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Urgeschichte des Österreichischen Raumes

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... Horn ; from firepit sunk to ca. 30 cm depth in loess loam, acompanied by several fingernail-impressed and applied-knob vessel fragments, ash, and wood-charcoal. Assigned by Pittioni (1954) to an early phase of the Austrian Bandkeramik. As characteristically early styles are lacking, except for the decoration by impression, which is known to occur later also, and as sherds with musical noteheads are present, we consider the complex to be younger, about in the middle stage of Linienbandkeramik Culture. ...
... Excavated 1938 by J. Hobarth; subm. by F. Berg, Hobarth-Mus., Horn/NE (see Fundberichte aus Osterreich, v. 3, 1948 (Pittioni, 1954). Coil, in the '30s by J. Hobarth; subm, by F. Berg, Hobarth-Mus., Horn. ...
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The C 14 Laboratory of the German Academy of Sciences of Berlin (DAW) began to obtain dates in 1961. The focus of research is in archaeology. Samples, coll. in close collaboration with the DAW's Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, are mainly from the Neolithic of central and southeastern Europe, and contribute to the continuing discussion (Milojčić, 1961; Müller-Beck, 1961) of the chronology of this period.
... The Baden-Vucedol culture in the Middle Danube Basin and the Ezero culture in central Bulgaria of the second half of the 4th millennium B.C. are eloquent examples of an amalgam of indigenous and alien elements. Among the Kurgan elements, with good parallels in the North Pontic area, are the use of vehicles, oxen team and plough (the latter known from engravings and burials), horse-riding, animal sacrifices with human burials, the predominance of solar decorated pottery , especially braziers, the appearance of a complex of drinking vessels used primarily by males, as well as the power wielded by males and the importance of hillforts (Tasic 1967; Banner 1965; Sochacki 1970:319ff.; Schmidt 1945; Pittioni 1954: 191ff.) The Globular Amphora culture emerged in the northern European Plain between central Germany and East Romania (Wislanski 1966; Gimbutas 1985; Sveshnikov 1973). ...
... WORD, VOLUME 44, NUMBER 2 (AUGUST, 1993) ten, Retz, and Waltrah6h1e at Jamm (Seewald 1940; Pittioni 1954: 177-187; Preuss 1966; Behrens 1973; Lichardus 1976:99-135; Grimm 1938 ...
... Known bone fi shhooks are present in the Southwest Sahara (Africa) from around 6500-3700 years BP (Petit-Marie et al. 1983 ), while in Europe, fi shhooks are known from Final Paleolithic contexts, including those at the sites of Klein Lieskow, Germany (Pasda 2001 ;Street et al. 2002 ); Grotte du Bois-Ragot and Pont d'Ambon, France (Chollet et al. 1980 ;Cleyet-Merle 1990 ); and Gratkorn, Austria (Pittioni 1954 ). Recently, however, a fi shhook made from mammoth ivory was recovered from Federmessergroupen contexts dated to around 12,300 cal. ...
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Modern human evolution and the development of cultural complexity and variability during the Pleistocene have long been central issues in archaeology. This chapter situates the study of osseous projectile weaponry in this wider context of archaeological research, before outlining the challenges that this field currently faces. A brief overview of the evidence for Pleistocene osseous projectile weaponry is then presented in order to demonstrate the temporal and spatial breadth of these material culture items, as well as their ability to contribute to wider anthropological debates about human uniqueness and cultural variability.
... by A. J. Ohrenberger. Comment (A.O.): typologically early phase in Neolithic "Bemaltkeramische Kultur" (Pittioni, 1954;Novotny, 1962 (Quitta, 1967 Wood samples (Larix) from adits of thermal spring "Warmes Wasser," presently buried below slope of debris (Morton, 1932(Morton, , 1944Hehenwarter and Morton, 1956), between Gosaumuhle and Steeg (47° 37' N Lat, 13° 38' E Long), Upper Austria, at W shore of lake Hallstattersee. Subm. ...
