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Attained height of lacto-ovo vegetarian children and adolescents

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  • Newstart Research

Abstract

The relationship between diet and attained height was studied in children and adolescents in Southern California. Diet pattern was determined from an extensive food frequency questionnaire in 1765 Caucasian children of 7-18 years, attending state schools (452 m and 443 f) and Seventh-day Adventist schools (427 m and 443 f). The major difference in diet pattern between state and Adventist school children was in meat consumption. The Adventist children were split evenly between three categories of frequency in meat consumption (less than 1/week, 1/week-less than 1/d, and greater than or equal to 1/d), while 92 percent of state school children consumed meat daily. Vegetarians (those consuming meat less than 1/week) differed significantly in the consumption of other major food groups, such as fruit and vegetables. All school and diet subgroups were at or above the 50th percentile of the National Center for Health Statistics. Age-adjusted regression analysis showed that on average Adventist vegetarian children were taller than their meat-consuming classmates (2.5 and 2.0 cm for boys and girls, respectively). These results did not change materially when adjusting for other food groups. Nor did adjustment for parental height and socioeconomic factors in a sub-sample of 518 children. The results indicate that vegetarian children and adolescents on a balanced diet grow at least as tall as children who consume meat.
... The impact of the vegetarian diet on children's development has been studied since the 1970s. Some authors have observed that a vegetarian diet may cause lower birth weight, as well as a lower body height and body weight at a later age, while the results of other studies did not show such a relation (Sanders 1988;O'Connell et al. 1989;Sabaté et al. 1991;Sanders & Manning 1992;Piccoli et al. 2015;Pistollato et al. 2015). Significant differences in the body structure of children and adults using vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets refer to the level of body fat, especially Body Mass Index (BMI) (Rosell et al. 2005;Sabaté & Wien 2010). ...
... Some studies showed that vegetarian diet can contribute to lower body height, while the others indicated no such effect or reported opposite tendency. (O'Connell et al. 1989;Sabaté et al. 1991;Sanders & Manning 1992;Rosell et al. 2005). In many works it was shown that BMI of children and adults who use a plantbased diet is definitely lower than in meat-eaters (Newby et al. 2005;Berkow & Barnard 2006;Huang et al. 2016). ...
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Introduction: Vegetarian diet is increasingly used in both adults and children. Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the differences in the body build and reaction time of vegetarian and non-vegetarian children on the background of socio-economic factors. Material and methods: The material consisted of 218 children, including 47 vegetarians (25 boys and 22 girls) and 171 non-vegetarians (93 boys and 78 girls) from 3 to 15 years. The research consisted of a survey and measurements. The survey included questions such as date of birth, child's birth parameters (length, weight, Apgar scores), child's diet (vegetarian/non-vegetarian), mother's diet during pregnancy (vegetarian/non-vegetarian), breastfeeding (yes/no), number of months of breastfeeding, mother's diet during lactation (vegetarian/non-vegetarian), maternal and parental education level (elementary / trade/ college / university), living conditions and the number of siblings. The height and body mass, skin-fat folds on the abdomen, shoulder and arm (sum of 3 skinfolds) were measured, BMI was calculated and the reaction time was assessed using the Quickstick ruler. The General Linear Model, Wald's test, U-Mann-Whitney test and Principal Components Analysis were applied. Results: The results showed that vegetarian children who came from families with a higher socio-economic status than non-vegetarian were significantly longer breastfed. The somatic build of vegetarian children, including height, BMI and the sum of three skinfolds significantly differed from non-vegetarian children. The vegetarian children were shorter, with lower BMI and lower sum of the three skinfolds, as well as their reaction time was longer. Conclusions: Vegetarian diet affects the height, BMI and body fatness, as well as the reaction time in children at the age of 3-15.
... Cognizance of the nutritional benefits of ASF consumption for children has prompted significant international literature on the nutritional consequences of vegetarianism, mostly conducted in high-income countries. These studies raise concerns about micronutrient deficiencies as well as slower growth (19)(20)(21)(22)(23), although some studies found that vegetarian children are taller than nonvegetarian peers (24,25). A study in the UK specifically focused on older children from north Indian ethnic groups in which lactovegetarian diets are common (26), although the relevance of this study to children in India is questionable given likely differences in diets and health environments. ...
