Article

Mothers' health care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses in Derra District, Northshoa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Ethiop

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... 15,16 While 47.7% to 35.9% in Africa in 2015 17,18 and 27% to 97.7% from 2017 to 2020 in Ethiopia. 14,[19][20][21][22][23][24] In a developing country like Ethiopia, the absence of healthcareseeking behavior among Ethiopian women causes a lack of early recognition of neonatal danger signs, and hence neonatal death occurs at home. 5 Besides this, different studies reported that urban residence, maternal secondary education, the practice of optimal thermal care, place of delivery (institutional delivery) and postnatal care follow-up (having postnatal care follow-up), knowledge of neonatal illness, or danger signs were factors that significantly associated with health care seeking behavior. 14,17,22,23 Recognition of why families were choosing to or not choose to seek health care was key while we are on the way to improving newborn/neonates' health. ...
... 14,[19][20][21][22][23][24] In a developing country like Ethiopia, the absence of healthcareseeking behavior among Ethiopian women causes a lack of early recognition of neonatal danger signs, and hence neonatal death occurs at home. 5 Besides this, different studies reported that urban residence, maternal secondary education, the practice of optimal thermal care, place of delivery (institutional delivery) and postnatal care follow-up (having postnatal care follow-up), knowledge of neonatal illness, or danger signs were factors that significantly associated with health care seeking behavior. 14,17,22,23 Recognition of why families were choosing to or not choose to seek health care was key while we are on the way to improving newborn/neonates' health. 24 The model used in this study was the modified Anderson and Newman model that was first developed in the 1960s and has since gone through 4 phases. ...
... Similarly, studies in Ethiopia and Nigeria showed that knowledge of neonatal danger signs indicates a strong association with having appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior. 17,22 This might be because having good knowledge of neonatal danger signs helps mothers to decide where to seek care and when to seek healthcare. 35 This study also revealed that postpartum mothers who have decision-making power were more likely to have appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior than their counterparts were. ...
Article
Full-text available
Early health care seeking could save neonates' lives and have a significant role in decreasing neonatal death, while delayed health care seeking has many contributions to neonatal mortality. Therefore, this study aimed to assess maternal health-seeking behavior for neonatal danger signs and associated factors among postpartum mothers in Southeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 400 women with sick neonates from June 1st, 2020 to 27th, November. A Modified Anderson and Newman behavioral model consisting predisposing, enabling, need, and health system factors were utilized and participants were interviewed by using structured questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with maternal health-seeking behavior. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were reported with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) to determine the strength of the association. The statistical significance was declared at P < .05. Slightly higher than two-fifths, (44%, 95% CI: 39.2-48.9) of the respondents' have appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior for neonatal danger signs. Postnatal care follows-up (AOR = 3.5; 95% CI: 2.06-5.80), good knowledge of neonatal danger signs (AOR = 2.78; 95% CI: 1.63-4.73), decision-making power for taking sick neonates to health institution (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.61-5.67), mothers living with their partner (AOR = 3.00; 95% CI: 1.42-6.31), and health insurance (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.08-3.06) were significantly associated with having appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior. Healthcare-seeking behavior of the respondents' was low and indicated by nearly 2 out of 5 respondents' had appropriate health-seeking behavior for neonatal danger sign. Postnatal care follow-up, health insurance, good knowledge of neonatal danger signs, living with a partner, and decision-making power were predictors of appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior for neonatal danger signs. Emphasis should be given to creating awareness of neonatal danger signs, maintaining postnatal follow-up, and encouraging mothers/caregivers to make immediate decisions for seeking healthcare at healthcare institutions.
... 15,16 While 47.7% to 35.9% in Africa in 2015 17,18 and 27% to 97.7% from 2017 to 2020 in Ethiopia. 14,[19][20][21][22][23][24] In a developing country like Ethiopia, the absence of healthcareseeking behavior among Ethiopian women causes a lack of early recognition of neonatal danger signs, and hence neonatal death occurs at home. 5 Besides this, different studies reported that urban residence, maternal secondary education, the practice of optimal thermal care, place of delivery (institutional delivery) and postnatal care follow-up (having postnatal care follow-up), knowledge of neonatal illness, or danger signs were factors that significantly associated with health care seeking behavior. 14,17,22,23 Recognition of why families were choosing to or not choose to seek health care was key while we are on the way to improving newborn/neonates' health. ...
... 14,[19][20][21][22][23][24] In a developing country like Ethiopia, the absence of healthcareseeking behavior among Ethiopian women causes a lack of early recognition of neonatal danger signs, and hence neonatal death occurs at home. 5 Besides this, different studies reported that urban residence, maternal secondary education, the practice of optimal thermal care, place of delivery (institutional delivery) and postnatal care follow-up (having postnatal care follow-up), knowledge of neonatal illness, or danger signs were factors that significantly associated with health care seeking behavior. 14,17,22,23 Recognition of why families were choosing to or not choose to seek health care was key while we are on the way to improving newborn/neonates' health. 24 The model used in this study was the modified Anderson and Newman model that was first developed in the 1960s and has since gone through 4 phases. ...
... Similarly, studies in Ethiopia and Nigeria showed that knowledge of neonatal danger signs indicates a strong association with having appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior. 17,22 This might be because having good knowledge of neonatal danger signs helps mothers to decide where to seek care and when to seek healthcare. 35 This study also revealed that postpartum mothers who have decision-making power were more likely to have appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior than their counterparts were. ...
... The magnitude of a mother's healthcare-seeking behavior for their childhood illness is different across countries and its regions [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. A study conducted in developing countries showed that about 73.0% of caregivers sought care from a healthcare provider when their child was suffering from diarrhea, malaria, or pneumonia, with a median of 44.9% seeking care from appropriate providers. ...
... In Ethiopia, the magnitude of a mother's healthcareseeking behavior ranges from 27.2% to 90.6% [11,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. A study conducted in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, revealed that the proportion of healthcare-seeking behavior of caregivers for childhood illnesses was 69.5% [17]. ...
... Of the 25 studies included in this review, all of them were observational and quantitative, two were facility-based cross-sectional [11,32], one was longitudinal [33], and 22 were community-based crosssectional. Out of 22 cross-sectional studies, nineteen were noncomparative [16-18, 20-24, 26, 27, 34-42], and three were comparative [15,25,43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To assess the pooled prevalence of mothers' or caregivers' healthcare-seeking behavior for childhood diarrhea, fever, and respiratory tract infections and associated factors in Ethiopia. Study Design. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Literature searches were conducted through databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, CINHAL, ScienceDirect, HINARI, and gray literatures) from September 1 to 30, 2021, using key terms in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The characteristics of the original articles were described using text and tables. Heterogeneity among the reported prevalence of studies was checked by using a heterogeneity χ 2 test and I2 test. Publication bias was examined by performing Egger's correlation and Begg's regression intercept tests at a 5% significant level. A random-effect model was employed to estimate the pooled prevalence of the outcome variable and its determinants in Ethiopia. Results: Of the total identified studies, 25 studies were included in the review, with a total of 29,993 study participants. The overall pooled prevalence of mothers' or caregivers' health-seeking behavior for childhood diarrhea, fever, and respiratory tract infections was 60.33% (95% CI: 50.14-70.52). The significant factors were residence (AOR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.11-8.39), wealth index (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.92-2.48), perceived severity of illness (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.12-6.51), and knowledge of the illness (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.37-2.75). Conclusion: This review suggests that the overall pooled prevalence of mothers' or caregivers' HSB for childhood diarrhea, fever, and respiratory tract infections was 60.33%. Residence, wealth index, perceived severity of illness, and knowledge of the illness by mothers were the significant factors. Therefore, providing interventions by considering the above factors will improve the overall seeking behavior.
... 1 The rate of under-five mortality has declined nearly by half in the world between 1990 and 2015 and by 60% in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2016. 2 Despite this achievement, about 500,000 annual deaths are being encountered from easily preventable diseases. 3 Simple and affordable interventions could be sufficient to prevent or treat early childhood complications and deaths which account for more than half of all global deaths in children under the age of 5 years. 2 The under-five mortality rate in sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia is 1 in 12 and 1 in 11 children, respectively. 4 Infectious diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries including Ethiopia. ...
... Among infectious diseases, diarrhea (20%), pneumonia (19%), acute respiratory infections (15%), and acute febrile illnesses (7%) are the top four most common causes of morbidity among underfive children in Ethiopia. 3 Even though significant progress has been made in the last few decades in reducing child mortality worldwide, child mortality remains a major issue. Around 5.6 million underfive children had died in 2016 only. ...
... This problem is worse, particularly among rural caregivers. 3,13 According to the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) report, only 44%, 35%, and 30% of children who had diarrhea, fever, and symptoms of acute respiratory infection had received treatment, respectively. 14 Moreover, the HCSB of caregivers for common childhood ailments may not be the same in all regions of Ethiopia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective This review is aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of mothers’ health care-seeking behavior and associated factors in Ethiopia. Methods International databases were systematically searched for studies that were published between 2008 and 2019. Data were extracted in Microsoft Excel 2019 and then exported to STATA version 14 for further analysis. Publication bias was determined by funnel plot, Begg’s test, and Egger’s test. Heterogeneity between the studies was checked by I ² statistic. The pooled proportion was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis model. Results This review and meta-analysis included 14 studies from a total of 581 papers that were screened. The pooled proportion of mothers’ health care-seeking behavior in Ethiopia was 50.24% (95% CI: 37.13%, 63.35%). Health facility distance (OR = 2.07), awareness about common childhood illnesses (OR = 2.06), educational levels (OR = 1.82), and income (OR = 2.07) were significantly associated variables. Conclusion The overall health care-seeking behavior of mothers for common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia is low. Accordingly, educating mothers/caregivers about the importance of health care-seeking behavior and increasing the proximity of health facilities were recommended to improve health care-seeking behavior.