... La mancanza inoltre, nei territori delle u1time propaggini delle Alpi orientali, di precise stratigrafie di riferimento, rendono comprensibile la coesistenza di una diversità di opinioni nel considerare tale materiale. Per la problematica relativa alle diverse interpretazioni cronologico-culturali del complesso Kanzianiberg si rimanda ai lavori di: PITTIONI (1954;, KOROSEc (1958), DIMITRlJEVlé (1961 222-quadrangolare, con lati di cm 50-80, spessa cm 10-15, presentava rivestimenti di pietre piatte e allungate e di cocci ceramici sul fondo, sulle pareti e sul piano superiore. Queste aree furono interpretate come residui di banchetti funebri e si annotò che quattro tombe di adulti, prive del rivestimento in corrispondenza del cranio, erano anche prive di quest'area che era però presente presso le due inumazioni di fanciulli. ...
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Proceedings of the Round Table held at the Museo Civico di Scienze Naturali di Brescia
... Este vorba tot de o amforă (H = 420 mm) cu şase pahare în formă de pâlnie, modelate în jurul gurii centrale, încadrată de Elisabeth Ruttkay în larga categorie a aşa-numitelor pseudo-kernos (vase cu braţe, vase cu tub, vas mixt şi chiar vas de fermentare, vaze de flori, suporturi pentru lumânări etc.). 51 De asemenea, un recipient de acest tip provine din aşezarea Baden de la Dłubnia-Zesławice, voiv. Cracovia (Polonia) 52 . ...
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SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE CUCUTENI VESSELS OF KERNOS / PSEUDO-KERNOS TYPE Keywords: Aeneolithic, Cucuteni-Tripolye, kernos, pseudo-kernos, paraphernalia Most of the prehistoric and historic artifacts are not sufficiently known and understood within the contexts in which they were made and operated. The kernoi and pseudo-kernoi pottery is in a similar situation. In this paper we discuss and attempt to explain according to current knowledge the issue of Aeneolithic vessels, especially Cucuteni pottery conventionally identified as kernoi and pseudo-kernoi. For this purpose, we have analyzed several categories of findings belonging to the third phase of the Precucuteni culture (Târgu Frumos) and to all three phases of Cucuteni civilization (Trusesti, Cuconestii Vechi, Darabani I, Ruginoasa, Bârlălești, Drăgușeni, Costesti, Hoisesti, Hăbăsesti, Cucuteni, Bod, Balţaţi, Veselyi Kut, Traian, Ghelăiesti, Nezvisko, Badragii Vechi, Rozsohyvatka, Parincea, Șipeniţ, Buznea). We distinguished several subtypes, with multiple variants: 1. with 5 cups/beakers communicating with the main body; 2. with 6 small containers attached through arms to the central body in the form of a support; 3. with 4-6 cups/beakers connected by a tubular support ring.
... Even if we allow for a possible interpretation as a meat hook (Cleyet-Merle, 1990), because of the typical shape and the characteristical borehole, the bone hooks of Bois-Ragot (Fig. 3b, no. 1) as well as those of Pont-d'Ambon (Fig. 3b, no. 2) seem, rather, to be fishhooks of a size appropriate to catch pike or salmon, whose bones were recorded in the same layers as the fishhooks (Cleyet-Merle, 1990). In this context it is notable that a fishhook has also been published from Final Palaeolithic layers of a cave near Gratkorn in Austria (Pittioni, 1954). The shape of this hook (Fig. 3b, no. 3) is to a certain extent similar in shape to some of the finds from Wustermark 22 (Fig. 3, no. 1 and 4) or to typical early Mesolithic fishhooks of the Maglemose culture of northern Europe in general. ...
... Austrian prehistorians, in particular, have been particularly slow in accepting that the Göttweig, or Würm I/II interstadial, approached optimum climatic conditions comparable to those of the Holocene. For instance, Pittioni (1957) conceded this only in the face of overwhelming evidence, thus abandoning by implication most of his chronology of the Austrian Palaeolithic three years after its publication (Pittioni 1954). A site's high altitude in the European Alps does not necessarily indicate an interglacial antiquity for its occupation evidence (see Schmid 1963 concerning the snow and forest limits during the Würm stadials). ...