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Background: India has high rates of child undernutrition and widespread lactovegetarianism. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine how nutrition outcomes varied among Indian preschool children in relation to the vegetarian status of their parents. Methods: The 2015-2016 National Family Health Survey (NFHS) and the 2011-2012 National Sample Survey (NSS) were used to explore associations between parental vegetarian status and child stunting and wasting at ages 0-59 mo and anemia at ages 6-59 mo. In the NFHS, self-reports on usual consumption of foods were used to classify maternal diets, whereas in the NSS lactovegetarianism was defined at the household level. Results: Compared with children of nonvegetarian mothers, children aged 24-59 mo of lactovegetarian mothers were 2.9 percentage points (95% CI: -4.0, -1.9) less likely to be stunted and children aged 6-23 mo were 1.6 points less likely to be wasted (95% CI: -3.0, -0.03), whereas children aged 6-23 mo with vegan mothers were 5.2 points more likely to be stunted (95% CI: 0.1, 9.4). When compared with nonvegetarian households, lactovegetarian households had better socioeconomic status and were more likely to consume dairy frequently. Children in nonvegetarian households consumed nondairy animal-sourced foods (ASFs) with relatively low frequency. The frequency of maternal dairy consumption was significantly associated with lower risks of child stunting and wasting. Conclusions: Anthropometric outcomes differed by maternal vegetarian status, which is itself strongly associated with socioeconomic position, location, religion, and caste.
... A recent review [39] summarizing studies in vegetarian vs. omnivorous diets in children [2,3,4,9,10,22,28,32,36,40] found that physical development between the two groups of same-aged children was generally similar in terms of height, weight and body mass index (BMI). However, some studies from the 1980s and 1990s [11,23,38] report a reduced albeit still normal body weight and a lower body fat mass in children on vegetarian diets. ...
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In Western countries, vegetarian diets are associated with lower intakes of energy, saturated fatty acids and animal protein and higher intakes of fibre and phytochemicals, compared to omnivorous diets. Whether the corresponding health benefits in vegetarians outweigh the risks of nutrient deficiencies has not been fully clarified. It should be noted that vegetarians often have a higher socioeconomic status, follow a more health-conscious lifestyle with higher physical activity, and refrain from smoking more often than non-vegetarians. The nutritional needs of growing children and adolescents can generally be met through a balanced, vegetable-based diet; however, due to their higher nutrient requirements per kilogramme of body weight, vegetarian children have a higher risk for developing nutrient deficiencies than adults. With a vegetarian diet, the mean intakes of some nutrients, such as the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are lower than in omnivores or those eating fish. For other nutrients, such as iron and zinc, the bioavailability from vegetable foodstuffs is reduced when the intake of phytates and fibre is high; thus, the prevalence of iron deficiency can be increased despite high vitamin C intake. In addition, vitamin B12 is only found in animal-source foods. Vitamin B12 should be supplemented in people of all age groups who follow a strict vegan diet without consuming animal products. A vegetarian diet in childhood and adolescence requires good information and supervision by a paediatrician, if necessary, in cooperation with an appropriately trained dietary specialist.
... Many other studies on vegetarian adolescents compared dietary intakes for only a few foods or nutrients (44), or were conducted on younger non-US populations (45)(46)(47). Our study is one of the very few that investigated the dietary intake of vegetarian adolescents. ...
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Dietary intake of adult vegetarians from large prospective studies has been well-characterized but is rarely reported in vegetarian adolescents. Our objective was to describe and compare the dietary intake of vegetarian adolescents with their non-vegetarian counterparts in a population known to espouse healthy living. Adolescents (n = 534) aged 12-18 years old from middle and high schools near major Adventist universities in Michigan and Southern California provided dietary, demographic, and anthropometric data. Dietary intake was measured with a validated 151-item self-administered web-based food frequency questionnaire; weight and height were measured during school visits. Vegetarian was defined as the combined intake of meat, meat derivatives, poultry, and fish of <1 serving per week. Descriptive statistics and ANCOVA were used to compare the intake of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Vegetarians significantly ate more fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods, but significantly less foods of animal origin, sugar-sweetened beverages, and coffee/tea compared to non-vegetarians. Vegetarians had significantly higher intakes of carbohydrates and total protein but lower intakes of fats, animal protein, and zinc compared to their counterparts. A majority (75% or more) of both groups met the 2015 Dietary Guidelines' age-and-gender-specific recommendations for most nutrients but only 16-18% of vegetarians/non-vegetarians did not exceed the upper limit for sodium. More vegetarians (49%) than non-vegetarians (25%) had <10% of their caloric intake from SFA. More than 90% of both groups met dairy recommendations, but greater proportions of vegetarians met recommendations for vegetables, fruits, nuts/soy products, and legumes than non-vegetarians. Of the non-vegetarians, only 7% and 44% met the fish and meats/poultry/eggs recommendation, respectively, which none of the vegetarians met. Compared to the general US adolescent population, both diet groups ate more fruits, vegetables, dairy and protein foods, and also consumed more micronutrients but less macronutrients. Overall, vegetarian adolescents have a more favorable dietary intake profile than non-vegetarians, but both vegetarians and non-vegetarians in this study population have a more adequate diet than the general US adolescent population. The influence of the Adventist plant-based diet culture that is translated both at home and at school is evident in our findings.
