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Lighting in Retail Environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world


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Although ambient lighting and atmosphere are intuitively related, there is a paucity of empirical, naturalistic data supporting such a relation. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of lighting in evoking an atmosphere in the real world, amongst the extensive set of other cues available there. In a field study involving 57 clothing stores, lighting attributes (e.g. brightness, contrast, glare and sparkle) and context (i.e. the shops interior) were assessed and quantified independently. These data were then used to predict four dimensions of perceived atmosphere in hierarchical regression analyses. Lighting attributes and interior qualities were both related to perceived atmosphere. This indicated that, even given the substantial contribution of design elements in retail environments, lighting plays a role in evoking atmosphere. © 2010 The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers.
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... Increasingly competitive markets and demanding customers are driving retail outlets and showrooms to display products in an attractive environment [6]. Lighting is a key influencer within retail environments and plays a vital role in enhancing brand visibility and increasing footfall [7][8][9]. Lighting requirements may vary across different retail segments and stores based on the requirements of the displayed merchandise or for creating a distinct brand identity. Retail store profiles differ by price, usage, range of merchandise and sales style. ...
... Recently several studies were taken up concerning retail stores. Even though retail stores have several visual cues, lighting significantly impacted the perceived atmosphere [7]. Lighting design specifically affects the perception of the pleasantness of the space, the price point of the retail products and their quality [25]. ...
This study demonstrates the effects of correlated colour temperature (CCT) and illuminance on spatial impressions and user preferences in a mid-range retail space within the cultural context of India. Lighting is a key atmospheric attribute that creates stimulating environments for a holistic shopping experience. Preference for lighting conditions varies across store profiles and users’ cultural backgrounds. Very little research has been found that documents the lighting preferences of retail customers in India. The study involved high-fidelity computer-based simulations of lighting conditions for an apparel store developed using 3Ds Max for modelling, V-Ray for rendering and DIALux Evo for lighting analysis. The study followed a 4 × 4 factorial design with two independent variables: CCT (2700K, 3000K, 4000K and 5700K) and illuminance (300 lx, 500 lx, 700 lx and 900 lx) to form 16 scenes. Ninety-three participants performed a subjective evaluation of the scenes using semantic rating scales. Findings of this study indicate that specific CCT and illuminance were preferred for mid-range retail apparel stores in the Indian context. Further, it was observed that both CCT and illuminance influence the spatial impressions of a retail environment. The observations from this study emphasize the necessity of similar studies across various states of India to identify the lighting preferences for other functional spaces and cultural backgrounds within the country. The findings may contribute toward providing recommended guidelines for effectively planning the lighting conditions specific to the Indian cultural context.
... Light has primarily been studied in the context of work environments and received less attention within consumer behavior research [1,21,22]. However, overall lighting in a retail setting can have a substantial impact on store image [23,24], perceived atmosphere [22,25], store evaluations [26], the number of products examined by customers [27], and food choice in restaurants [1]. For example, consumers evaluated a store with bright and cool lighting Sustainability 2022, 14, 5495 3 of 25 as more pleasant and lively than that same store with soft and warm lighting [26]. ...
... On the other hand, when the store had soft and warm lighting, it was perceived as more upmarket than when it had bright and cool lighting. Moreover, brightness can decrease perceived coziness and increase perceived tenseness of a store environment [25], which is in line with the observation that fast-food restaurants focusing on quick and efficient eating tend to have bright lights, whereas fine-dining restaurants are more likely to have dim lights [24]. ...
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Ambient light is inherent in the store environment, making research on the interaction effects between light and other atmospheric cues crucial to understanding how the store environment can affect consumers. This study extends existing research on multisensory congruity effects between atmospheric cues by examining whether multiple sensory associations (i.e., warmth and brightness) of ambient cues (i.e., light and scent) must match to create positive effects on consumer evaluations and behavior or whether a match of only one sensory association is sufficient. Previous research operationalized multisensory congruity primarily via the match on one specific association; however, the results of our two studies show that matching ambient light and scent (compared to a mismatch between the stimuli or compared to only one ambient cue) only led to enhanced evaluations and approach behavior when these stimuli were matched on both their perceived association with a warm or cold temperature and with a dim or bright illuminance level. Our research supports the importance of perceiving the store environment holistically and suggests that the description and selection of an atmospheric cue to create positive congruity effects on consumer evaluations and behavior is quite complex.
