Functional difference between intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways: Kinetics of factor X activation on human monocytes and alveolar macrophages

Department of Medicine, Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27103.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 06/1991; 266(13):8079-85.
Source: PubMed


Activation of coagulation factor X via the intrinsic pathway requires the assembly of factors IXa and VIII on lipid membranes. It is known that the platelet expresses membrane sites for assembly of factors IXa/VIII and promotes efficient factor X activation. We now show that human blood monocytes, but not lymphocytes or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, also express appropriate sites for factors IXa/VIII assembly. The maximal rate of factor X activation by factors IXa (0.75 nM) and VIII (1 unit/ml) assembled on monocytes is similar to the maximal rate on platelets. This rate, adjusted per micromole of lipid phosphorus, is 1636 +/- 358 nM factor Xa/min on monocyte, and 1569 +/- 54 nM factor Xa/min on platelets. At physiologic concentrations of factors X and VIII, the activation rate increases with factor IXa concentration asymptotically approaching a maximum. Half-maximal rate is achieved with 1.0 +/- 0.16 nM factor IXa. Monocytes and macrophages, but not platelets, can express membrane tissue factor and thus promote simultaneous assembly of two distinct factor X-activating protease complexes. In these studies, blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages are used as membrane sources in kinetic experiments comparing factor X activation by intrinsic (factor IXa/VIII) versus extrinsic (factor VII/tissue factor) protease complexes. At plasma concentration of factors VIII and VII, apparent Km on the monocyte is 14.6 +/- 1.4 nM for intrinsic and 117.0 +/- 10.1 nM for extrinsic activation. The apparent Km on alveolar macrophages is 12.1 +/- 1.9 and 90.6 +/- 10.2 nM for intrinsic and extrinsic activation, respectively. Maximal rates on monocytes at saturating concentration of factors IXa, VIII, and VII are 48.0 +/- 11.2 nM factor Xa/min, for intrinsic activation, and 16.5 +/- 5.5 nM factor Xa/min, for extrinsic activation. These data show that the monocyte/macrophage is the only blood-derived cell type with membrane sites for both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway assembly. We have exploited this characteristic of the monocyte/macrophage membrane to demonstrate that factor X activation by the intrinsic pathway protease is more efficient than activation via the extrinsic pathway protease complex.

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Available from: Maria P McGee, Nov 18, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Generation of coagulation factor Xa by the intrinsic pathway protease complex is essential for normal activation of the coagulation cascade in vivo. Monocytes and platelets provide membrane sites for assembly of components of this protease complex, factors IXa and VIII. Under biologically relevant conditions, expression of functional activity by this complex is associated with activation of factor VIII to VIIIa. In the present studies, autocatalytic regulatory pathways operating on monocyte and platelet membranes were investigated by comparing the cofactor function of thrombin-activated factor VIII to that of factor Xa-activated factor VIII. Reciprocal functional titrations with purified human factor VIII and factor IXa were performed at fixed concentrations of human monocytes, CaCl2, factor X, and either factor IXa or factor VIII. Factor VIII was preactivated with either thrombin or factor Xa, and reactions were initiated by addition of factor X. Rates of factor X activation were measured using chromogenic substrate specific for factor Xa. The K1/2 values, i.e., concentration of factor VIIIa at which rates were half maximal, were 0.96 nM with thrombin-activated factor VIII and 1.1 nM with factor Xa-activated factor VIII. These values are close to factor VIII concentration in plasma. The Vsat, i.e., rates at saturating concentrations of factor VIII, were 33.3 and 13.6 nM factor Xa/min, respectively. The K1/2 and Vsat values obtained in titrations with factor IXa were not significantly different from those obtained with factor VIII. In titrations with factor X, the values of Michaelis-Menten coefficients (Km) were 31.7 nM with thrombin-activated factor VIII, and 14.2 nM with factor Xa-activated factor VIII. Maximal rates were 23.4 and 4.9 nM factor Xa/min, respectively. The apparent catalytic efficiency was similar with either form of factor VIIIa. Kinetic profiles obtained with platelets as a source of membrane were comparable to those obtained with monocytes. These kinetic profiles are consistent with a 1:1 stoichiometry for the functional interaction between cofactor and enzyme on the surface of monocytes and platelets. Taken together, these results indicate that autocatalytic pathways connecting the extrinsic, intrinsic, and common coagulation pathways can operate efficiently on the monocyte membrane.
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