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Consumer interest in plant-based cheeses (PBCs) has increased in the last few years due to consumer concern for animal welfare, environmental impact, and health. In order to increase the acceptability of PBCs, sensory studies must be conducted. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability, sensory properties, and emotional responses to PBCs currently being sold in Canada. There were two different sensory trials conducted. In the first trial (n=100), raw PBCs were evaluated, and in the second trial (n=93) melted PBCs were evaluated. In both trials, five different PBCs were evaluated using nine-point hedonic scales, a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, and the CATA variant of the EsSense25 profile. Participants were also asked to answer open-ended comment questions about PBCs. The results showed that participants thought PBCs are healthier than regular dairy cheese, but they did not like the flavour or textural properties of PBCs. PBCs that are buttery, smooth, and have soft attributes were preferred by the participants. Participants mainly disliked PBCs that were mouthcoating, rubbery, and had off-flavours. The PBCs with higher overall liking scores were associated with positive emotions.
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OBJECTIVES The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationships between vegetarian diet and growth, micronutrient stores, and serum lipids among healthy children. Secondary objectives included exploring whether cow’s milk consumption or age modified these relationships. METHODS A longitudinal cohort study of children aged 6 months to 8 years who participated in the TARGet Kids! cohort study. Linear mixed-effect modeling was used to evaluate the relationships between vegetarian diet and BMI z-score (zBMI), height-for-age z-score, serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and serum lipids. Generalized estimating equation modeling was used to explore weight status categories. Possible effect modification by age and cow’s milk consumption was examined. RESULTS A total of 8907 children, including 248 vegetarian at baseline, participated. Mean age at baseline was 2.2 years (SD 1.5). There was no evidence of an association between vegetarian diet and zBMI, height-for-age z-score, serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or serum lipids. Children with vegetarian diet had higher odds of underweight (zBMI <−2) (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.19 to 2.96; P = .007) but no association with overweight or obesity was found. Cow’s milk consumption was associated with higher nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .03), total cholesterol (P = .04), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .02) among children with vegetarian diet. However, children with and without vegetarian diet who consumed the recommended 2 cups of cow’s milk per day had similar serum lipids. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of clinically meaningful differences in growth or biochemical measures of nutrition for children with vegetarian diet was not found. However, vegetarian diet was associated with higher odds of underweight.
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The growth profile of preschool children living in some rural areas of Bayelsa state was studied. The number of children studied was three hundred (300) out of which 158 were males and 142 were females. The result from the analysis of the anthropometric data obtained showed 93.5% of the children to be normal, 6.5% have mild PEM while non of the children had moderate nor severe PEM. The standard used for this study was the NCHS/WHO (1977) anthropometric data. The overall mean (x) weight forage for the male children was 17.5kg while that for the female children was 17.0kg.on the other hand, the overall mean (x) height forage for both male and female children is 1.11m. The mean height forage for female children aged 2, 3.5 and 5 years was higher than that of the male children by 0.3, 0.1 and 0.11m. the mean weight forage for male children and 2,3, 3.5 and 5 years is higher than that of the female children by 0.7kg , 0.3kg, 0.7kg and 1.11kg respectively. The occupational level of the parent is reflected on the growth profile of the children, for instance parent whose occupation were carpenters and unemployed contributed immensely to the 6.5% of children having mild PEM. The result showed that the children are well nourished. This is contrary to what is popularly believed of children in the childworld countries.
