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Abstract

A new construct, entitled 'job embeddedness,' is introduced. It includes individuals' (1) links to other people, teams, and groups, (2) perceptions of their fit with job, organization, and community, and (3) what they say they would have to sacrifice if they left their jobs. We developed a measure of job embeddedness with two samples. The results show that job embeddedness predicts the key outcomes of both intent to leave and 'voluntary turnover' and explains significant incremental variance over and above job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job alternatives, and job search. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
... Maertz and Griffeth (2004) stated that even the extensive turnover models had neglected important antecedents of employee turnover (which they summarized in terms of eight motivational mechanisms) and the embeddedness of employees in an organization and community. Moreover, Mitchell, Holtom, Lee et al. (2001a), who developed the concept of job embeddedness, argued that the psychology of leaving is different from that of staying. Therefore, Hom et al. (2020) concluded that researchers were preoccupied with why employees quit and neglected why they stay, assuming the reasons why employees leave would be the opposite of those for staying. ...
... 201). Since staying is not considered a choice, job embeddedness represents inertia rather than an energizing force (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee et al., 2001a). Employees become embedded in their jobs and community by forming networks of connections and relationships both on and off the job (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee et al., 2001b). ...
... According to the multifocal embeddedness model (Kiazad et al., 2015), different foci have different antecedents and consequences (Hom et al., 2020). This study focuses on two embedding foci: the job and community (Mitchell et al., 2001a). ...
... Job embeddedness is investigated as a variable that focuses on why employees remain at work (Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001). It is not only important to understand why employees resign from the organisation but also what factors influence them to remain (Holtom & Inderrieden, 2006;Mensele & Coetzee, 2014). ...
... The Job Embeddedness Scale (JES) (Mitchell et al., 2001) assessed links, fit and sacrifice (on the job and within the community). Responses ranged from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). ...
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Orientation: Attracting and retaining academic staff needs to become a priority for tertiary institutions. Research purpose: Instead of spending funds on replacing staff members, tertiary institutions need to invest in interventions to keep staff committed to and embedded into the organisation. Motivation for the study: Lecturing staff are valuable resources that need to be nurtured, taken care of, and retained to keep tertiary institutions functioning effectively. This study focused on factors that impact lecturing staff’s decision to stay at or leave the University of Namibia. Research approach/design and method: Making use of quantitative research (a questionnaire), data was collected from lecturing staff (n = 242) to investigate the relationship between organisational commitment, job embeddedness and turnover intention. Main findings: Affective commitment, normative commitment, organisational fit and organisational sacrifices reported significant negative relationships with turnover intention. Affective commitment, organisational fit and organisational sacrifice were found to be significant predictors of turnover intention. Practical/managerial implications: Including lecturing staff in the decision-making process, ensuring that there is an equitable exchange for their labour and being fair during interactions enhances psychological meaningfulness and affective commitment. Providing career development opportunities enhances organisational fit, effectiveness of staff and reduces turnover intention. Assessing the job demands-resources relationship remains of cardinal importance. Contributions/value-add: Provision of benefits, employees identifying with the organisation and having the needed resources mitigate the demands of the job, reduce exhaustion, enhance levels of commitment and decrease turnover intention.
... Job embeddedness, which is defined as "the combined forces that keep a person from leaving his or her job" (Yao et al., 2004, p.159), comprises three dimensions: links, fit, and sacrifice (Mitchell et al., 2001). When an employee is embedded in their organization, it means they have a global sense that it would be difficult to quit. ...
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Occupational stigma is pervasive, but there is a lack of understanding about how it impacts the behaviors of employees in relatively high-prestige occupations. We draw on the job characteristics model and social information processing theory to establish hypotheses about the effects of occupational stigma on the withdrawal behavior of employees in a relatively high-prestige occupation (preschool teacher). We suggest that perceptions of skill variety and task significance among high-prestige employees may be negatively influenced due to occupational stigma perception. In addition, occupational stigma conveys information to employees that the work they do is not appreciated by beneficiaries. For those reasons, making it difficult for them to perceive the meaningfulness of their work. This lack of meaningful experience is in turn positively associated with employees’ withdrawal behavior. Furthermore, we propose that these indirect effects are moderated by perceived job embeddedness of employees. Based on data collected at two time points from 466 preschool teachers in China, we find that occupational stigma is positively related to employees’ withdrawal behavior through meaningfulness. In addition, the negative relationship between perceived occupational stigma and experienced meaningfulness is stronger for employees with high job embeddedness than for employees with low job embeddedness.
... Moreover, researchers found that not all individuals opted to exit at first under misfit situations (Mitchell et al., 2001). Instead, their exit intention may increase as a defensive resource conservation strategy once they fail to mitigate the resource losses and drain their resources (Wheeler et al., 2013). ...
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