... Meanwhile, underfive mortality is still high in sub-Saharan Africa despite the progress made in the last few decades. Proper health care seeking behaviour of mothers for childhood illnesses can prevent or reduce the magnitude of child mortality resulting from childhood illnesses [10,36,37]. This study, therefore, seeks to examine the factors associated with under-five children illnesses such as diarrhea and fever and health care service utilization in sub-Saharan African countries. ...
... These findings reinforce the need for concerted efforts to enhance health care seeking behaviour of mothers for children with acute childhood illnesses in the region [18]. Overall, less than half (45%) of under-five children with acute childhood illnesses utilized health care services, consistent with previous findings [1,34,37,44]. Low health care seeking behaviour among mothers has been shown to be a major determinant of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan African countries [22,45], which has been attributed to child, social and maternal factors [1,13,33,34]. ...
... For example, there is evidence of an association between mothers' education and health care seeking behaviour for their children, where women with higher levels of education are more likely to seek health care services for their children [33,46,47]. Thus, proper health care seeking behaviour of mothers could prevent and reduce childhood illnesses [10,36,37], and childhood mortality in low-income and middle-income countries [1,34]. In many sub-Saharan African countries, poor and inadequate medical facilities and poor health seeking behaviour are known risk factors for infant and child mortality [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Childhood illnesses and mortality rates have declined over the past years in sub-Saharan African countries; however, under-five mortality is still high in the region. This study investigated the magnitude and factors associated with health care seeking behaviour for children with childhood illnesses in 24 sub-Saharan African countries. Methods We used secondary data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHSs) conducted between 2013 and 2018 across the 24 sub-Saharan African countries. Binary logistic regression models were applied to identify the factors associated with health care seeking behaviour for children with acute childhood illnesses. The results were presented using adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Overall, 45% of children under-5 years with acute childhood illnesses utilized health care facilities. The factors associated with health care seeking behaviour for children with acute illnesses were sex of child, number of living children, education, work status, wealth index, exposure to media and distance to a health facility. Conclusions Over half of mothers did not seek appropriate health care for under-five childhood illnesses. Effective health policy interventions are needed to enhance health care seeking behaviour of mothers for childhood illnesses in sub-Saharan African countries.
... Mothers' healthcare seeking behavior is defined as mother's response for sign and symptoms of her child illnesses to reduce severity, complication or even death after she recognized child's illness and if she reported visiting any health institutions [1]. ...
... This survey also indicated that treatment was sought within the same or next day of onset of illnesses were 3%, 8% and 41% for ARI, fever and diarrhea, respectively [6]. Some studies also indicated that seeking appropriate and early care for childhood illnesses were low and delayed as well [1,7,8]. ...
... Despite some studies in some parts of Ethiopia about mothers or care givers health care seeking behavior for childhood illnesses [1,4,8,9], still there is information gap showing health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses including the study setting. Despite the fact that mothers' or care givers' healthcare seeking behavior for childhood illness is essential to reduce under-five morbidity and mortality rate, little is known about factors affecting mothers' or care givers' healthcare seeking behavior on common childhood illnesses in the region and in Kimbibit District particularly. ...
Article
Full-text available
Mothers' healthcare seeking behavior is a mother's response for sign and symptoms of her child illnesses to reduce severity, complication or even death after she recognized child's illness and if she reported visiting any health institutions. Healthcare seeking behavior of mothers or care givers for common childhood illness of under-five children in Kimbibit District, Ethiopia was assessed in this study. A community based cross-sectional study with mixed method approach was employed. Face to face interview for quantitative and focus group discussion for qualitative study were employed. Inductive thematic analysis was employed for qualitative data. For quantitative part, data was checked, cleaned, coded and entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and then, exported to SPSS version 20. Bivariable analysis was done and variables with p-value< 0.25 on bivariate analysis were entered to multivariable logistic regression model. Significance was checked at 95% CI with p<0.05. A total of 596 respondents with a response rate of 98.8% were participated in the study. The overall healthcare seeking behavior of mothers or care givers for common childhood illness was 87.5% (95% CI: 84.2%, 90.6%). Being urban residents (AOR=2.89; 95% CI=1.83-6.74), child's age 12 to 23 months (AOR=5.03; 95% CI=1.55-9.28), mothers who completed primary school (AOR=4.60: 95% CI; 3.21-6.53), median monthly family income ≥1000 ETB (AOR=4.53; 95% CI; 3.63-9.26), perceived severity of illness (AOR=2.58; 95% CI; 0.79-7.33) and distance from health facilities (AOR=6.59; 95% CI; 2.43-11.85) were the significant predictors of mothers' healthcare seeking behavior for; common childhood illnesses. In this study; it was revealed that healthcare seeking from health facilities was delayed. Place of residence, educational status of mothers or care givers, child's age, average monthly income of family, perceived severity of illness and distance from health facilities were independent predictors of healthcare seeking behaviors.
... Health care seeking behavior is defined as any action taken by a mother in response for the perception of sign and symptoms of illness to reduce severity, complication after she recognized her child's illness and if she reported visiting any hospital, health center, health post or at least community health worker etc. Mother that did not report visiting any health institution for the perceived illness were consider as health care non -seeker. [1] According to WHO, globally, about 6.3 million children under the age of 15 years died in 2017 in which 5.4 million of them were under the age of five is recorded annually mainly from preventable diseases where access to simple and affordable interventions was possible and 2.5 million of those died within first month. More than half of the deaths occur in developing countries. ...
... Among childhood deaths in developing countries around, 27% result from acute respiratory infection (ARI) and another 23% from diarrhea. [1] So, appropriate care seeking behavior intervention has the potential to reduce occurrence of severe and life-threatening illness, in the country where common childhood illnesses are a major problem. [5] The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that seeking prompt and appropriate care could reduce child deaths by 20% due to acute respiratory infection (ARI). ...
... Delay in seeking initiation within 2-3 days of illness for appropriate care and not seeking any health care can result to severe complications which can make the medical care less effective and death. [1] Considering all these facts the study aims to assess health care seeking behavior during childhood illness among mother of under five children residing in slum areas of Kathmandu, Nepal. ISSN www.ijsrp.org ...
... The data was collected through face to face interview using structured questionnaires which was adopted from different reviewed literature (19,26,28,30). The questionnaire was prepared in English and translated from English to Amharic and re-translated back to English to check the consistency. ...
... teething 139(21.7%) and shortage of nutrient 92 (14.4%) research done at Dera showed almost the same result with the present study (19). It might be due to cultural and socio demographic similarity. ...
... This study showed that about 9.4 % mothers/care givers were not taking action for their childhood illness, the major reasons why treatment was not sought from health facility 13 (65%) were due to thought getting well from symptom without treatment, 5(25%) were shortage of money and 3(15%) were Long distance of the health institution, other research done at Bahir Dar the main reasons for not seeking care from health facilities by mothers'/caregivers' were, 26.7% lack of money (28) and also the research done at Derra showed that mothers' main reasons for not seeking care from health facilities were lack of money were 36%, and far distance from health facility were 27.7% (19). The difference might be most of this study respondents were illiterate, low income and had believed on traditional treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The practice of appropriate health care seeking has a great potential to reduce the occurrence of severe and life-threatening childhood illnesses. However, varieties of factors have been identified as the leading causes of poor utilization of primary health care services. Poor socioeconomic status, lack of physical accessibility, attitude to modern treatment, low literacy level of the mothers, large family size, number of symptoms, previous experience of child death, and perceived severity of illness were the predictors of care seeking behavior Objective: To assess mothers/care givers health care seeking behavior and its determinants for childhood illnesses Methodology: The study employed both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods with face to face prepared questionnaire for quantitative and focus group discussion for qualitative study from April 11 to May 10/2014. For quantitative data template was prepared and the data was entered, categorized, coded, and summarized using EPI 3.5.3 and transformed to SPSS version 20.00 for further analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to see the association of each categories of variable with the outcome variable. Significance was checked at 95% CI with p-value <0.05. Result: Regarding child hood illness 4 weeks preceding the study. 212 (33.1%) children had illness. Most of the respondents 438(68.3%) believed that there were childhood illness that could not be treated by modern medicine Mothers/ caregivers who had diploma and above education level were more likely to seek health care than those who were illiterate and Place of residence also appeared as an important factor that influenced healthcare-seeking, with residents urban more likely seek health care than rural residence. Conclusion and Recommendation: The critical predictors of healthcare-seeking identified using multivariate analysis are; place of residence, educational status of the mothers/care givers, age of the mothers /care givers, distance of the health facility and private drug shop owner. Efforts should be done by government and non-governmental organization to improve the mothers' health seeking behavior by providing information, education and behavioral change communication.
... Globally, more than half of early childhood complications and deaths are due to ill health that can be prevented or treated with simple and affordable interventions [5,6]. In sub-Saharan Africa, 1 in 12 child dies before celebrating the fifth birthday [2,7] and 1 in 11 Ethiopian child dies before the fifth birthday [8]. ...
... First and foremost, mothers in developing countries usually do not have sufficient knowledge to recognize danger signs or what appropriate treatment should be to their child health [10]. Secondly, millions of mothers and their children live in remote areas, where the social environment is against seeking healthcare [6]. In such social context, peoples choose home/self-treatment, use of traditional treatment above modern healthcare services [5,13]. ...
