Clinical observations and systematic studies of autogynephilia

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of Sex and Marital Therapy 17(4):235-51 · February 1991with478 Reads
DOI: 10.1080/00926239108404348 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The term autogynephilia denotes a male's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman. This term subsumes transvestism as well as erotic ideas or situations in which women's garments per se play a small role or none at all. This review article presents clinical examples of the lesser known types of autogynephilia (i.e., those in which the element of cross-dressing is secondary or entirely absent), sketches earlier attempts to label and conceptualize these phenomena, summarizes recent quantitative studies exploring the relationships between autogynephilia and other psychosexual variables (e.g., heterosexual attraction), and speculates on the etiology of autogynephilia and its relationship to transsexualism. It is concluded that the concept of autogynephilia is needed to fill a gap in our current battery of concepts and categories for thinking about gender identity disorders.
    • "Autogynephilia has been a controversial topic, but this controversy has reflected sociopolitical concerns more than the quality of scientific evidence (Bailey & Triea, 2007; Dreger, 2008;Lawrence,2004). There is little question that autogynephilia existsinsomenatalmalesandfiguresimportantlyintheirlives.For example, autogynephilia is the motivation why some males crossdress fetishistically (Bailey, 2003; Blanchard, 1989a Blanchard, , 1991 Lawrence, 2013). It is also part of the motivation why, rarely, natal males who are nonhomosexual (i.e., not exclusively attracted to men) physically transform their bodies into those of women (Blanchard, 1985Blanchard, , 1988Blanchard, , 1989b Lawrence, 2004 Lawrence, , 2007 Lawrence, , 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Men’s sexual arousal patterns have been an important window into the nature of their erotic interests. Autogynephilia is a natal male’s paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of being a woman. Autogynephilic arousal per se is difficult to assess objectively, because it is inwardly focused. However, assessing sexual arousal patterns of autogynephilic males in response to external stimuli is also potentially useful. For example, there is substantial association between autogynephilia and gynandromorphophilia (GAMP), or sexual attraction to gynandromorphs (GAMs), colloquially “she-males.” GAMP men’s sexual arousal patterns in response to GAM, female, and male stimuli have recently been characterized. In the present study, we extended this understanding by comparing the sexual arousal patterns of autogynephilic male cross-dressers, GAMP men, heterosexual men, and homosexual men. Erotic stimuli included sexually explicit videos of men, women, and GAMs. Autogynephilic men were much more similar in their arousal patterns to heterosexual and GAMP men than to homosexual men. However, similar to GAMP men, autogynephilic men showed increased arousal by GAM stimuli relative to female stimuli compared with heterosexual men.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2016
    • "A third hypothesis regarding GAMP is that it is often a manifestation of autogynephilia, which is both rarer than but closely related to male heterosexuality. Autogynephilia is a man's sexual arousal to the thought or image of himself as a woman (Blanchard, 1989aBlanchard, , 1991 Lawrence, 2004 Lawrence, , 2013). A man with autogynephilia has heterosexual desire for the woman he desires to be (Blanchard, 1992). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Gynandromorphophilia (GAMP) is sexual interest in gynandromorphs (GAMs; colloquially, shemales). GAMs possess a combination of male and female physical characteristics. Thus, GAMP presents a challenge to conventional understandings of sexual orientation as sexual attraction to the male v. female form. Speculation about GAMP men has included the ideas that they are homosexual, heterosexual, or especially, bisexual. Method: We compared genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns of GAMP men with those of heterosexual and homosexual men. We also compared these groups on their self-ratings of sexual orientation and sexual interests. Results: GAMP men had arousal patterns similar to those of heterosexual men and different from those of homosexual men. However, compared to heterosexual men, GAMP men were relatively more aroused by GAM erotic stimuli than by female erotic stimuli. GAMP men also scored higher than both heterosexual and homosexual men on a measure of autogynephilia. Conclusions: Results provide clear evidence that GAMP men are not homosexual. They also indicate that GAMP men are especially likely to eroticize the idea of being a woman.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
    • "With one exception (''Which of the following pictures of yourself has been most strongly associated with sexual arousal?''), items on the Core Autogynephilia Scale were answered dichotomously as''yes''or''no.''Of the individual items in the scale, six asked whether sexual arousal has ever been experienced when picturing oneself with a female body or with specific parts of the female body, one asked which picture of oneself as a woman in different states of undress was most arousing (the only item that was not dichotomous, but with options to deny sexual arousal to any picture of oneself as a woman), and the final item asked whether one has ever been sexually aroused at the thought of being a woman. Thus, as Blanchard (1991) noted, the scale is essentially a measure of anatomic autogynephilia. A point is added to the total score for each item that is endorsed. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autogynephilia, or paraphilic sexual arousal in a man to the thought or image of himself as a woman, manifests in a variety of different behaviors and fantasies. We examined the psychometric structure of 22 items assessing five known types of autogynephilia by subjecting them to exploratory factor analysis in a sample of 149 autogynephilic men. Results of oblique factor analyses supported the ability to distinguish five group factors with suitable items. Results of hierarchical factor analyses suggest that the five group factors were strongly underlain by a general factor of autogynephilia. Because the general factor accounted for a much greater amount of the total variance of the 22 items than did the group factors, the types of autogynephilia that a man has seem less important than the degree to which he has autogynephilia. However, the five types of autogynephilia remain conceptually useful because meaningful distinctions were found among them, including differential rates of endorsement and differential ability to predict other relevant variables like gender dysphoria. Factor-derived scales and subscales demonstrated good internal consistency reliabilities, and validity, with large differences found between autogynephilic men and heterosexual male controls. Future research should attempt to replicate our findings, which were mostly exploratory.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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