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Background: The vegan diet in children provides the benefit of reducing the risk of being overweight and improving the fat profile. The risk that can occur in the provision of a vegan diet in children is anthropometric size below reference and low caloric intake. Growth hormone (GH) and Insulin like Growth Factors (IGFs) are powerful stimulators for longitudinal growth of bone and require insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBPs) which acts as a transport protein for IGF-1. A vegan diet with lower calorie intake in children has lower IGF-I levels than children with an omnivorous diet. Objective: Examining the effect of vegan diets on IGF-1 levels, IGFBP-3 levels, and growth velocity. Methods: This study was done with a prospective cohort design. The study subjects were divided into two groups, namely the vegan group and the omnivorous group, then matched based on age and sex. During the study, anthropometric data collection, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels measurements were done in both vegan children and omnivorous children. Results: During 6 months of observation, 22 subjects were divided into two groups, namely children with a vegan diet and children with an omnivorous diet. IGF-1 (ng / mL) in vegan children was 105.5 ± 47.3 compared to 102.7 ± 42.3 in omnivorous children with a value of p = 0.89. IGFBP-3 (ng / mL) in vegan children was 2146.4 ± 595.1 compared to 2142 ± 609.1 in omnivorous children with value of p = 0.99 and Growth Velocity (cm / 6 months) was 3.0 in vegan children (1.0-5.30), and 3.2 (2.6-6.5) in omnivorous children with value of p = 0.41. Conclusion:Children with vegan diet had IGF-1 level, IGFBP-3 level, and growth velocity that were the same as children with an omnivorous diet.
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The influence of vegetarian and vegan diet on children’s health has been discussed not only by pediatricians but also by other professionals who take care of children. Therefore, the aim of this recommendations, based on presented and summarized scientific evidences on the effect of vegetarian and vegan diet on children’s and adolescents’ health, was to state the instructions of the Croatian Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition of the Croatian Medical Association. Vegetarian, and especially vegan diet, is not only the omission of meat and other food of animal origin, but has to represent balanced nutrition adjusted for children. Such a child requires continuous supervision not only by primary health physician but also by pediatric nutritionist, who both have to be specially educated in the field. As restrictions in diet significantly increase the risk for nutritional deficiencies, parents who decide to follow such a diet, and all professionals who take care of such children, have to be aware of possible nutritional risks that are much bigger than in adulthood.
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In westlichen Ländern werden bei einer sorgfältig zusammengestellten vegetarischen Ernährung im Vergleich zur üblichen omnivoren Kost weniger Energie, gesättigte Fettsäuren und tierisches Protein, aber mehr Ballaststoffe und sekundäre Pflanzenstoffe aufgenommen. Inwieweit die dadurch bedingten positiven gesundheitlichen Effekte bei Vegetariern das Risiko von Nährstoffdefiziten überwiegen, ist bisher nicht abschließend geklärt. Berücksichtigt werden muss in diesem Zusammenhang auch, dass Vegetarier häufiger einen höheren sozioökonomischen Status haben und einen insgesamt gesundheitsbewussteren Lebensstil pflegen, mit mehr Bewegung und Verzicht auf Rauchen. Der Nährstoffbedarf heranwachsender Kinder und Jugendlicher kann durch eine ausgewogene, pflanzenbetonte Ernährung überwiegend gedeckt werden. Jedoch haben vegetarisch ernährte Kinder aufgrund ihres im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen deutlich höheren Nährstoffbedarfs pro Kilogramm Körpergewicht ein erhöhtes Risiko einer Mangelversorgung. Die Zufuhr einiger Nährstoffe, z. B. der Omega-3-Fettsäure Docosahexaensäure (DHA), ist bei vegetarischer Ernährung im Mittel deutlich geringer als bei Omnivoren bzw. Fischverzehr. Bei anderen Nährstoffen (z. B. Eisen, Zink) besteht zudem eine verminderte Bioverfügbarbeit aus pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln bei hoher Aufnahme von Phytaten und Ballaststoffen, sodass häufiger ein Eisenmangel resultieren kann, trotz hoher Zufuhr an Vitamin C. Vitamin B12 ist in nennenswerten Mengen nur in tierischen Lebensmitteln zu finden und muss deshalb bei rein pflanzlicher Kost in jeder Altersgruppe supplementiert werden. Insgesamt setzt eine vegetarische Ernährung im Kindesalter einen hohen Informationsstand der Eltern und Jugendlichen voraus und erfordert die gezielte Betreuung durch den Kinder- und Jugendarzt, ggf. in Kooperation mit einer entsprechend geschulten Ernährungsfachkraft.
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