... Studies showed that mothers/caregivers high workload due to large family size bring about giving lesser attention to the sick child. Furthermore, financial restraints of large family members to visiting health facilities was related to family size [6,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Seeking healthcare in children is unique since parents decide upon the type and frequency of healthcare services accessed. Mothers/caregivers lower healthcare seeking behavior is one of the major reason for increased morbidity and mortality from childhood illness in developing countries. Hence, this study aimed to assess healthcare seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers towards childhood illnesses in selected health centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 422 sampled mothers/caregivers of children age 0-59 months, from April 18 to May 11, 2016. Ten health centers were selected using simple random sampling technique and proportionate number of participants were included from each health centers. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize socio-demographic characteristics and multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with of healthcare seeking behavior. Result: In case of illnesses, 26.5% of mothers/caregivers sought healthcare for their children. Among the common childhood illnesses, acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea accounted for 47.6 and 31%, respectively. Mothers/caregivers healthcare seeking behavior towards common childhood illnesses were influenced by child's age (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02, 3.13), education of mothers/caregivers (AOR = 4.24, 95% CI:1.32, 13.63), family size (AOR = 3.83, 95% CI:1.06, 13.78), perception of severity of illnesses (AOR = 2.00, 95% CI:1.05, 3.84), previous experience of similar illnesses (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI:1.36, 9.86) and previous history of under-five child death (AOR = 13.31, 95% CI:5.13, 34.53). Conclusions: The common under-five childhood illnesses were acute respiratory tract infection and diarrhea. The study also revealed that there was a delay in seeking healthcare and this was significantly associated with age of the child; mothers/caregivers level of education; family size; perception of illness severity; previous experience of similar illnesses and under-five child death.
... Those mothers who were not seeking medical care from health care facilities, 53.3% mentioned that illness was not serious, 26.7% lack of money and 13.3% did not seek any benefits from such childhood illness. 8 In recent years, epidemiologist and social scientists have focused their study toward health seeking behaviour associated with the two leading causes of child mortality, namely diarrhoea and ARI .Yet, the information about how and when families in developing countries seek treatment for these prevalent illness remains seriously incomplete. 9 So far very less study found investigating health care seeking behaviours for common childhood illness among mothers in Nepal which has significant role in reducing under five morbidity and mortality associated with common childhood illness especially ARI and Diarrhoea. ...
... But, in contrast, a study conducted in Ethiopia among 612 mothers on health care seeking behaviours for childhood illness had found that less number of mothers' perceived illness was not serious and not taken for treatment. 8 Likewise, regarding the perception about danger signs and symptoms of common childhood illness need immediate treatment, this study showed that more than 2/3 rd (68.9%) of respondents perceived that high fever or fever that persists more than 24 hours as danger signs and symptoms that need immediate treatment followed by 59.65% breathing problems. Nearly similar result was reported on the study conducted by Sreeramareddy et al. 2006 10 in which fever, difficulty in breathing and drinking poorly were mentioned as danger signs of common childhood illness. ...
... 11 But study conducted in Ethiopia showed that out of 415 mothers, 72.7% sought treatment from health care facilities for sick children. 8 In this study, findings showed that 100% respondents sought treatment while child got sick, of which 90.0% took their child to health facility or sought medical care when she/he was sick. Out of them who sought medical care, 63.23% preferred government health facility. ...
Article
Full-text available
Health care seeking behaviour of a mother has an important role in reducing morbidity and mortality related common childhood illness amongst under-five children. The main objective of this study was to identify the health care seeking behaviour of mothers who attended tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu for common childhood illness. The study was conducted in the paediatrics out-patient department of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital Kathmandu by employing a descriptive design under the quantitative research approach. Similarly, a non-probability convenience sampling technique was used in the study in which 151 mothers having 0-24 months (0-2 years old) children attending in OPD were included. Prior to data collection, written approval of the proposal was obtained from Research Department and Institutional Re­view Board, Institute of Medicine and Director of TUTH. The data were collected with the help of interview schedule and analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Result of this study found that 85.4% mothers had information regarding common childhood illness. All respondents were found seeking care when their children got sick. Out of the total respondents, 90% of them took their children in health facility whereas remaining 10% took their children to the traditional healer for treat­ment. Out of the total respondents taking their children in health facility, 80.8% mentioned that the children’s condition was worsened and, among them 65.4% preferred government health facility. Reason for not taking to health facilities were far distance, expensive treatment, lack of money, lack of faith and mothers’ perception of severity of illness. From this study, it can be concluded that the service provided through government health facilities needs to be improved and focus should be given on health education to mother regarding common childhood illness and its severity. Likewise, it is also necessary to increase mothers’ positive attitude and perception toward medical treatment when a child gets sick.
... Health care seeking behavior of mothers/care giver was recorded as a dichotomous (yes or no). If the mother/caregiver sought health care from one of the health facilities (hospitals, health centers, private clinics, private hospital or health posts) for her un well child, she had appropriate health seeking behavior [11]. ...
... Knowledge: in this study refers to care givers understanding on danger signs of child hood illness, cause, prevention and their management, was measured using 7 questions by classifying as having good knowledge if scored above the mean, poor knowledge if scored less than the mean [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Early detection and immediate health care seeking practice of care is an important step towards increasing child survival and reducing mortality. Many child deaths are attributed to delay in seeking care and child mortality is still insufficient progress. Despite the great potential of health seeking behavior of mothers for common childhood illness in reducing child morbidity and mortality, its status is not well known in the study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess mothers'/care givers health care seeking behavior and its associated factors for childhood illnesses in Woldia town administrative 2019.
... Due to diarrheal illnesses and long-term complications, childhood mortality was reduced by 20 percent if mothers early sought appropriate and prompt care (3). However, the habit of healthcareseeking behavior was relatively poor; thus, only a tiny proportion of under-five children receive appropriate treatment timely (10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17). According to the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) report, only 44% of under-five children with diarrheal were received advice or treatment in the health facility. ...
... Thus, despite the need for health care, it has often been delayed ever reaching a health facility, contributing to the morbidity and mortality of a significant number of under-five children. In addition, it would lead to complications in the long term (10,13,(15)(16)(17). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Delays in seeking timely proper care pay a large number of deaths from diarrhea in children. Timely and appropriate health care seeking in under-five children with diarrhea reduces life-threatening complications. This study aimed to investigate determinants of delayed treatment-seeking for diarrheal diseases among mothers with under-five children. Method: In Debre Markos public health facilities, a facility-based case-control study was conducted among 412 mothers ((137 cases and 274 controls) from September 1 to October 15, 2020. Consecutive sampling was employed to select cases and controls. Data was collected using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi- Data version 4.2.1 and exported to STATA version 14 for analysis. Predictors with P-value <0.25 in the bivariable logistic regression model were candidates for multivariable logistic regression. Pvalue <0.05 was used to declare statistical significance. Finally, results were presented in the form of texts and tables. Result: From 412 selected participants, 408 mothers (136 cases and 272 controls) were included. Female children [AOR 1.85(95% CI 1.15-2.98)], Child age < 24 months [AOR 1.64 (95% CI 1.01-2.65)], mothers'/caregivers without formal education [AOR 4.61 (95% CI 2.03-10.44)], poorest wealth index category [AOR 4.24 (95% CI 1.90-9.48)], absence of health insurance [AOR 3.04 (95% CI 1.60-5.78)], and self-medication [AOR 3.6 (95% CI 1.75-7.4)] were determinants of delayed treatment-seeking. Conclusion: Being female, young age, educational status of the mother, lowest wealth index category, self-medication, and absence of health insurance were determinants of delayed treatment-seeking for diarrheal diseases. Preventive care programs should target age, low socioeconomic status, and a low educational class of the mother.
... The primary cluster was located in the Amhara region (North and South Gondar zones and South Wollo zone), South Tigray zone, and in Afar regional state. The spatial window of the primary cluster was centered at 11.818783 N, 39.955788 E with a 279.39 km radius, the relative risk of 1.50, and the log-likelihood ratio of 42.97 at P-value <0.001. ...
... The knowledge that mothers acquire from formal education can help them to develop important eating habits and hygiene that prevent childhood stunting. Another possible reason is that educated mothers have better healthseeking behaviors of childhood diseases compared to illiterate mothers which can help prevent stunting [38,39]. ...
... Other knowledge and behavior characteristics including method of stool disposal, having access to water source, knowing when it is important to wash one's hands, and both the knowledge and behavior of washing hands with soap were not directly associated with seeking care for a child with diarrhea [20]. These findings further support the current literature that the most critical predictors of care-seeking behaviors are household wealth, gender, and education [21,22]. ...
... The authors concluded that fathers making care-seeking decisions was a barrier to accessing effective, efficient and timely healthcare [23]. Several studies examining care seeking behaviors in various African nations have noted that fathers are typically in charge of deciding what types of care to choose-decisions most often impacted by financial costs [22,24]. Both Bedford and Sharkey [23] and Bakshi [24] noted distinct cultural and geographic differences between groups in the gendered dynamics of care-seeking decisions, with some regions being more culturally traditional and patriarchal and others engaging in an increasingly collaborative decision-making process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Diarrhea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in Tanzania. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between diarrheal disease and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) related behaviors and determine care-seeking predictors for diarrheal disease. Methods: Data from 9996 female primary caregivers were collected as part of a larger integrated nutrition program. Logistic regression was used to measure associations between predictor and dependent variables and diarrheal and care-seeking outcomes. Results: Knowledge of the importance of handwashing after assisting a child who has defecated (OR 0.79, CI 0.72-0.87), before preparing food (OR 0.88, CI 0.80-0.97), and before feeding a child (OR 0.89, CI 0.81-0.99) were each associated with not having a child with diarrhea in the past two weeks. Fathers or male caregivers (OR 0.65, CI 0.48-0.89) were less likely to seek medical care for a child with diarrhea. No associations were found between WASH-related knowledge or behavior and seeking medical care for a child with diarrhea. Conclusions: Findings indicate that knowledge of handwashing importance was significant in washing hands after assisting a child who has defecated, before preparing food, and prior to feeding a child. These findings demonstrate the value of parental involvement to lower morbidity and mortality among children.
... The demographic health survey and local studies revealed that only a small number of children with common, potentially life-threatening conditions received appropriate care. [13][14][15][16] Even after adopting ICCM within the Health Extension Program, HSB for childhood illnesses has not significantly improved. [17][18][19] Evidence shows that the age of a child, 20,21 the gender of the child, [22][23][24][25] mothers' age, 19,26 educational status of mothers 8,27 and husband, 23,28 occupations, 29 and decisionmaking power within the household 27 are factors that influence mothers' HSB. ...
