Influenza vaccination in the prevention of acute otits media in children
We studied a new approach to the prevention of acute otitis media through the administration of influenza vaccine to 187 day-care center children aged 1 to 3 years before the influenza A epidemic of 1988-1989. The control group consisted of 187 unvaccinated children of similar age and background. During the 6-week study period, influenza A infection was diagnosed in five (3%) of 187 vaccinees and in 29 (16%) of 187 controls. Acute otitis media developed in three (60%) of five vaccinees with an influenza A infection compared with 18 (67%) of 27 controls (excluded were two children with a double viral infection). The incidence of acute otitis media associated with influenza A was reduced by 83% in the vaccinees. The total number of children with acute otitis media in the vaccine group was 35, compared with 55 in the control group, disclosing a 36% reduction among the vaccinees. We conclude that influenza vaccination decreases the incidence of acute otitis media in children during an influenza A epidemic, suggesting also that other vaccines against respiratory viruses may be an effective way to reduce the incidence of acute otitis media.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Lower rates of ILI in other age groups followed vaccination of children in Russia and the USA [40, 94]. Complication rates are also lower in vaccinated children, notably the incidence of otitis media [10, 32, 49, 74, 88] and the rate of respiratory illness in children with asthma . "
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The burden of influenza is unevenly distributed, with more severe outcomes in children aged <5 years than older children and adults. In spite of this, immunisation policies for young children are far from universal. This article provides an overview of the published evidence on the burden of influenza in children worldwide, with a particular interest in the impact of pandemic influenza in 2009-2010 (caused by the H1N1pdm09 virus). In an average season, up to 9.8 % of 0- to 14-year olds present with influenza, but incidence rates can be markedly higher in younger children. Children aged <5 years have greater rates of hospitalisation and complications than their older counterparts, particularly if the children have co-existing illnesses; historically, this age group have had higher mortality rates from the disease than other children, although during the 2009-2010 pandemic the median age of those who died of influenza was higher than in previous seasons. Admissions to hospital and emergency departments appear to have been more frequent in children with H1N1pdm09 infections than during previous seasonal epidemics, with pneumonia continuing to be a common complication in this setting. Outcomes in children hospitalised with severe disease also seem to have been worse for those infected with H1N1pdm09 viruses compared with seasonal viruses. Studies in children confirm that vaccination reduces the incidence of seasonal influenza and the associated burden, underlining the importance of targeting this group in national immunisation policies.
Children aged <5 years are especially vulnerable to influenza, particularly that caused by seasonal viruses, and vaccination in this group can be an effective strategy for reducing disease burden.
Available from: Ivana Luksic
- "Eight studies evaluated the effectiveness of live vaccines: 4 RCTs (10,19,24,25) and 4 cohort studies (30,31,34,35). Thirteen studies assessed the efficacy of inactivated vaccines: 7 RCTs (13,14,16-18,21,28), 4 cohort studies (32,33,36,37), and 2 case-control studies (38,39). Eight studies assessed the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines: 5 RCTs (15-17,23,24) and 3 cohort studies (29,32,36). "
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To assess the efficacy and effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccines in healthy children up to the age of 18 years.
MedLine, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, WHOLIS, LILACS, and Global Health were searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort and case-control studies investigating the efficacy or effectiveness of influenza vaccines in healthy children up to the age of 18 years. The studies were assessed for their quality and data on the outcomes of influenza-like illness, laboratory-confirmed influenza, and hospitalizations were extracted. Seven meta-analyses were performed for different vaccines and different study outcomes.
Vaccine efficacy for live vaccines, using random effects model, was as follows: (i) for similar antigen, using per-protocol analysis: 83.4% (78.3%-88.8%); (ii) for similar antigen, using intention to treat analysis: 82.5 (76.7%-88.6%); (iii) for any antigen, using per protocol analysis: 76.4% (68.7%-85.0%); (iv) for any antigen, using intention to treat analysis: 76.7% (68.8%-85.6%). Vaccine efficacy for inactivated vaccines, for similar antigen, using random effects model, was 67.3% (58.2%-77.9%). Vaccine effectiveness against influenza-like illness for live vaccines, using random effects model, was 31.4% (24.8%-39.6%) and using fixed-effect model 44.3% (42.6%-45.9%). Vaccine effectiveness against influenza-like illness for inactivated vaccines, using random effects model, was 32.5% (20.0%-52.9%) and using fixed-effect model 42.6% (38.3%-47.5%).
Influenza vaccines showed high efficacy in children, particularly live vaccines. Effectiveness was lower and the data on hospitalizations were very limited.
Available from: Allen C Cheng
- "This study however, suggests that the influence of respiratory viruses on OM in this population may be undervalued. A review by Cripps and Otczyk in 2006 promotes a vaccine that includes both bacterial and viral antigens  and others have shown that the influenza vaccine can reduce overall AOM incidence by greater than 30% [39-41]. Whether vaccines for individual viruses would have an impact on endemic OM is unclear, but protection against multiple pathogens may be needed to attenuate the complex interplay between viruses and bacteria in OM in high risk populations. "
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ABSTRACT: Acute otitis media with perforation (AOMwiP) affects 40% of remote Indigenous children during the first 18 months of life. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the primary bacterial pathogens of otitis media and their loads predict clinical ear state. Our hypothesis is that antecedent respiratory viral infection increases bacterial density and progression to perforation.
A total of 366 nasopharyngeal swabs from 114 Indigenous children were retrospectively examined. A panel of 17 respiratory viruses was screened by PCR, and densities of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis were estimated by quantitative real time PCR. Data are reported by clinical ear state.
M. catarrhalis (96%), H. influenzae (91%), S. pneumoniae (89%) and respiratory viruses (59%) were common; including rhinovirus (HRV) (38%), polyomavirus (HPyV) (14%), adenovirus (HAdV) (13%), bocavirus (HBoV) (8%) and coronavirus (HCoV) (4%). Geometric mean bacterial loads were significantly higher in children with acute otitis media (AOM) compared to children without evidence of otitis media. Children infected with HAdV were 3 times more likely (p < 0.001) to have AOM with or without perforation.
This study confirms a positive association between nasopharyngeal bacterial load and clinical ear state, exacerbated by respiratory viruses, in Indigenous children. HAdV was independently associated with acute ear states.
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