Functional specificity of jejunal brush-border pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase in pig
To determine the functional specificity of intestinal brush-border pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolase (PPH), we compared the regional location of in vivo hydrolysis of pteroyltriglutamate (PteGlu3) with the location of activity and immunoreactivity of the enzyme in the pig. After in vivo incubations, PteGlu3 hydrolytic products were recovered from intestinal segments in the jejunum but not from the ileum. Brush-border PPH activity in fractionated mucosa was 10-fold greater in the jejunum than in the ileum, whereas the activity of intracellular PPH was increased in the distal ileum. Antibodies to purified brush-border PPH identified a major protein band at 120 kDa and a minor protein band at 195 kDa in solubilized jejunal brush border. Immunohistochemistry identified the enzyme only on the brush-border surface of the jejunum, whereas an immunoblot of solubilized brush-border membranes identified brush-border PPH in the jejunum but not in the ileum. The parallel of the regional location of in vivo hydrolysis of PteGlu3 with the location of brush-border PPH activity and immunoreactivity demonstrates the functional specificity of this enzyme in folate digestion.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This overview addresses homocysteine and folate metabolism. Its functions and complexity are described, leading to explanations why disturbed homocysteine and folate metabolism is implicated in many different diseases, including congenital birth defects like congenital heart disease, cleft lip and palate, late pregnancy complications, different kinds of neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases, osteoporosis and cancer. In addition, the inborn errors leading to hyperhomocysteinemia and homocystinuria are described. These extreme human hyperhomocysteinemia models provide knowledge about which part of the homocysteine and folate pathways are linked to which disease. For example, the very high risk for arterial and venous occlusive disease in patients with severe hyperhomocysteinemia irrespective of the location of the defect in remethylation or transsulphuration indicates that homocysteine itself or one of its "direct" derivatives is considered toxic for the cardiovascular system. Finally, common diseases associated with elevated homocysteine are discussed with the focus on cardiovascular disease and neural tube defects.0Comments 100Citations
- "Dietary folates predominantly exist as polyglutamates, which have to be hydrolyzed to monoglutamates in order to be transported. The enzyme folylpoly-γ-glutamate carboxypeptidase (FGCP), that is anchored to the intestinal apical brush border and is encoded by the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) gene, is responsible for this hydrolysis in the gut (Fig. 2) (Chandler et al. 1991). Monoglutamylated folates are subsequently absorbed in the duodenum and upper part of the jejunum by the high-affinity proton-coupled folate receptor PCFT1 (Qiu et al. 2006). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of a small intestinal lactoferrin receptor (SI-LfR) has been suggested in the pig, but remains to be identified. LfR has been suggested to play a key role in the internalization of lactoferrin (Lf) and to facilitate absorption of iron bound to Lf. The aim of this study was to identify the pig SI-LfR cDNA, determine its mRNA and protein expression during different stages of intestinal development. The coding region of the pig LfR cDNA was cloned by PCR using conserved sequences among species. LfR mRNA expression and protein abundance were measured in proximal small intestine from piglets at 1 week (pre-weaning), 3 weeks (weaning) and 6 months (post-weaning) of age by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. Intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were also isolated to examine LfR abundance on the apical membrane. We determined the pig SI-LfR open reading frame (ORF) consists of 972 bp, resulting in a protein with a molecular mass approximately 135 kD and approximately 35 kD under non-reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Using Q-PCR, we determined LfR expression significantly increased with age in the duodenum and reciprocally decreased in the jejunum. Intestinal LfR protein expression was maintained at all timepoints in the jejunum; however, in the duodenum LfR abundance reached maximum levels at 6 months. In BBMV fractions, LfR abundance significantly increased with age. Taken together our findings demonstrate the presence of a human SI-LfR homologue in pig, with mRNA and protein expression concomitantly regulated in the duodenum and inversely regulated in the jejunum. These findings suggest a mechanism by which pig Lf can be internalized in the intestine.0Comments 18Citations
- "The final pellet was re-suspended in 250 μL Tris buffer containing 1 × complete protease inhibitor (Sigma). BBMV enrichment was determined by a >20-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity as previously described (Chandler et al. 1991). Protein concentrations were determined using the Bradford assay (Bio-Rad). "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dietary folate, a vitamin required for DNA synthesis and cell regeneration, occurs as pteroylpolyglutamates that are hydrolyzed to pteroylglutamate during the process of intestinal absorption. Studies from our laboratory over the past 15 years have shown that jejunal brush-border folate hydrolase is essential and rate-limiting in folate absorption. Brush-border folate hydrolase activity and pteroylpolyglutamate hydrolysis are inhibited in disease and conditions associated with folate deficiency, including celiac and tropical sprue, the use of sulfasalazine to treat inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic alcoholism. Brush-border folate hydrolase is an exopeptidase located on the jejunal brush-border surface that liberates hydrolytic products of pteroylpolyglutamates in a progressive fashion, with a final release of pteroylglutamate. Subsequent steps in folate absorption include uptake by a brush-border folate-binding-protein receptor and transport across the brush-border membrane into the enterocyte. These steps are probably followed by an intracellular synthesis of pteroylglutamates for folate-dependent reactions and intracellular hydrolysis to pteroylglutamate for transport across the basolateral membrane to the portal circulation. In pigs, the active form of jejunal brush-border folate hydrolase has a molecular weight of 240 kd and is probably a homodimer of the 120-kd protein found after immunoprecipitation with specific antibody. Regulating the synthesis and expression of brush-border folate hydrolase may be critical to the availability of dietary folate.0Comments 13Citations