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This paper reviews briefly the evidence for cultural use of cave bear remains, especially skulls, in central and western Europe, during the time of the European Late Pleistocene Shift (formerly called the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition). The new evidence from Chauvet Cave, France, is then examined, the rock art as well as other features in that cave, such as wall and floor markings. The controversy of the dating of the anthropic use of the cave is considered and it is shown that one of the key elements of the site's relative dating consists of evidence of intentional placement of cave bear remains. This cultural behaviour is typical of a discrete period of European preHistory , being limited to the time from about 40 000 years ago to 30 000 carbon years ago, perhaps especially the late part of this window in time. This as well as many other factors seems to exclude an attribution of the Chauvet cave art to the Magdalenian.
... PITTIONI 1954, 642-643. 270 MORTON 1956, 47. 271 MANDL 2006, 25. 272 JACOMET 1999, 241. ...
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The underground salt mining in Hallstatt offers a unique range of finds. Previous re-search has dealt with the finds in the mine and its immediate surroundings, but not with the question of how salt and the supplies were transported. The subject of the work is the investigation of the means of transport in the period from the 13th till 11th century BC. The study was carried out by determining the available means of transport in the study area with regards to the topographical features of the region. Different models of transport on land and water were derived from this. Resulting in a calculation of the needed manpower for carrying out the transports to the first trading hubs which are ex-pected to have been near the city of Gmunden and in the Enns valley. Some aspects of resource management have also been considered.
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There has been little attempt within archaeology to understand the social meanings specifically attached to old age, or the implications of the social construction of old age for the reconstruction of prehistoric social formations. This stems partly from the low social value placed upon the elderly in modern societies, which makes us tend to view them as irrelevant, and partly from the difficulty of accurately ageing the skeletons of older individuals, which can make them appear invisible in the archaeological record. A case study from the Traisental of Lower Austria is used to illustrate how the changing meanings of old age are recoverable from archaeological cemetery assemblages. Analysis of material culture patterning is combined with assessment of different forms of bodily degeneration to identify changes over time in the way that old age was socially recognized and the possibility that different kinds of bodily infirmity had very different social implications.
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In der Spätbronzezeit war es im Voralpenland üblich, den Flussgöttern ein Opfer durch Versenken von Bronzegegenständen in einen Fluss oder See darzubringen. Die geopferten Weihgegenstände werden heute meist durch Zufall gefunden. Einige dieser Streufunde aus der Spätbronzezeit konnten in den letzten Jahren werkstoffkundlich untersucht werden. In dieser Arbeit werden die metallkundlichen Untersuchungsergebnisse eines spätbronzezeitlichen Schwertes aus der Stadtgemeinde Steyregg publiziert. Die Schwertklinge ist ein Gussprodukt aus einer Bronzelegierung mit 7,6 Masse-% Zinn. Durch Entmischung bei der Erstarrung der Bronzeschmelze sind in der Bronzematrix der Schwertklinge zahlreiche Einschlüsse von Cu2S und einer zinnreichen, nickelhaltigen Verbindung vorhanden. Der Nickelgehalt der spätbronzezeitlichen Schwertklinge gibt einen Hinweis, dass deren Produktion mit Kupfererzen aus den alpinen Lagerstätten erfolgte. Eine Ortung der Produktionsstätte der Schwertklinge ist aber wegen der zahlreich vorhandenen, nickelhaltigen Kupfererzlagerstätten in den Ostalpen derzeit nicht möglich. In the late Bronze Age, it was common practice in the Alpine foothills to make a sacrifice to the river gods by sinking bronze objects into a river or lake. Such votive offerings are today usually found by accident. Some of these stray finds from the late Bronze Age have been subjected to metallurgical analyses in the past few years. In this paper the results of material-technological analyses of a late Bronze Age sword from the town of Steyregg are published. The blade was cast from a bronze alloy containing 7.6 wt.% tin. Due to segregation during the solidification of the bronze melt, the bronze matrix of the blade reveals numerous inclusions of Cu2S and a compound rich in tin with a certain percentage of nickel. The nickel content of the late Bronze Age sword blade provides a clue that production of such blades was based on ores won from Alpine copper mines. However, locating the exact site where the blade was forged is currently not possible, given the considerable number of nickeliferous copper ore deposits in the Eastern Alps.