... This finding is in line with a study conducted in Yemen. 10 However, this finding is higher than a study conducted in Ethiopia, 14 Osun State, southwestern Nigeria, 7 Chitwan, and Nepal; 34 and lower than a study conducted in Sierra Leone. 2 This difference might be due to the study participants' socio-economic characteristics and the design and sample size of the studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes have been implemented in developing countries to facilitate modern medical care access. However, studies conducted on the effect of CBHI on healthcare-seeking behavior (HSB) have been limited and revealed inconsistent results. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of CBHI on mothers' HSB for common under-five childhood illnesses. Methods: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 rural mothers (205 insured and 205 non-insured), and a multistage random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Binary logistic regression and propensity score matching were used to identify factors associated with the mothers' HSB, and estimate the effect of CBHI on mothers' HSB, respectively. Results: The overall mother's HSB for childhood illnesses was 48.8% (200/410). From those mothers who visited healthcare, 92.0% were married, 86.0% were unable to read and write, 94.5% were farmers, and 54.5% were from low wealth status, 58.50% had a family size of ≤5, 54.0% had children less than 24 months of age. Besides, 63.0% were members of CBHI, 37.0% perceived their child's illness as severe, 78.0% made a shared decision to visit a health facility, and 67.5% lived within less than five Kms from the nearby health facilities. Being a member of CBHI, the child's age, decision to visit a health facility, and perceived disease severity were predictors of HSB. The CBHI had a significant effect on the HSB for childhood illnesses with ATT of 28.7% (t = 3.959). Conclusion: The overall mothers' HSB for common childhood illnesses was low though the CBHI has a significant effect. CBHI should be strengthened to improve the mothers' HSB. It is also crucial to strengthen awareness creation regarding joint decision-making and educate mothers to visit the health facilities regardless of children's age and disease severity.
... Specifically, women who had a big problem getting money had a lower likelihood to seek healthcare for their children's diseases, compared to their counterparts who had no problem getting money for healthcare. This finding confirms the results of Assefa et al. [21], who reported financial constraints as a barrier to health-seeking behaviour for childhood diseases in Northzoa Zone of Oromia Regional State of Ethiopia. Bedford and Sharkey [22] similarly reported financial problems as a barrier to heath-seeking behaviour for childhood diseases in Kenya, Niger, and Nigeria. ...
... Specifically, mothers in the rural areas reported lower likelihood of seeking care for their children's diseases, compared to mothers who dwelled in urban areas. Assefa et al. [21] and Gelaw et al. [27] reported a similar finding in Ethiopia. Similarly, Ferdous et al. [35] reported low health-seeking behaviour for childhood diseases among mothers in rural Bangladesh. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The success of current policies and interventions on providing effective access to treatment for childhood illnesses hinges on families' decisions relating to healthcare access. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), there is an uneven distribution of child healthcare services. We investigated the role played by barriers to healthcare accessibility in healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses among childbearing women in SSA. Materials and methods: Data on 223,184 children under five were extracted from Demographic and Health Surveys of 29 sub-Saharan African countries, conducted between 2010 and 2018. The outcome variable for the study was healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses. The data were analyzed using Stata version 14.2 for windows. Chi-square test of independence and a two-level multivariable multilevel modelling were carried out to generate the results. Statistical significance was pegged at p<0.05. We relied on 'Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology' (STROBE) statement in writing the manuscript. Results: Eighty-five percent (85.5%) of women in SSA sought healthcare for childhood illnesses, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Gabon (75.0%) and Zambia (92.6%) respectively. In terms of the barriers to healthcare access, we found that women who perceived getting money for medical care for self as a big problem [AOR = 0.81 CI = 0.78-0.83] and considered going for medical care alone as a big problem [AOR = 0.94, CI = 0.91-0.97] had lower odds of seeking healthcare for their children, compared to those who considered these as not a big problem. Other factors that predicted healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses were size of the child at birth, birth order, age, level of community literacy, community socio-economic status, place of residence, household head, and decision-maker for healthcare. Conclusion: The study revealed a relationship between barriers to healthcare access and healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa. Other individual and community level factors also predicted healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses in sub-Saharan Africa. This suggests that interventions aimed at improving child healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa need to focus on these factors.
... [2], [3], [4] Millions of mothers and their children through the world are living in a social environment that does not encourage health care seeking behavior [6]. Different studies showed that mothers health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses are influenced by socio-demographic, cultural and educational factors [7], [8]. Studies also indicated that timely decision to seek remedies, and times of health seeking after the onset of illness are influenced by residence. ...
... While similar studies carried out in Pakistan, Ethiopia and Kenya found a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and health seeking behavior. [7], [11], [12], [13], [14] This study showed that less than half of the respondents, whose children had symptoms of ARI two weeks prior to the study, sought for care before three days after onset of symptoms. This finding supported the report of NDHS, where only 34.5% of children with symptoms of ARI were taken to appropriate health facility for prompt and adequate treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are one of the leading causes of death among children under-five years of age, and are estimated to be responsible for up to 2.2 million childhood deaths globally. But less than half of children with ARI symptoms are taken for prompt and appropriate care. Objectives: To assess the care seeking practices and the socioeconomic factors affecting the care seeking behavior of mothers of under-five for acute respiratory infections. Methods: A community based descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 385 mothers of under-five in Iwo local government, Osun state using a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. Result: 385 participants were involved in the study; symptoms of ARI were reported by 283 out of which 223(78.4%) were taken for treatment. Only 96(24.9%) sought for care within 24 hours of onset of symptoms, 96(39.2%) sought for care in private hospital, 23.7% went to the government hospital. The main reasons for delay in seeking health care were financial cost (52%) and feeling that condition is not serious (52%). Conclusion: Though mothers have a relatively good health seeking behavior, health education is very essential to improve their knowledge on the cause and course of ARI and their care seeking behavior in order to reduce the burden of ARI.
... Many studies have identi ed access to money as a major barrier to healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses [26]. Women who had a big problem getting money for medical care for self were less likely to seek healthcare for their children's illnesses as compared to women who had no problem getting money for healthcare. ...
... Women who had a big problem getting money for medical care for self were less likely to seek healthcare for their children's illnesses as compared to women who had no problem getting money for healthcare. This nding supports other studies conducted in Ethiopia [26] and Kenya, Niger and Nigeria [27] that nancial problem was a barrier to healthcare seeking behaviour for childhood illness. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Poor health seeking behaviour continue to be major challenge in accessing healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa despite the availability of effective treatment for most childhood illnesses. The current study investigated the barriers to healthcare access and health seeking for childhood illnesses in Burundi. Methods The study utilized data from the 2016-17 Burundi Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). A total of 11,828 childbearing women who had complete information on all the variables of interest were included in our study. The outcome variable for the study was healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses. The data were analyzed using STATA version 14.2 for windows. Chi-square test of independence and a multilevel modelling were carried out to generate the results. Statistical signicance was pegged at 95% condence intervals (CIs). Results Overall, 80.55% of women in Burundi sought care for their children’s illness. We found that women who perceived getting money for medical care for self as a big problem [AOR=0.82; CI=0.73-0.91] and considered going for medical care alone as a big problem [AOR=0.84; CI=0.73-0.96], had lower odds of seeking healthcare for their children, compared to those who considered these indicators as not a big problem. The results also showed that cohabiting mothers [AOR=0.86; CI=0.76-0.96], those taking healthcare decisions alone [AOR=0.83; CI=0.71-0.97], women in female headed households [AOR=0.85;CI=0.74-0.98], women with children larger [AOR=0.86;CI=0.77-0.96] and smaller than average [AOR=0.76;CI=0.67-0.87], single birth children [AOR=0.65; 0.47-0.89], and women in rural areas [AOR=0.79; CI=0.63-0.99] had lower odds of seeking care for their children’s illness. Conclusion Findings suggest that Burundi should strengthen maternal health care regarding women’s healthcare accessibility and health seeking behaviours, especially with residential consideration and among women from the poorest wealth quintile, those cohabiting and those with lower parity. The Burundian government through multi-sectoral partnership should strengthen health systems (e.g. pay-for-performance [P4P]) for maternal health and address structural determinants of women’s health by creating favourable conditions to improve the status of women and foster their overall socioeconomic well-being.
... [2], [3], [4] Millions of mothers and their children through the world are living in a social environment that does not encourage health care seeking behavior [6]. Different studies showed that mothers health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses are influenced by socio-demographic, cultural and educational factors [7], [8]. Studies also indicated that timely decision to seek remedies, and times of health seeking after the onset of illness are influenced by residence. ...
... While similar studies carried out in Pakistan, Ethiopia and Kenya found a positive relationship between socioeconomic status and health seeking behavior. [7], [11], [12], [13], [14] This study showed that less than half of the respondents, whose children had symptoms of ARI two weeks prior to the study, sought for care before three days after onset of symptoms. This finding supported the report of NDHS, where only 34.5% of children with symptoms of ARI were taken to appropriate health facility for prompt and adequate treatment. ...
... In Ethiopia an estimated 67% of the working age population or 26 million people were stunted as children. The annual costs associated with child under nutrition are estimated at Ethiopian birr (ETB) 55.5 billion, which is equivalent to 16.5% of GDP [8]. Reduction of the prevalence to half of the current levels of child under nutrition by the year 2025 can generate annual average savings of ETB 4.4 billion (US$ 376 million) [8]. ...