... As part of the overall design approach, both natural and artificial lighting is employed to create functional, emotional, and environmental internal spaces. Over the last few decades, good lighting techniques have been shown to evoke positive atmospheres or emotions [3][4][5], distinguish images or brands [6][7][8], highlight product quality [9], draw attention to a specific object, or change perceptions of that object [10], stimulate sales performance [11][12][13], and influence customers' loyalty [14]. ...
... The initial questionnaire was developed and structured after a comprehensive review of similar studies that were also helpful in identifying the evaluated elements of the internal environment [3,4,39,46,47]. This questionnaire was distributed online and 20 responses were received. ...
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Given the rapid rise in the efficiency of artificial lighting systems, the challenges for any daylighting system on the basis of energy savings will be more challenging in the future. To sustain the role of daylighting in shopping malls, a field survey was conducted to explore daylighting benefits from the customers’ perspective. By analyzing the data collected from 552 Carian shopping malls’ customers, the present study supports the emerging idea that daylighting is more important to improving users’ mood than saving energy. The study found that ‘illumination’ was ranked as the most important element in the shopping malls' internal environment. Connection to outside views and the presence of sunlight were preferred and significantly enhanced the customers’ ability to recognize the utilization of daylight, which, in turn, increased customer satisfaction level. However, the study argues that lighting quality, rather than lighting source (natural or artificial), is what increases customer satisfaction. More studies are essential for elucidating the association between the conscious/subconscious perception of daylight utilization and the achievement of the intended human-related benefits. A better understanding of the customers’ perspectives will guide building designers toward effective daylighting solutions and shift the attention from the functional to the emotional role of daylighting.
... Atmospherics are often a significant part of the customer experience affecting indoor journeys. These most commonly relate to lighting (Custers et al. 2010), aroma (Morrin and Tepper 2021), product placement (Tan et al. 2018), and design features (Stevens et al. 2019), among other factors. Atmospherics are also important in outdoor high streets; indeed, the atmospheric character of a high street setting may contribute to retailers' decisions to site their facilities there (Goffmann 1963(Goffmann , 1971. ...
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In this review paper, we aim to make the case that a concept from retail analytics and marketing—the customer journey —can provide promising new frameworks and support for agent-based modeling, with a broad range of potential applications to high-resolution and high-fidelity simulation of dynamic phenomena on urban high streets. Although not the central focus of the review, we consider agent-based modeling of retail high streets against a backdrop of broader debate about downtown vitality and revitalization, amid a climate of economic challenges for brick-and-mortar retail. In particular, we consider how agent-based modeling, supported by insights from consideration of indoor shopping, can provide planning and decision support in outdoor high street settings. Our review considers abstractions of customers through conceptual modeling and customer typology, as well as abstractions of retailing as stationary and mobile. We examine high-level agency of shop choice and selection, as well as low-level agency centered on perception and cognition. Customer journeys are most often trips through geography; we therefore review path-planning, generation of foot traffic, wayfinding, steering, and locomotion. On busy high streets, journeys also manifest within crowd motifs; we thus review proximity, group dynamics, and sociality. Many customer journeys along retail high streets are dynamic, and customers will shift their journeys as they come into contact with experiences and service offerings. To address this, we specifically consider treatment of time and timing in agent-based models. We also examine sites for customer journeys, looking in particular at how agent-based models can provide support for the analysis of atmospherics, artifacts, and location-based services. Finally, we examine staff-side agency, considering store staff as potential agents outdoors; and we look at work to build agent-based models of fraud from customer journey analysis.
... Five categories of atmospheric variables (Turley and Milliman, 2000) Since its first introduction, numerous studies have confirmed significant impacts of retail's atmospheric variables on the customer from diverse perspectives, such as odour and retail density (Machleit, Eroglu and Mantel, 2000;Michon, Chebat and Turley, 2005), shopping companion (Borges, Chebat and Babin, 2010), music (Jain and Bagdare, 2011;North, Sheridan and Areni, 2015), colour (Brengman and Geuens, 2004), lighting (Custers et al., 2010), human factors in a retail environment (Kim and Kim, 2012), customer perceptions and attitudes towards the atmosphere and retailer (Lunardo and Mbengue, 2013), hedonic shopping values (Parsons et al., 2010), ambient scent (Chebat and Michon, 2003) customer's decision and impulse buying behaviours (Mattila and Wirtz, 2001), chocolate scents and product sales (Aronow, McGrath and Shotwell, 2015), window display (Lange, Rosengren and Blom, 2016) and atmospheric cues of women's fashion store (Ballantine, Parsons and Comeskey, 2015). Table 1 below summarised related research in both atmospheric and servicescape studies. ...
