Dose-dependent inhibition of the hemodynamic response to dipyridamole by caffeine
We investigated the effects of the adenosine antagonist caffeine on the hemodynamic response to dipyridamole infusion (0.4 mg/kg for 4 minutes). According to a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind protocol, eight normotensive volunteers each participated in five tests: placebo after placebo, dipyridamole after placebo, and dipyridamole after 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg caffeine. Infusion of caffeine alone (4 mg/kg) induced an increase in mean arterial pressure of 6.1 +/- 0.5 mm Hg versus 1.5 +/- 0.9 mm Hg after placebo (p less than 0.05). Infusion of dipyridamole alone exerted a characteristic hemodynamic response with an increase in systolic blood pressure (+8.4 +/- 2.4 mm Hg), pulse pressure (+7.0 +/- 2.4 mm Hg), heart rate (+25.7 +/- 3.8 beats/min) and calculated rate-pressure product (+3419 mm Hg x beats per minute), all being significantly different from the changes induced by placebo. Caffeine induced a dose-dependent attenuation of the response to dipyridamole, with a significant negative correlation between the dose of caffeine on the one hand (0, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg) and the dipyridamole-induced increments in systolic blood pressure (r = -0.53), pulse pressure (r = -0.50), heart rate (r = -0.95), and rate-pressure product (r = -0.93) on the other hand. We conclude that caffeine attenuates the hemodynamic response to dipyridamole infusion in humans in a dose-dependent fashion. Because of the wide-spread use of caffeine, this pharmacologic interaction may be of clinical importance, for example, in the diagnostic use of dipyridamole in thallium-201 myocardial imaging.
Available from: Flemming Dela
- ") and although levels did not significantly increase until 20 min following ingestion it is likely that the portal vein concentrations were much higher because caffeine to a large extent is extracted by the liver (Pencek et al. 2004). In addition, caffeine at concentrations of 3–9 µm, which we achieved by 15 min post-ingestion, are known to be biologically active (Smits et al. 1991). The absence of an accompanying increase in adrenaline concentrations cannot explain the lack of caffeine effect on EGP, as the higher adrenaline concentrations obtained in the HAdr trial also did not increase EGP. "
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ABSTRACT: While caffeine impedes insulin-mediated glucose disposal in humans, its effect on endo-genous glucose production (EGP) remains unknown. In addition, the mechanism involved in these effects is unclear, but may be due to the accompanying increase in adrenaline concentration. We studied the effect of caffeine on EGP and glucose infusion rates (GIR), and whether or not adrenaline can account for all of caffeine's effects. Subjects completed three isoglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps (with 3-[(3)H]glucose infusion) 30 min after ingesting: (1) placebo capsules (n= 12); (2) caffeine capsules (5 mg kg(-1)) (n= 12); and either (3) placebo plus a high-dose adrenaline infusion (HAdr; adrenaline concentration, 1.2 nM; n= 8) or (4) placebo plus a low-dose adrenaline infusion (LAdr; adrenaline concentration, 0.75 nM; n= 6). With caffeine, adrenaline increased to 0.6 nM but no effect on EGP was observed. While caffeine and HAdr decreased GIR by 13 (P < 0.05) and 34% (P < 0.05) versus the placebo, respectively, LAdr did not result in a significant reduction (5%) in GIR versus the placebo. Due to the fact that both caffeine and LAdr resulted in similar adrenaline concentrations, but resulted in different decreases in GIR, it is concluded that adrenaline alone does not account for the effects of caffeine and additional mechanisms must be involved.
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ABSTRACT: Dipyridamole imaging is widely used as an alternative to exercise testing to identify and risk stratify patients with coronary artery disease. Safety data on intravenous dipyridamole stress testing has been derived largely from individual institutional data.