... Children born to a household with no access to latrine were 3 times more likely to be stunted comparing to their counterparts (AOR =3.26, 95% CI (1.54-6.94). This is consistence with the study done in Ethiopia [16]. This might be due to a reduction in the pathogen load in the environment from correct and consistent use of improved sanitation [17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stunting is defined as a child with a height for-age Z-score less than minus two standard deviations. Globally, 162 million less than 5 years were stunted. In Ethiopia, Nationally the prevalence of stunting among under five children was 38.4% and in Afar it is above the national average (41.1%). This study was aimed to identify determinants of stunting among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Dubti district, Afar region, North East Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: Community based unmatched case-control study design was conducted among 322 (161 cases and 161 controls) children aged 6 to 59 months from March 2-30/ 2017. Simple random method was used to select 5 kebelles from 13 kebelles. Training was given for data collectors and supervisors. Data were entered to EPI data version 3.02 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used and variables with p-value < 0.25 on univariable binary logistic regression analysis were further analyzed on multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and statistical significance was declared at 95% CI. Results: Being from a mother with no education (AOR = 4.92, 95%CI (1.94, 12.4), preceding birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 4.94, 95% (2.17, 11.2), no ANC follow-up (AOR = 2.81, 95% (1.1.46, 5.38), no access to latrine (AOR =3.26, 95% CI (1.54-6.94), children born from short mother < 150 cm (AOR = 3.75, 95%CI (1.54, 9.18), not fed colostrum (AOR = 4.45, 95% CI (1.68, 11.8), breast fed for less than 24 months (AOR = 3.14, 95% CI (1.7, 5.79) and non-exclusive breast feeding (AOR = 6.68, 95% (3.1, 14.52) were determinants of stunting at 95% CI. Conclusion: No maternal education, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, no ANC follow-up, no access to latrine, short maternal height, not feeding colostrum, duration of breast feed less than 24 months and non- exclusive breast feeding were determinants of stunting at 95% CI.
... Accordingly, EDHS 2016 revealed that only 44% of under-five children with diarrheal diseases were taken for advice or treatment to a health facility. Different studies also identified low health care seeking behaviour of mothers of under-five children with diarrheal diseases [8,[11][12][13][14]. In addition to that, even health care was sought, it was often delayed without ever reaching a health facility, and leads to morbidity and mortality of large number of under-five children, otherwise leads to long term complications [8,[11][12][13][14]. ...
... Different studies also identified low health care seeking behaviour of mothers of under-five children with diarrheal diseases [8,[11][12][13][14]. In addition to that, even health care was sought, it was often delayed without ever reaching a health facility, and leads to morbidity and mortality of large number of under-five children, otherwise leads to long term complications [8,[11][12][13][14]. Ethiopian government has implemented integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) protocols and community case management to improve access to care and health worker's ability to treat under-five illnesses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Timely and appropriate health care seeking for diarrhea of under-five children is important to reduce severe and life-threatening complications. However, different findings indicate that mothers of under-five children often delay in seeking care which in turn contributes to the death of large number of children without ever reaching a health facility. Therefore, a proper pinpointing of determinants of delay in seeking care informs intervention strategies for health service planners. Objectives: Of this study was to identify the determinants of delay in care seeking for diarrheal disease among mothers/caregivers of under-five children in public health facilities of Arba Minch town, South Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: Facility based case control study was conducted from March 4 to April 30, 2019. Total sample size was 400. Cases were selected by systematic random sampling technique while controls were mothers of under-five children with signs and symptoms of diarrhea who came to the same health facility within 24 hours following cases. Data was collected by using pretested structured questionnaire by three data collectors and entered into EpiData V4 and exported to SPSS V23 for further analysis. Bivariable logistic regression was done to identify variables candidate for Multivariable LR at p-value<0.25. Multivariable logistic regression was done and p-value <0.05 and 95%CI of AOR was used to declare statistical significance. Result: Female sex[AOR = 1.93, (95%CI: 1.11,3.36)], child age <24 months[AOR = 4.47,95%CI:2.51,7.97)], mothers'/caregivers without formal education[AOR = 6.90, (95%CI:3.10,15.37)], and attended primary school [AOR = 3.12,(95%CI:1.44,6.73)], poorest household wealth index category[AOR = 2.81, (95%CI:1.20,6.58) and poor household wealth index category [AOR = 2.61,(95%CI: 1.12, 6.09)], mothers/caregivers who did not visit health facility to first episode diarrhea [AOR = 4.55, (95%CI:2.41,8.59)], mothers/caregivers who were satisfied in the last six month visit [AOR = 0.29, (95%CI:0.15,0.55)], and poor perceived health care professionals respect[AOR = 4.91, (95%CI:2.64,9.15)] were important determinants of delay in seeking care. Conclusions: Sex and age of the child, educational status of the mother/caregiver, poor wealth index category, not visiting health facility at first response, satisfaction with the care and examination, and respect of health care professionals were important determinants of delay in seeking care among mothers/caregivers of under-five children with diarrhea illness. All concerned body should focus interventions on poor and less educated mothers/caregivers with emphasis on female children and <24 months. Health workers are needed to provide respectful service to promote satisfaction level of clients.
... In Ethiopia, only a small proportion of children with common childhood illnesses receive appropriate heath care. This problem is particularly pronounced in rural mothers [11,12]. The 2016 EDHS report showed that only 30,35, and 44% of children with symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), fever, and diarrhea sought treatment respectively [4]. ...
... Recognizing danger signs of childhood illnesses is an important factor that motivates mothers/care givers to take medical help. This study showed that mothers who did not perceive severe illness were less likely to seek health care than those mothers who perceived the illness as severe, in line with a systematic review in developing countries [28] as well as studies done in western Nepal [29], rural Nigeria [22], Kenya [26,30], and Ethiopia [12,25]. In this study, distance from health institutions was not significantly associated with seeking appropriate health care. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Substantial progress has been made in reducing child mortality over the last decades, however the magnitude of the problem is yet high globally Appropriate health care-seeking behavior of mothers/guardians for common childhood illnesses could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to childhood illnesses, currently, there is few of studies in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess mothers/caregivers health care seeking behavior for their children in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Community based cross-sectional study of rural mothers living in Aneded district from February to March 2016. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by an interviewer. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with health care seeking behavior. Variables having P value ≤0.2 in the bivariate analysis were considered for multivariable analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was used to declare that there was statistically significant association. Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine the strength and direction of association. Result A total of 410 mothers participated in this study. Among 48.8% (95% CI: 44, 53.6%) had sought health care, only 27% sought health care within a day. Having awareness of childhood illness (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.18–6.72), perceived importance of early treatment (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI: 2.00–6.07) and child age < 24 months (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.08–2.68) and illness not being perceived as severe (AOR:= 0.17, 95% CI: 0.09–0.30) were all factors associated with mothers healthcare seeking behavior during their child illness. Conclusion Overall health care seeking behavior level was low. Awareness, perceived illness severity, perceived early treatment and having young children were predictors of mothers’ health care seeking behavior. The Woreda health office administrators and health professionals should work to improve mothers’ awareness and perception towards childhood problems and the importance of early seeking appropriate health care using the existed structures (one-to-five women networking and health developmental army). Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-019-3897-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Caretakers who have behaved delayed health-seeking, the child losses excess fluid volumes through diarrhea, which increased the chance of death [9]. Reports of the World Health Organization (WHO) and others who have indicated early health-seeking behavior and proper care can reduce child death and illness by 20% [10]. However, the magnitude of EHSB of caretakers in different localities of Ethiopia is little to know. ...
... Children of mothers who had a big problem getting money for medical care for self were less likely to get healthcare for their illnesses as compared to those of mothers who had no problem getting money for healthcare. This finding supports other studies conducted in Ethiopia [25] and Kenya, Niger and Nigeria [26] that financial problem is a barrier to healthcare seeking behaviour for childhood illness. The current finding lends support to other array of research that have established strong connection between wealth and various health outcomes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Poor health seeking behaviour continues to be major challenge in accessing healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa despite the availability of effective treatment for most childhood illnesses. The current study investigated the barriers to healthcare access and health seeking for childhood illnesses in Burundi. Methods The study utilized data from the 2016–17 Burundi Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS). A total of 2173 children under five of childbearing women were included in our study. The outcome variable for the study was healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses (diarrhea and fever/cough). Barriers to healthcare access were the explanatory variables and maternal and child factors were the control variables. Chi-square test of independence and a binary logistic regression modelling were carried out to generate the results. Results Overall, less than 50% of children in Burundi who were ill two weeks before the survey obtained healthcare. We found that children of mothers who perceived getting money for medical care for self as a big problem [aOR = 0.75; CI = 0.60–0.93] and considered going for medical care alone as a big problem [aOR = 0.71; CI = 0.55–0.91] had lower odds of getting healthcare, compared to those of mothers who considered these indicators as not a big problem. The results also showed that children of mothers who had three [aOR = 1.48; 1.02–2.15] and four [aOR = 1.62; 1.10–2.39], children were more likely to get healthcare for childhood illnesses compared to those whose mothers had one child. Children of mothers with single birth children were less likely to get healthcare compared to those whose mothers had multiple births. Conclusion Findings of the low prevalence of healthcare for childhood illnesses in Burundi suggest the need for government and non-governmental health organizations to strengthen women’s healthcare accessibility for child healthcare services and health seeking behaviours. The Burundian government through multi-sectoral partnership should strengthen health systems for maternal health and address structural determinants of women’s health by creating favourable conditions to improve the status of women and foster their overall socioeconomic well-being. Free child healthcare policies in Burundi should be strengthened to enhance the utilization of child healthcare services in Burundi.
... However, 57.6% (95% CI; 51.74, 63.47) of them had good healthcare-seeking behavior / sought care at health institutions/. This finding is higher than the study done in Northern India (23%) (Awasthi, Verma, & Agarwal, 2006), Edo state Nigeria (35.9%) (Aigbokhaode, Isah, & Isara, 2015), Western Nepal (11.3%) (Sreeramareddy et al., 2006), Aneded district (27%) (Simieneh, Mengistu, Gelagay, & Gebeyehu, 2019), in Wolkite (32.0%) (Anmut et al., 2017), Tenta district (41.3%) (Molla et al., 2017), Dera district (43.2%) (Assefa, Belachew, Tegegn, & Deribew, 2008), Enugu state Nigeria (47.7%) (Ekwochi et al., 2015) and in rural Wardha, India (41.8%) (Dongre, Deshmukh, & Garg, 2009). The variations might be explained by differences in the disease spectrum between these different study areas and knowledge level of mothers, study period, and differences in sociocultural characteristics. ...