Shopping centres are no doubt one of the many modern-day necessities, providing everything one might need all under one roof. To encourage customer visits, prolong time spent, and potential purchases, the environment of a shopping centre is often designed in a specific way to affect customer’s shopping values, enticing both their emotional and physiological sensations. A well designed shopping centre is a combination of modern architecture, as well as the integration of the right shopping atmospheric variables such as wall decoration, lighting, sound effects, music as well as retail layout. In today’s society, parents and children visit shopping centres for multiple purposes including retail therapy, entertainment, socialising and many others. Most of the time, parents intend to complete a purchase and at the same time to enjoy the hedonic aspects of the shopping environment with their children. In the shopping journey between a parent and their accompanying child, children play a significant role in determining the family’s shopping expenses, one that is as important as an adult. However, research within this area also found that having a child companion can reduce positive shopping values due to the child’s behaviour. As a result, this will lead parents into making hasteful decisions such as shortening their shopping visit or even making a turning back home. Although numerous efforts have been made by scholars to understand the effects of shopping atmospheric variables on the customer, only a few research is conducted to understand how these variables affect small children’s emotional response and shopping behaviour during their shopping journey. Therefore, this research focuses on ‘how to improve children aged between three to seven years shopping experience through the shopping atmospheric variables when accompanying parents during shopping activities?’. The qualitative methodology using ethnography studies is employed in this research to develop an in-depth understanding of children customer shopping experience. Research data is collected using ethnography cultural probes (children shopping experience diary), digital ethnography observations and face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Results from this study are used to help the researcher develop a theoretical framework to identify atmospheric variables that are salient to young children customers, which may later provide vital insights in improving their shopping journey. Based from the findings, this research found that children emotional response, shopping behaviour and experience are influenced by four key factors. Each key factor explained how children react towards shopping atmospherics variables they engaged with, including their self-role and characteristics as a young customer, in-store decorative elements and electronic devices, categories for merchandise and snacks and other human variables while shopping with parents. The findings help to clarify children’s attitude towards each shopping atmospherics variable, and factors that might potentially influence their response towards them. To continue, the findings also highlighted important insights that will be useful for the shopping centre’s managerial team, designer and retailer who aim to improve children’s shopping experience. The improvement made based on these insights may also potentially help businesses create a more pleasant shopping environment for children as well as increase store and brand loyalty. Moreover, the findings may also benefit parents, since a positive children’s shopping behaviour may contribute towards a more positive family’s shopping vibes.
... However, lighting depends on what kinds of restorative facilities are requested at a commercial place. Specifically, brighter light or darker light, compared to surrounding spaces, evokes different interests among people [64,65]. Therefore, practitioners at a restorative commercial place should understand the appropriate balance of lighting. ...
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Based on the stimuli–organism–response framework, this study investigates how artistic stimuli (i.e., interior design) influence a person’s mental responses (i.e., situational satisfaction and stress). Prior to checking the main analysis, demographic features were checked to determine whether they were significant precedents to the stimuli by using hierarchical linear modeling. As the main model, structural equation modeling was used to find (a) how stimuli (i.e., interior design) were associated with organisms (i.e., emotional perception) and (b) how organisms were associated with mental responses. The results showed that demographic features were not significantly associated with the stimuli. Stimuli were partially and significantly associated with organisms and the organisms were partiall y and significantly associated with the mental responses. The study has implications for practitioners in commercial fields who might recognize the importance of interior design and employ their utilities in practical applications.
... Color has been used to produce an image or an ambiance and is a powerful design area tool that can be used to draw customers in (Chebat and Morrin, 2007;Krishna et al., 2017). Previous research also emphasizes the central role played by lighting in creating atmosphere (e. g., Custers et al., 2010;Quartier et al., 2014). Several studies investigate the common influence of both variablescolor and lightingin enhancing the shopping experience (Babin et al., 2003;Tantanatewin and Inkarojrit, 2016). ...