Data were collected retrospectively by 85 coinvestigators from 73,806 patients who underwent intravenous dipyridamole stress imaging in 59 hospitals and 19 countries to determine the incidence of major adverse reactions during testing. The dose of dipyridamole infused was 0.56 mg/kg in 64,740 patients, 0.74 mg/kg in 6551 patients, and 0.84 mg/kg in 2515 patients. Combined major adverse events among the entire 73,806 patients included seven cardiac deaths (0.95 per 10,000), 13 nonfatal myocardial infarctions (1.76 per 10,000), six nonfatal sustained ventricular arrhythmias (0.81 per 10,000) (ventricular tachycardia in two and ventricular fibrillation in four), nine transient cerebral ischemic attacks (1.22 per 10,000), (with speech or motor deficit), one stroke, and nine severe bronchospasms (1.22 per 10,000) (one intubation and eight near intubations). In addition to the safety data, detailed demographic, peripheral hemodynamic, side effect, and concomitant drug data were examined in a subgroup of 3751 patients. End points from subsets of patients were compared with those of the group as a whole. Multivariate analysis revealed that dipyridamole-induced chest pain was more common in patients less than 70 years old (p = 0.0017), those with a history of coronary revascularization (p = 0.002), or patients taking aspirin (p = 0.0001). Minor noncardiac side effects were less frequent among the elderly (p = 0.0053) and more frequent in women (p = 0.0001) and patients taking maintenance aspirin (p = 0.0034). When a patient was judged on the basis of the adequacy of hemodynamic response to be a dipyridamole "nonresponder" (< 10 mm Hg drop in systolic blood pressure and 10 beats/min increase in heart rate), the only significant predictor was angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor intake (p = 0.0025). Inferoposterior hypoperfusion was significantly more frequent in patients with dipyridamole-induced hypotension: 57% (44/77) (p < 0.0001) of those who had hypotension and 89% (8/9) (p = 0.0076) who had severe symptomatic bradyarrhythmias displayed inferoposterior defects on thallium scanning. Caffeine levels were determined in 391 consecutive patients: levels greater than 5 mg/L were observed in only eight patients (2%), suggesting that methylxanthine levels sufficient to alter the hemodynamic response to dipyridamole resulting in suboptimal hyperemic stress are unlikely when patients take nothing by mouth after midnight.
The risk of serious dipyridamole-induced side effects is very low and is comparable to that reported for exercise testing in a similar patient population.
Available from: Gerard Rongen
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ABSTRACT: In 12 healthy male volunteers (27-53 yr), a placebo-controlled randomized double blind cross-over trial was performed to study the effect of the intravenous injection of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg draflazine (a selective nucleoside transport inhibitor) on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters and ex vivo nucleoside transport inhibition. We hypothesized that an intravenous draflazine dosage without effect on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters would still be able to augment the forearm vasodilator response to intraarterially infused adenosine. Heart rate (electrocardiography), systolic blood pressure (Dinamap 1846 SX; Critikon, Portanje Electronica BV, Utrecht, The Netherlands) plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine increased dose-dependently and could almost totally be abolished by caffeine pretreatment indicating the involvement of adenosine receptors. Draflazine did not affect forearm blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography). Intravenous injection of 0.5 mg draflazine did not affect any of the measured hemodynamic parameters but still induced a significant ex vivo nucleoside-transport inhibition of 31.5 +/- 4.1% (P < 0.05 vs placebo). In a subgroup of 10 subjects the brachial artery was cannulated to infuse adenosine (0.15, 0.5, 1.5, 5, 15, and 50 micrograms/100 ml forearm per min) before and after intravenous injection of 0.5 mg draflazine. Forearm blood flow amounted 1.9 +/- 0.3 ml/100 ml forearm per min for placebo and 1.8 +/- 0.2, 2.0 +/- 0.3, 3.8 +/- 0.9, 6.3 +/- 1.2, 11.3 +/- 2.2, and 19.3 +/- 3.9 ml/100 ml forearm per min for the six incremental adenosine dosages, respectively. After the intravenous draflazine infusion, these values were 1.6 +/- 0.2 ml/100 ml forearm per min for placebo and 2.1 +/- 0.3, 3.3 +/- 0.6, 5.8 +/- 1.1, 6.9 +/- 1.4, 14.4 +/- 2.9, and 23.5 +/- 4.0 ml/100 ml forearm per min, respectively (Friedman ANOVA: P < 0.05 before vs after draflazine infusion). In conclusion, a 30-50% inhibition of adenosine transport significantly augments the forearm vasodilator response to adenosine without significant systemic effects. These results suggest that draflazine is a feasible tool to potentiate adenosine-mediated cardioprotection in man.
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