... Najnin et al. (2011) found that 41% of caregivers did not seek health care from trained health care providers. In addition, care was sought from health facilities only for less than half of sick rural children 43.2% as compared to urban 87.2%; mothers' responses and actions were frequently influenced by their perception of severity or worsening of illness; and lack of money (36%), distances (27.7%) and perception of the illness not being serious (25.3%) were the major reasons for not seeking care in Ethiopia (Assefa et al., 2008). In Bangladesh, care seeking patterns were associated with the perceived severity of illness, the presence of danger signs, the duration and number of symptoms . ...
... Many studies have been conducted to assess the magnitude of health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and associated factors in Ethiopia (Abegaz et al. 2019;Alene et al. 2019;Assefa et al. 2008;Awoke 2013;Ayalneh et al. 2017;Dagnew et al. 2018;Demissie et al. 2014;Gebretsadik et al. 2015;Gelaw et al. 2014;Kebede et al. 2020;Kolola et al. 2016;Simieneh et al. 2019;Sisay et al. 2015). The combined findings of existing studies significantly strengthen the quality of evidence on the magnitude of health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in the nation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Numerous deaths in under-five children occur from preventable and treatable causes. Seeking medical care for a sick child is an important aspect of child health. Parents decide the type and frequency of health care service utilization for their children. A number of factors influence mothers’/caregivers’ health care seeking behavior for sick children. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence of health care seeking behavior and factors associated with common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia. Methods Studies were accessed via electronic web-based searches of PubMed, Web of Science, African Journals Online, the Cochrane Library, HINARI (Health Inter-Network Access to Research Initiative), and Google Scholar. We included all studies reporting the prevalence of health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia and published in the English language. The data were analyzed using Stata Version 14.1 software. A forest plot and I-squared test were carried out to assess the heterogeneity of the studies. A funnel plot and Egger’s regression test were done to check the publication bias. A random effect model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence and subgroup analysis performed to identify the probable source of heterogeneity. Results Twelve articles comprising 16,873) study participants, were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Ethiopia was 46.6% (95% CI: 38.7, 54.4) with severe heterogeneity (I² = 99.0%; p value <0.001) and significant publication bias. Being of the male sex (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.43), severity of the illness (OR = 4.04; 95% CI: 2.45, 6.66), rural place of residence (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.67), and having an educated mother/caregiver (OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 0.37, 3.65) were factors associated with health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses. Conclusion Mothers’/caregivers’ health care seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses was low in Ethiopia. The sex of the child, severity of the illness, place of residence, and maternal educational status were the major factors that determined the health care seeking behavior for common childhood illness. We recommend that awareness-raising activities should be strengthened, with a focus on rural residents and less educated mothers/caregivers.
... The utilisation frequency is higher among urban than rural populations. Several SSA countries have reported a frequency of between 40.0 and 87.3% of their population seeking care from conventional health care facilities [69][70][71][72]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction This systematic review aimed to analyse the performance of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and how its implementation has embraced advancement in information technology, big data analytics techniques and wealth of data sources. Methods HINARI, PubMed, and advanced Google Scholar databases were searched for eligible articles. The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols. Results A total of 1,809 articles were identified and screened at two stages. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 were country-specific, seven covered the SSA region, and three covered 3–4 countries. Twenty-six studies assessed the IDSR core functions, 43 the support functions, while 24 addressed both functions. Most of the studies involved Tanzania (9), Ghana (6) and Uganda (5). The routine Health Management Information System (HMIS), which collects data from health care facilities, has remained the primary source of IDSR data. However, the system is characterised by inadequate data completeness, timeliness, quality, analysis and utilisation, and lack of integration of data from other sources. Under-use of advanced and big data analytical technologies in performing disease surveillance and relating multiple indicators minimises the optimisation of clinical and practice evidence-based decision-making. Conclusions This review indicates that most countries in SSA rely mainly on traditional indicator-based disease surveillance utilising data from healthcare facilities with limited use of data from other sources. It is high time that SSA countries consider and adopt multi-sectoral, multi-disease and multi-indicator platforms that integrate other sources of health information to provide support to effective detection and prompt response to public health threats.
... Ergo is the most common dairy product in Ethiopia and is traditionally made by spontaneous fermentation of milk at ambient temperature for 2-3 days, without addition of starter cultures. However, the temperature and duration of incubation varies from place to place depending on the prevailing environmental conditions [26]. Ergo resembles set yoghurt and has a semisolid thick consistency, smooth and uniform appearance, a white color and pleasant flavor. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fermented foods play an important role in human nutrition and protecting against infectious diseases. Ethiopia is one of the countries where a wide variety of traditional fermented beverages are prepared and consumed, not only of animal origin, but also of plant origin. In everyday life people enjoy fermented beverages and particularly when having guests, they like to treat them to traditional alcoholic beverages and fermented dairy products. Understanding the properties of traditionally fermented beverages and dairy products as well as a proper analysis of the indigenous processing steps are important in order to recommend appropriate manufacturing protocol and procedures for commercialization. The traditional beverages deals with popular products ; Among this Borde, shameta, tej, chaka, tella, Korefe, keribo and areki are plant origin brews and ergo (spontaneously fermented milk), ititu (spontaneously fermented milk curd), kibe (traditional butter), neter kibe (ghee), dhanaan (Ethiopian fermented camel milk), ayib (Ethiopian cottage cheese), hazo (spiced fermented buttermilk), arera (defatted sour milk) and aguat (acid whey) are animal origin products that each household produce. Substrates for their production are from locally available raw materials. This publication provides to determine the general principles underlying how the processing and keeping affects traditional fermented food quality, facilitate further investigations of the fermented food mechanisms that affect food quality. The indigenous dairy and traditional fermented beverages products have good nutritional and functional potential to scale up to commercial production. In conclusion, the review discusses the nature of beverage preparation and daily products in Ethiopia and traditional household processing.
... The knowledge that mothers acquire from formal education can help them to develop important nutrition and hygiene behaviours that prevent childhood stunting. Another reason is that educated mothers have a tendency to seek better health for childhood illnesses than uneducated mothers, which can prevent stunting [40,41]. Therefore, maternal education is an important strategy to develop intelligent eating habits in young children and to overcome the growing burden of childhood stunting. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Childhood stunting is a major challenge to the growth and development of nations by affecting millions of children across the world. Although Ethiopia has made steady progress in reducing stunting, the prevalence of stunting is still one of the highest in the world. This study aimed to assess the spatial variation and factors associated with stunting among under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2019 Ethiopian Mini Demographic and Health Survey (EMDHS). The Getis-Ord statistics tool has been used to identify areas with high and low hotspots of stunting. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) at p-value < 0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. Results: The result of this study shows that about 37% of under-five children were stunted. Statistically significant hotspots of stunting were found in northern parts of Ethiopia. Children in the age group between 24–35 months were more likely to be stunted than children whose age was less than one year [AOR = 3.74; 95 % CI: (3.04–4.59)]. Children with mothers who had completed higher education had lower odds of being stunted compared to children whose mothers had no formal education [AOR = 0.55; 95%CI: (0.38–0.82)]. Children from the poorest wealth quintile had higher odds of being stunted compared to children from the richest wealth quintiles [AOR = 2; 95 % CI: (1.46–2.73)]. Children living in Tigray (AOR =3.64; 95 % CI: 2.17–6.11), Afar (AOR 2.02; 95 % CI 1.19-3.39), Amhara (AOR =2.29; 95 % CI: 1.37–3.86), Benishangul Gumz (AOR=1.87; 95% CI: 1.10-3.17) and Harari (AOR=1.95; 95% CI: 1.17-3.25) regions were more likely to be stunted compared to children living in Addis Ababa. Conclusion: This study showed that both individual and community-level factors were significant predictors of stunting. Improving maternal education, improving the economic status of households, improving age-specific child feeding practice, and providing additional resources to regions with high hotspots of stunting are recommended.
... Findings on the association between financial barriers and healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses support the findings of previous studies in Kenya, Nigeria and Niger [20] Ethiopia [29] and sub-Saharan Africa [30,31]. The possible reason for the finding could be that mothers who face financial barriers may not be able to pay for the cost of healthcare and this is likely to inhibit them from seeking healthcare for their children. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Poor healthcare-seeking behaviour is a major contributing factor for increased morbidity and mortality among children in low- and middle-income countries. This study assessed the individual and community level factors associated with healthcare-seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses among mothers of children under five in Chad. Methods The study utilized data from the 2014–2015 Chad Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 5,693 mothers who reported that their children under five had either fever accompanied by cough or diarrhea or both within the two weeks preceding the survey were included in this study. The outcome variable for the study was healthcare-seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses. The data were analyzed using Stata version 14.2. Multilevel binary logistic regression model was employed due to the hierarchical nature of the dataset. Results were presented as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) at 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Out of the 5,693 mothers who reported that their children under five had either fever accompanied by cough, diarrhea or both at any time in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, 79.6% recalled having sought treatment for their children’s illnesses. In terms of the individual level factors, mothers who faced financial barriers to healthcare access were less likely to seek healthcare for childhood illnesses, relative to those who faced no financial barrier (aOR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99). Mothers who reported that distance to the health facility was a barrier were less likely to seek healthcare for childhood illnesses, compared to those who faced no geographical barrier to healthcare access (aOR = 79, 95% CI = 0.65–0.95). Mothers who were cohabiting were less likely to seek healthcare for childhood illnesses compared to married mothers (aOR = 0.62 95% CI = 0.47–0.83). Lower odds of healthcare seeking for childhood illnesses was noted among mothers who did not listen to radio at all, relative to those who listened to radio at least once a week (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.55–0.91). Mothers who mentioned that their children were larger than average size at birth had a lesser likelihood of seeking childhood healthcare, compared to those whose children were of average size (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66–0.95). We further noted that with the community level factors, mothers who lived in communities with medium literacy level were less likely to seek childhood healthcare than those in communities with high literacy (aOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53–0.99). Conclusion The study revealed that both individual (financial barriers to healthcare access, geographical barriers to healthcare access, marital status, frequency of listening to radio and size of children at birth) and community level factors (community level literacy) are associated with healthcare-seeking behaviour for childhood illnesses in Chad. The government of Chad, through multi-sectoral partnership, should strengthen health systems by removing financial and geographical barriers to healthcare access. Moreover, the government should create favourable conditions to improve the status of mothers and foster their overall socio-economic wellbeing and literacy through employment and education. Other interventions should include community sensitization of cohabiting mothers and mothers with children whose size at birth is large to seek healthcare for their children when they are ill. This can be done using radio as means of information dissemination.