This study relies on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-OR) paradigm to explore the mediating role of the desire to stay at the shopping mall in the relationship between shopper positive attitudes towards three atmospheric cues (color schemes, lighting, and music) and the shopping outcomes of shopper satisfaction, positive Word-of-Mouth (WOM) and patronage intentions. Moreover, the study elaborates on the path from the desire to stay to positive WOM and patronage intentions by considering the mediating role of shopper satisfaction. A survey-based study comprising a sample size of 451 mall shoppers has been developed to test the proposed research model. The results indicate that the desire to stay mediates the relationship between shoppers' positive attitudes towards color schemes and music, on one hand, and shopper satisfaction and positive WOM, on the other hand. Although the desire to stay has a direct effect on positive WOM, it does not directly impact patronage intention. However, the latter path becomes significant when considering the mediating role of shopper satisfaction , indicating that satisfying mall stays enhance desirable outcomes. Based on these findings, implications for theory and retailers are discussed.
... The point at which sleep is interrupted due to temperature or climate conditions varies from person to person and can be affected by bed clothes and bedding materials selected by the sleeper [89]. • Lighting: Lighting affects the perceived atmosphere [67]. Peripheral and non-uniform spatial lighting with low brightness helps to create a relaxing atmosphere, while at the same time, the right color temperature in lighting can be advantageous to human health, well-being, and productivity [90]. ...
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High stress levels and sleep deprivation may cause several mental or physical health issues such as depression, impaired memory, decreased motivation, obesity, etc. The COVID-19 pandemic has produced unprecedented changes in our lives, generating significant stress, and worries about health, social isolation, employment and finances. To this end, nowadays more than ever, it is crucial to deliver solutions that can help people to manage and control their stress, as well as to reduce sleep disturbances, so as to improve their health and overall quality of life. Technology, and in particular Ambient Intelligence Environments, can help towards that direction, consider-ing that they are able to understand the needs of their users, identify their behavior, learn their preferences, and act and react in their interest. This work presents two systems that have been de-signed and developed in the context of an Intelligent Home, namely CaLmi and HypnOS, which aim to assist users that struggle with stress and poor sleep quality respectively. Both systems rely on real-time data collected by wearable devices, as well as contextual information retrieved from the ambient facilities of the Intelligent Home, so as to offer appropriate pervasive relaxation pro-grams (CaLmi), or provide personalized insights regarding sleep hygiene (HypnOS) to the residents. This article will describe the design process that was followed, the functionality of both systems, the results of the user studies that were conducted for the evaluation of their end-user applications, and a discussion about future plans.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether lighting in a retail facility affects the behaviour of shoppers on the Serbian market. The subject of the paper is lighting, which represents one of the instruments of shopper marketing. Review of the relevant literature suggests that lighting can have a significant impact on the appearance of the observed product. Data for testing hypotheses were collected from the samples on the markets of Serbia. In order to collect data, an online experiment was conducted. Data were processed using repeated measures one-factor analysis of variance. Based on the research results the conclusion is that different treatments of lighting colour and temperature affect the shoppers' perception of the quality of the observed product, but do not affect shoppers' price perception of the observed product on the Serbian market.
This book adheres to the vision that in the future compelling user experiences will be key differentiating benefits of products and services. Evaluating the user experience plays a central role, not only during the design process, but also during regular usage: for instance a video recorder that recommends TV programs that fit your current mood, a product that measures your current level of relaxation and produces advice on how to balance your life, or a module that alerts a factory operator when he is getting drowsy. Such systems are required to assess and interpret user experiences (almost) in real-time, and that is exactly what this book is about. How to achieve this? What are potential applications of psychophysiological measurements? Are real-time assessments based on monitoring of user behavior possible? If so, which elements are critical? Are behavioral aspects important? Which technology can be used? How important are intra-individual differences? What can we learn from products already on the market? The book gathers a group of invited authors from different backgrounds, such as technology, academy and business. This is a mosaic of their work, and that of Philips Research, in the assessment of user experience, covering the full range from academic research to commercial propositions.
Imagine walking through an unfamiliar city. As you proceed, the surroundings change from what you see in Figure 1 to what you see in Figure 2. You might evaluate the change as unpleasant, feel less safe, and change your behavior, walking faster or leaving the area. In contrast, had you passed by the scene in Figure 3, you might evaluate it favorably, feel a calming change in emotion, and you might slow down or enter the area to savor the experience. In each case, environmental cues, which you may not have noticed, affected your appraisal of the scene, emotions, inferences, and behavior. This chapter is predicated on the conviction that the visual character of buildings has important impacts on human experience—aesthetic impacts.