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Nineteenth century ideas and theoretical concepts have shaped past and current understandings of prehistory in Europe. Reflecting on research history can therefore illuminate why we believe to know what we believe to know about the past. The Kulturkreislehre (theory of cultural circles), a branch of the German cultural–historical school of thought in anthropology, dominated interpretations of ethnology as well as prehistory at the beginning of the twentieth century gaining particular influence in Vienna. At the time, the thorough description, classification, comparison and mapping of the spatial distribution of artefacts was introduced as the methodological framework for prehistory, and this has remained the basis of most contemporary archaeological work. After the Second World War, the concept of archaeological cultures in Central Europe was superficially stripped of some of its ideological baggage, leaving behind empty concepts and hidden paradigms rather than explicit theories. Interpretations became almost too cautious to be meaningful. This paper argues that remnants of the Kulturkreislehre still inform the way in which the archaeological record is treated and explained in Central Europe. It aims to highlight some of the characteristics of the Kulturkreislehre, such as its fundamentally Catholic basis, its explicit rejection of evolution, and its consideration of migration and contact between cultures as the primary triggers of change. This may explain why concepts of static rather than dynamic archaeological cultures continue to be dominant in Central European prehistory.
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The site of Beketinci, Bentež, stands out among Lasinja settlements as the site of the largest uncovered surface - the excavation at 30 900m 2 revealed a portion of a Lasinja culture settlement. Its western part (covering 24 700m2) was dedicated to working activities (working features: clay-extraction pits, working pits, self-standing partitions, pottery kilns, and wells), while in the eastern, residential, part (extending over 6200m2 of excavated surface) we uncovered a cluster of 5 rectangular above-ground houses, two residential pit-houses, and five residential or working pit-houses. Absolute dates for this settlement span the period between 3900 and 3300 BC, dating it to the late phase of Lasinja culture.
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This list contains dates related to the chronology of the last glaciation in Europe. Since several of the older results which already have appeared in print need correction or re-interpretation it was considered necessary to incorporate as many of them as possible into this list. Notably the dates published by de Vries (1958) are included here and reconsidered in the light of our present understanding of the climatic succession. It is noteworthy that, although the interpretation may have changed slightly, most of those measurements are still as valid today as they were eight years ago.
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The Early Bronze Age (2.300-1.500 BC) in lower Austria consists of three synchronous regional manifestations (Únetice, Unterwölbling, and Wieselburg cultures). The bearers of these cultures inhabited a relatively small geographic area and shared similar ecological conditions, but previous studies revealed population differences in skeletal morphology. We analyzed the cranial morphology of 171 individuals of these populations with a geometric morphometric approach in order to compare different migration scenarios. We find significant mean form differences between populations and between sexes. In a principal component analysis, the Wieselburg population, located southwest of the Danube, largely separates from the Únetice population north of the Danube, whereas the southwestern Unterwölbling group, which played a central role in trading bronze objects, overlaps with both. The Böheimkirchen group, inhabiting the southwestern Danubian area in the later phase of the Early Bronze Age, differs from the chronologically older Unterwölbling group. Geographic distance between six sites and position relative to the river Danube accounted for 64% of form distance variation; the effect of the river Danube was considerably larger than hat of geographic distance per se. As predicted for a patrilocal system in which females have a larger marriage domain than males, we found that female mean forms are more similar to each other than male mean forms. Geographic conditions explained more than twice as much variation in females as in males, suggesting that female migration was more affected by geographical constraints than male migration was.
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The construction of the motorway network in Slovenia uncovered an archaeological site at Rogoza, which became a case study for an Urnfield period settlement even before it was fully published. Pottery and radiocarbon dates, to some extent, indicate that the area was inhabited in other periods as well. It yielded finds from the Early Bronze Age, the Early Iron Age, the Late Iron Age and the Roman period. This paper introduces pottery, metal and stone finds from the Urnfield period and includes results of analyses of metal, stone finds, bones and plant remains. It also presents the development of the settlement at Rogoza and the Urnfield period settlement patterns in eastern Slovenia, knowledge of which has considerably increased during the last decade, marked by intense archaeological fieldwork.