... An increased respiratory rate (more than sixty per minute while counted for a minimum one minute) and chest retractions indicate a serious problem. Jaundice and Vomiting are also very significant danger signs which require urgent treatment [7][8][9][10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Citation: Molalegn MG, Yohannes FG (2021) Assessment of mother's knowledge about neonatal danger sign and associated factors in Sodo town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. J Prev med Vol. 6 No. 3: 80 Assessment of mother's knowledge about neonatal danger sign and associated factors in Sodo town, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia Abstract Background: In Ethiopia neonatal mortality rate was 30 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2019. The survival of the child is determined at neonatal period. Neonatal danger sign refers to the occurrence of sign which show newborn mortality and morbidity. To reduce mortality and morbidity initial therapeutic intervention is necessary. Thus, family should be recognized neonatal danger sign and bring the newborn infant to health facility.
... While care-seeking behavior is generally influenced by availability, quality of services, and personal choices, the roles played by maternal and household variables are crucial. Low care-seeking behavior is particularly pronounced among households in the poorest quintile, in rural areas, with poor parental education, and those who are non-users of basic maternal and child health services [8,[10][11][12]. Other contributing factors could be: accessibility to service; severity of illness; trust in healthcare providers; and prior beliefs concerning treatment of the illness [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Childhood morbidities such as diarrhea and pneumonia are the leading causes of death in Ethiopia. Appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers for common childhood illnesses could prevent a significant number of these early deaths; however, little nation-wide research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess mothers’ healthcare-seeking behavior for their under five children. Methods The study used the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) data. The EDHS is a cross sectional survey conducted in 2016 on a nationally representative sample of 10,641 respondents. The main determinants of care-seeking during diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) episodes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses while adjusting for complex survey design. Results Only 43% and 35% of households sought medical attention for their children in episodes of diarrhea and ARI, respectively, during a reference period of 2 weeks before the survey. The odds of seeking care for diarrhea are lower for non-working mothers versus working mothers. The likelihood of seeking care for diarrhea or ARI is higher for literate fathers compared to those with no education. The place of delivery for the child, receiving postnatal checkup and getting at least one immunization in the past determined the likelihood of seeking care for ARI, but not for diarrhea. The odds of seeking care are higher for both diarrhea and ARI among households that are headed by females and where mothers experienced Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) violence. Religion and types of family structure are also significant factors of seeking care for diarrhea episodes, but not for ARI. Conclusions The findings call for more coordinated efforts to ensure equitable access to health care services focusing on mothers living in deprived household environment. Strengthening partnerships with public facilities, private health care practitioners, and community-based organizations in rural areas would help further improve access to the services.
... It can therefore be concluded that children who were taken to the health facilities for common childhood illnesses are relatively few. Not only that, when health care is sought, it is delayed (11,12). Home care, visiting traditional healers during illnesses were reported to be a common practise in rural Zambia (9,10). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Developing countries, including Zambia, account for larger share of child morbidities and mortalities due to common childhood illnesses. Studies on wider determinants of behaviour pertaining to treatment seeking for childhood febrile illnesses in poor resource settings are limited. This study investigated health seeking behaviours of mothers in poor resource settings of Zambia and identified associated factors. Methods: Secondary data from a community cross sectional study design from the Health for the Poorest Population (HPP) Project was analysed between March and May 2019. Data was collected between May and August, 2013. It was collected by means of administering a structured questionnaire from the mothers of under-five children. The survey took place in Samfya and Chiengi of Luapula province while in Northern Province, Luwingu and Mungwi were settled for. A total of 1 653 mothers of under 5 years who had an episode of diarrhoea, malaria, pneumonia or a combination of any of them not more than 14 days before the interview were included in the study. A sample size was arrived at using A Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) method. In order to determine the associations between respondent's demographic characteristics and health seeking behaviour, chi square test of independence was carried out. Multivariable logistic regression was also done to identify predictors of health seeking behaviours for common childhood illnesses in children aged <5 years old in poor resource settings. Results: Among the mothers interviewed, 64.6% were married while 35.4% were unmarried. Their mean age was 32 years. Mothers who took their sick children to the health facilities for the purpose of seeking health care for their child for either of the illnesses accounted for 75.2%, [95% CI: 0.62–0.96], while 24.8% did not seek health care for their sick child. Factors typically associated with health seeking behaviours were mothers' marital status [aOR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.58–0.94], and mothers ‘education level [aOR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.13–1.92]. Conclusion: It was established in this study that health care seeking behaviours for these common childhood illnesses in poor resource settings was relatively high and could be predicted by mother's education level and mothers' marital status. Integrating interventions targeted at increasing utilisation of maternal and child health services with basic education to women and moral support counselling to families may potentially maximise health seeking behaviours in marginalised communities.
... One possible explanation is that knowledge that mothers get from their formal education could capable them to practice nutritional and other related behaviors that prevent chronic malnutrition/stunting. In addition to this, educated mothers have better health seeking behavior for childhood illnesses as compared to uneducated mothers 50 . A higher maternal education leads to better health care practice, acceptance of modern health practices and higher female autonomy, that affects health-related decisions again increases nutritional effects 51 . ...
Article
Full-text available
In developing countries including Ethiopia stunting remained a major public health burden. It is associated with adverse health consequences, thus, investigating predictors of childhood stunting is crucial to design appropriate strategies to intervene the problem stunting. The study uses data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) conducted from January 18 to June 27, 2016 in Ethiopia. A total of 8117 children aged 6–59 months were included in the study with a stratified two stage cluster sampling technique. A Bayesian multilevel logistic regression was fitted using Win BUGS version 1.4.3 software to identify predictors of stunting among children age 6–59 months. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% credible intervals was used to ascertain the strength and direction of association. In this study, increasing child’s age (AOR = 1.022; 95% CrI 1.018–1.026), being a male child (AOR = 1.16; 95%CrI 1.05–1.29), a twin (AOR = 2.55; 95% CrI 1.78–3.56), having fever (AOR = 1.23; 95%CrI 1.02–1.46), having no formal education (AOR = 1.99; 95%CrI 1.28–2.96) and primary education (AOR = 83; 95%CrI 1.19–2.73), birth interval less than 24 months (AOR = 1.40; 95% CrI 1.20–1.61), increasing maternal BMI (AOR = 0.95; 95% CrI 0.93–0.97), and poorest household wealth status (AOR = 1.78; 95% CrI 1.35–2.30) were predictors of childhood stunting at individual level. Similarly, region and type of toilet facility were predictors of childhood stunting at community level. The current study revealed that both individual and community level factors were predictors of childhood stunting in Ethiopia. Thus, more emphasize should be given by the concerned bodies to intervene the problem stunting by improving maternal education, promotion of girl education, improving the economic status of households, promotion of context-specific child feeding practices, improving maternal nutrition education and counseling, and improving sanitation and hygiene practices.
... Studies in Kenya reported that 76.7%-87.3% of the population sought treatment from healthcare service providers [76,77]. Like in Tanzania, relatively lower prevalence rates among rural populations of Uganda (54.1%) [78], Zambia (56.8%), [79], Ghana (55.5%) [80] and Ethiopia (43.2%) [81] seek care from conventional healthcare facilities. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Public health surveillance requires valid, timely and complete health information for early detection of outbreaks. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) adopted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 in response to an increased frequency of emerging and re-emerging diseases in the region. This systematic review aimed to analyse how IDSR implementation has embraced advancement in information technology, big data analytics techniques and wealth of data sources to strengthen detection and management of infectious disease epidemics in SSA. Methods: Three databases were searched for eligible articles: HINARI, PubMed, and advanced Google Scholar databases. The review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols checklist. A total of 1,809 articles were identified using key descriptors and screened at two stages, and 45 studies met the inclusion criteria for detailed review. Results: Of the 45 studies, 35 were country-specific, seven studies covered the region, and three studies covered 3-4 countries. A total of 24 studies assessed the IDSR core functions, while 42 studies evaluated the support functions. Twenty-three studies addressed both the core and support functions. Most of the studies involved Tanzania (9), Ghana (6) and Uganda (5). The implementation of the IDSR strategy has shown improvements, mainly in the support functions. The Health Management Information System (HMIS) has remained the main source of IDSR data. However, the HMIS system is characterised by inadequate data completeness, timeliness, quality, analysis and utilisation as well as lack of integration of data from sources other than health care facilities. Conclusion: In most SSA, HMIS is the main source of IDSR data, characterised by incompleteness, inconsistency and inaccuracy. This data is considered to be biased and reflects only the population seeking care from healthcare facilities. Community-based event-based surveillance is weak and non-existence in the majority of the countries. Data from other systems are not effectively utilised and integrated for surveillance. It is recommended that SSA countries consider and adopt multi-sectoral, multi-disease and multi-indicator platforms that integrate the existing surveillance systems with other sources of health information to provide support to effective detection and prompt response to public health threats.
