Formation and Resolution of White Matter Oedema in Various Types of Brain Tumours
Following infusion of 200 ml of Iopamidol for 1 hour the propagation of extravasated contrast medium around different types of 12 brain tumours was examined and imaged via CT. Increasing volume of expanding peritumoural contrast enhanced brain tissue was measured by integrating volumes of planimetrically measured enhanced area on CT slice of 0.5 cm in thickness. So far our data failed to demonstrate differences in the peritumoural contrast expansion between the different types of tumours. Formation and resolution as well as the speed of oedema propagation were determined by calculation of the increasing volume of the enhanced peritumoural brain tissue. Average formation rate of oedema fluid from 1 cm3 of tumour was 0.06 ml/hr, and was lower in larger tumours, while formation rate of oedema fluid from whole tumour was higher in larger tumours. Average resolution rate of oedema fluid during the passage through 1 cm3 of the peritumoural white matter was 0.03 ml/hr, and was not affected by tumour size. Average speed of oedema propagation was 0.59 mm/hr, and was higher in larger tumours. The main therapeutic effect of steroid in peritumoural oedema was a reduction in formation rate of oedema fluid.
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ABSTRACT: Peritumoural brain oedema is a prominent feature of malignant brain tumours. Glucocorticoids diminish the neurological symptoms and signs caused by the oedema and reduce the abnormally high cerebral water content. The exact mechanisms of action of the glucocorticoids are unknown.
The present study investigates the influence of dexamethasone on NMR relaxation time T1 in peritumoural oedema in 13 patients with gliomas. It is shown that NMR T1 images can be used as a potent monitor of brain oedema, and that dexamethasone significantly reduces mean T1 after 1, 3, and 7 days of treatment by 2%, 6%, and 13% respectively.
Using an image histogram analysis technique the term “superoedema” was defined as the 50% of the total oedema area with the highest t1, corresponding to the highest water content. It is shown, that with this technique the treatment effect of steroids on superoedema was a reduction of 13%, 33%, and 57% after 1, 3, and 7 days of treatment respectively. The mean change after 24 hours of treatment was statistically significant (p < 0.01).
The method can be used in all situations where the anti-oedematous effect of a given treatment is to be monitored.
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ABSTRACT: The propagation of extravasated contrast medium around 6 supratentorial meningiomas with peritumoral white matter of low density (PWL) of Lanksch II-III was investigated by repeated CT scanning at 4 h intervals, following a 1 h drip infusion of 200 ml of Iopamidol. The volume of the expanding peritumoral contrast enhancement was calculated according to a method previously described. By calculating the increase in volume from the first to the second scan, and from the second to third, we derived the rate of edema formation as well as the resolution rate of edema in the PWL. The surface area of the entire tumor (TS) and area of tumor surface facing the PWL (LS) were calculated by summating the surface areas of all CT slices, each area of which was derived from the measured length of the entire circumference of the tumor and circumference of the tumor facing the PWL, respectively, multiplied by the slice thickness of 0.5 cm. The volume of PWL, edema formation rate of entire tumor, and tumor volume x LS/TS were well correlated with each other. We concluded that the severity of peritumoral edema in meningiomas depends on the size of the tumor and the extent of tumor surface contact with the PWL.
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