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Dieser Artikel beleuchtet den Beitrag von Frauen zur Entwicklung der prähistorischen Archäologie in Österreich. Er behandelt Ausgräberinnen, Sammlerinnen, Denkmalpflegerinnen und Wissenschaftlerinnen. Zudem verfolgt er die Lebenswege weiblicher Absolventinnen der Universitäten Wien und Innsbruck und diskutiert die Entwicklung des Frauenanteils im Fach.
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Rebay-Salisbury, K. 2018. 'Vielversprechende Ansätze und kleine Irrwege: die Interpretationsgeschichte frühbronzezeitlicher Bestattungen am Beispiel Schleinbach', in F. Pieler and P. Trebsche (eds) Beiträge zum Tag der Niederösterreichischen Landesarchäologie 2018: 45-56. Asparn: Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum.
A dating system consisting of gas sample counter with internal anticoincidence counter ring, transistorized electronic equipment, and chemical apparatus was developed in the Institute (Felber and Vychytil, 1962; Felber, 1965). A high voltage supply Fluke Model 408B is used. For routine dating, begun in 1965, an improved 2.4 L counter with Teflon insulators is used, shielded on all sides by 20 cm of iron. The counter is run with methane at 760 torr/15 ° C. Spurious counts are carefully eliminated by a systematic procedure (Felber, 1966). Stability of electronics and counter is checked once a day by taking the topmost part of the peak of Mn α -X-rays following electron capture in Fe-55, radiated through a beryllium window. Checking is done with the same single channel analyzer (switched over to operation with small window) used for energy discrimination (switched over to two discriminator operation) during measurement. If any change should be observed, discriminator settings are corrected. Energy discrimination is not optimized (Felber, 1962) because a neutron generator using (d,t) reaction is run in the same building in which the samples are prepared: the lower discriminator is set above tritium maximum energy at 22 keV, the upper one at 120 keV, the highest possible energy absorption of C ¹⁴ β particles in the special counter. The background is 1.58 cpm, the net contemporary value (95% of NBS oxalic acid standard activity) is ca. 8.8 cpm.
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While fishhook technology is currently known to date back to ca. 22,000 cal. BP, almost all Pleistocene-aged assemblages consist of less than 10 artifacts, restricting the ability of archaeologists to reconstruct the technology. Excavations at Makpan Cave on Alor Island (Indonesia), however, has recovered an extensive assemblage of marine shell material culture, including an unprecedented number of fishhook artifacts. Here we describe 214 jabbing and rotating fishhooks made from marine gastropods, along with several possible lures, coral tools associated with their construction, and coral sinkers. Recovery of debitage as well as fish-hooks in all stages of manufacture, from blanks through to fully finished examples, allow for a complete chaîne op eratoire to be constructed for both main forms (jabbing and rotating) of shell fishhooks. The assemblage indicates a wide-ranging approach to marine resource extraction at Makpan over the past 15,000 years with fishhooks ranging between around 1 cm to over 5 cm long all occurring during the same period. ARTICLE HISTORY
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The contribution presents the results of a comprehensive study of the Late Copper Age Deschmann’s pile-dwelling sites near Ig in the Ljubljansko barje, central Slovenia. It opens with a history of research and goes on to tackle the main topics associated with the cultural attribution of the sites. A re-examination of the recovered pottery and available archival records, coupled with a new typological and chronological analysis of the small finds has enabled a cultural and chronological redefinition of the Ljubljana culture and its characteristic pottery. In addition to the typical vessel forms, usually decorated with whipped-cord impressions, the newly-defined Ljubljana culture includes common ware that reveals influences primarily from the Somogyvár-Vinkovci culture in the Carpathian Basin. Some of the vessels of the Ljubljana culture also follow the tradition of the Vučedol culture, while others reflect the influences and maybe contacts with the Corded Ware, Globular Amphora and Bell Beaker cultures.
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