It has also been shown that millet-based foods (pearl, foxtail, and finger) have been correlated with low GIs in both stable and type 2 diabetes because of their high protein level [50]. Shukla et al. (1991) found that the GR of bajra chapati was significantly lower in stable individuals than white bread. In addition, adding 30 g of fenugreek to millet chapati further decreased GI (Glycaemic Index), which resulted in less GR than that observed by the ingestion of fenugreek millet chapati. ...
... In addition, adding 30 g of fenugreek to millet chapati further decreased GI (Glycaemic Index), which resulted in less GR than that observed by the ingestion of fenugreek millet chapati. In this situation, the GR (Glycaemic Response) reduction could have been due to the quality and viscosity of the fenugreek fibre on the leaves, which may slow GE [51]. The positive relation between the proso millet intake in type 2 diabetic participants and a substantial reduction in the glucose effect has been well founded [52]. ...
... The close correlation between millet consumption and decreased insulin response has already been confirmed. Shukla et al. (1991) found no major variations in IR in stable and type 2 diabetic individuals after the ingestion of pearl millet, while white bread developed somewhat less of an insulin response in type 2 diabetics 1 h after treatment. In stable people, pearl millet demonstrated low GIs and a high insulinemic index; however, the same was true for those with type 2 diabetes with high GIs and a low insulinemic index. ...
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... The methodologies of the studies were similar to some extent, in that a baseline period was generally followed by participants before being instructed to consume a millet-based test product or glucose (control). Five of the studies collected venous blood from volunteers [9,19,21,22]; ten used a finger-prick blood draw [12,18,20,[23][24][25][26][27][28][29]; and four studies did not stipulate on how blood was collected. In the studies that used the finger prick draw (capillary blood), blood samples were taken at the baseline and every 15 and 30 min for 2 to 3h. ...
... In the studies that used the finger prick draw (capillary blood), blood samples were taken at the baseline and every 15 and 30 min for 2 to 3h. From those studies collecting venous blood, three [19,22] took blood every 15, 30 or 60 min, while others conducted long term feeding and took blood before and after the intervention periods [9,21] and 28 days, respectively). In the studies that had no defined blood collection methods, three [17,30,31] had blood samples taken every 30 or 60 min and only one study [32] had blood taken at the baseline, after a month and after two months. ...
... All 19 studies were rated for quality using the checklist for primary research from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; six studies received a positive rating [17,19,21,27,29,31], 12 studies were recorded as neutral [9,12,18,20,22,23,25,26,28,30,32] and only one study had a negative rating [24]. ...
... Reports from the human and animal studies showed that Aloe vera can reduce the chronic hyperglycemia and alter lipid profile which are usually observed in DM patients. It was reported that the antidiabetic effect of Aloe vera is due to the induction of insulin secretion from βcells of the pancreas [38]. ...
... The hypoglycemic effect of these chemicals by the gluconeogenesis/ glycogenolysis process in the liver was studied. Regular administration of Aloe vera extract significantly improves the total blood lipid in alloxan-induced diabetic rats [38]. Also, Aloe vera gel has antioxidant property as well as in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory action [39]. ...
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... Many recent researches also proved its efficacy in diabetes. Hence, found especially suitable cereal for diabetes mellitus.[27] ...
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... Hence, found especially suitable cereal for diabetes mellitus. 11 In another study on adult diabetic rats with a diet containing barley had a modulating effect on the symptoms of diabetes. It was presumed that the beneficial effect of barley might be by its very high content of chromium (5.69 µg/g). ...
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... Consumption of lesser processed grains; brown rice with legumes [41], pearl millet (Bajra) or barley instead of white bread [42], and wheat-based or millet-based formulations as dietary supplements instead of rice-based preparations [43] showed decreased glycaemic response among overweight, normoglycemic individuals and patients with T2DM. Millet-processed items for the modern consumers, e.g. ...
Chapter
Persian medicine (PM) is among the oldest traditional systems of medicine. It was rooted in Persian, Indian, Greek, and Egyptian culture and medicine and was practiced in Iran as well as India and Arabic countries through the history. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatments of diseases in PM are based on temperamental and humoral theories. Based on PM, diet of patients with diabetes should be offered on an individual basis. Patient's and disease Mizaj (temperament) is the main determinants of individualization of patients in PM. Besides these individualized recommendations some general healthy eating rules are suggested to these patients. Adherence to these recommendations is showed to be beneficial in improvement of glycemic and lipid outcomes of patients with diabetes in recent clinical studies. Besides dietary recommendations, many herbal supplements are suggested for patients with diabetes in PM. Psyllium, safflower, spinach, sumac, bitter apple, common purslane, barely, and cinnamon are some of examples of these recommended supplements. Multiple recent preclinical and clinical studies have supported the beneficial effects of these herbal supplements in diabetes.
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