... Studies in Kenya reported that 76.7%-87.3% of the population sought treatment from healthcare service providers [76,77]. Like in Tanzania, relatively lower prevalence rates among rural populations of Uganda (54.1%) [78], Zambia (56.8%), [79], Ghana (55.5%) [80] and Ethiopia (43.2%) [81] seek care from conventional healthcare facilities. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Public health surveillance requires valid, timely and complete health information for early detection of outbreaks. Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) adopted Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in 1998 in response to an increased frequency of emerging and re-emerging diseases in the region. This systematic review aimed to analyse how IDSR implementation has embraced advancement in information technology, big data analytics techniques and wealth of data sources to strengthen detection and management of infectious disease epidemics in SSA. Methods: A search for eligible articles was done through HINARI, PubMed, and advanced Google Scholar databases. The review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols checklist. Using the key search descriptors, 1,809 articles were identified and screened at two stages and 45 studies met the inclusion criteria for detailed review. Results: Of the 45 studies, 35 were country-specific, seven studies covered the region and three studies covered 3-4 countries. A total of 24 studies assessed the IDSR core functions while 42 studies assessed the support functions. Twenty-three studies addressed both the core and support functions. Most of the studies involved Tanzania (9), Ghana (6) and Uganda (5). The implementation of the IDSR strategy has shown improvements mainly in the support functions. The Health Management Information System (HMIS) has remained the main source of IDSR data. However, the HMIS system is characterised by inadequate data completeness, timeliness, quality, analysis and utilisation as well as lack of integration of data from sources other than health care facilities. Conclusion: In most SSA, HMIS is the main source of IDSR data, characterised by incompleteness, inconsistency and inaccuracy. This data is considered to be biased and reflects only the population seeking care from healthcare facilities. Community-based event-based surveillance is weak and non-existence in the majority of the countries. Data from other systems are not effectively utilized and integrated for surveillance. It is recommended that SSA countries consider and adopt multi-sectoral, multi-disease and multi-indicator platforms that integrate the existing surveillance systems with other sources of health information to provide support to effective detection and prompt response to public health threats.
... For example, the exposure to stunting is higher in rural areas, among children because of mothers in urban have more awareness than in rural [7,8]. Educated mothers and fathers have better health-seeking behavior for childhood illness as compared to uneducated which can help prevent malnutrition [9,10]. indicates that statistical significance of spatial autocorrelation in model [11]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Majority of this world is concerned by malnutrition. Ethiopia is one of the Sub Saharan Africancountries known by poverty, childhood diseases, high mortality and poor infrastructures and technology. The study aimed to examine differences within individuals and between clusters in nutritional status of under-five children and to identify socioeconomic factors using adequate nutrition of children in Ethiopia. Method Data was obtained from Ethiopian 2019 Mini Demographic and Health Survey surveyed by Ethiopian Public Health Institute. A weighted sub- sample of 8768 under-five children was drawn from the dataset. Spatial statistics was used to analysis spatial variations of malnutrition of children in clusters of regional areas of Ethiopia. Multilevel modeling was used to look at demographic, socioeconomic factors at individuals and clusters levels. Result At national level the proportion of stunting, underweight and wasting among under-five children were 39.5 percent, 29.8 percent and 15.4 percent respectively. The Global Moran Index’s value for children malnutrition result in Ethiopia was (for stunting I = 0.204, P-value = < 0.0001, for underweight I = 0.195, P-value = < 0.0001 and for wasting I = 0.152, P-value = < 0.0001). Spatial variability of malnutrition of under-five children across the clusters of Ethiopia observed. Result of heterogeneity between clusters obtained was \({X}^{2}=147.25, {X}^{2}=211.43 and {X}^{2}=201.43\)respectively for stunting, underweight and wasting with P = < 0.0001 providing evidences of variation among regional clusters with respect to the status of nutrition of under-five children.Multilevel model result revealed that high differences of malnutritionin individual households and regional clusters in the under-five children in Ethiopia. Conclusion The model showed that there were spatial variations in malnutrition among clusters in Ethiopia. Child age in month, breast feeding, family educational level, wealth index, place of residence, media access and region were highly significantly associated with childhood malnutrition. Inclusion of explanatory variables in multilevel model has shown that a significant impact on variation in malnutrition among individual households and regional clusters. Accessible resources, promoting education,use media to expand activities regarding nutritional and health services and through health workers and health institutions in Ethiopia is significant.
... While care-seeking behavior is generally in uenced by availability, quality of services, and personal choices, the roles played by maternal and behavioral variables are crucial. Low care-seeking behavior is particularly pronounced among households in the poorest quintile, in rural areas, with poor parental education, and those who are non-users of basic maternal and child health services (8,(10)(11)(12). Other contributing factors could be: accessibility to service; severity of illness; trust in healthcare providers; and prior beliefs concerning treatment of the illness (13). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Childhood morbidities such as diarrhea and pneumonia are the leading causes of death in Ethiopia. Appropriate healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers for common childhood illnesses could prevent a significant number of these early deaths; however, little nation-wide research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess mothers’ healthcare-seeking behavior for their children. Method: The study used the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) conducted in 2016 on a nationally representative sample of 10641 children under the age of five. The main determinants of care-seeking during diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) episodes were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses while adjusting for complex survey design. Results: Only 43% and 35% of households sought medical attention for their children in episodes of diarrhea and ARI, respectively, during a reference period of two weeks before the survey. The odds of seeking care for diarrhea are lower for non-working mothers versus working mothers. The likelihood of seeking care for diarrhea or ARI is higher for fathers who had education versus no education. The place of delivery for the child, receiving postnatal checkup and getting at least one immunization in the past determined the likelihood of seeking care for ARI, but not for diarrhea. The odds of seeking care are higher for both diarrhea and ARI among households that are headed by females and where mothers experienced domestic violence. Religion and types of family structure are also significant factors of seeking care for diarrhea episodes, but not for ARI. Conclusion: Given the high morbidity and mortality rates for children in Ethiopia, a deeper understanding of the health-seeking behaviour of mothers may provide insights for identifying the potential gaps and developing improvement of mothers’ awareness and perception towards childhood problems
... Children born to a household with no access to latrine were 3 times more likely to be stunted comparing to their counterparts (AOR =3.26, 95% CI (1.54-6.94). This is consistence with the study done in Ethiopia [16]. This might be due to a reduction in the pathogen load in the environment from correct and consistent use of improved sanitation [17]. ...
Article
Background: Stunting is defined as a child with a height forage Z-score less than minus two standard deviations. Globally, 162 million less than 5 years were stunted. In Ethiopia, Nationally the prevalence of stunting among under five children was 38.4% and in Afar it is above the national average (41.1%). This study was aimed to identify determinants of stunting among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Dubti district, Afar region, North East Ethiopia, 2017. Methods: Community based unmatched case-control study design was conducted among 322 (161 cases and 161 controls) children aged 6 to 59 months from March 2-30/ 2017. Simple random method was used to select 5 kebelles from 13 kebelles. Training was given for data collectors and supervisors. Data were entered to EPI data version 3.02 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used and variables with p-value < 0.25 on univariable binary logistic regression analysis were further analyzed on multivariable binary logistic regression analysis and statistical significance was declared at 95% CI.
... Reason for delaythe commonest childhood illnesses encountered in our study, similar to other studies.[7][8][9][10] ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Since 1990 the global under-5 mortality rate has dropped from 91 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 43 in 2015. But the rate of this reduction in under-5 mortality was insufficient to reach the MDG target of a two-thirds reduction of 1990 mortality levels by the year 2015. Leading causes of death in children under-5 years are preterm birth complications, pneumonia, birth asphyxia, diarrhoea and malaria.Methods: Present study is a cross sectional observational study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, in JJM Medical College, Davanagere. Source of data was primary caregivers (mothers, fathers, grandparents, other relatives or guardians) of children between the age group of 1 month-5 years. This study is a structured questionnaire based cross-sectional observational study. Data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.Results: Out of the 350 primary caregivers, 146(41.71%) were mothers, 97(27.71%) were fathers, 57(16.28%) were grandparents. Taboos and cultural beliefs to ward of illness were commonly practiced among this study group. 26% believed in skin branding their children during febrile episodes or convulsions. 8% believed that ear piercings would prevent diarrhoeal illnesses and infant deaths while 6% felt that amulets prevent respiratory illness and mortality. Overall knowledge among primary caregivers regarding common childhood illnesses was found to be good.Conclusions: Knowledge and attitude among primary caregivers regarding common childhood illnesses is favourable but the practices and perceptions are not satisfactory. Improving literacy rates will have a significant impact on reduction of childhood mortality. Socioeconomic development of the urban community can improve care seeking behaviour during the childhood illness.
... The global mortality rate for children below the age of 5 years was 43 deaths per 1000 live births in 2015 being a 44% reduction since 2000 while in the Sub-Saharan Africa it was recorded at 84 deaths per 1000 live births [34]. Majority of the deaths of children under 5 years children in Africa have been attributed to diarrhoea as a result of poor health seeking behaviour among their caregivers [35]. Awareness levels of diarrhoea morbidity were not adequate in reduction of diarrhoea levels owing to the accompanying complex influences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Maternal health seeking behaviours in humanitarian and development prisms affect the children and their mothers immensely. Failure or delays in seeking proper health care for children in developing countries results to significant numbers of deaths attributed to high diarrhoea morbidity. The study examined patterns of health seeking behaviour of caregivers in prevention of diarrhoea morbidity. Statistics confirm higher diarrhoea morbidity in Nyanza twice the rate from Central Kenya in children under five despite a national decline from previous years. The study thus sought to explore health-seeking behaviour of caregivers of children under five years facing diarrhoea in Homabay County. A descriptive cross sectional study design was used in the study. Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informants interview (KII) were employed as data collection instruments. A sample size of 384 households was used with 10% to account for non response was incorporated. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20 was used for the analysis of quantitative data. Qualitative data from both questionnaire and Key Informants interview guide were triangulated. Open-ended questions were also analysed through a quantitative content analysis. Chi square test with statistical significance set at α<0.05 was used to test relationship between categorical variables, odds ratio calculated at 95% confidence intervals (CI). Delayed health seeking behaviour was evident from majority of the respondents (68.4%) who sought healthcare more than a day after the onset of diarrhoeal incidences. There was no significant relationship between knowledge of diarrhoea and awareness of the danger signs α = 0.31, 33.8%. Children experienced diarrhoea at a frequency of 3 episodes per day and 3-4 per day, ORS was used by 60% of the respondents, 39% used ORS + Zinc for treatment. Poor health-seeking behaviour was evident and the study attributed it to diminished finances, few health facilities and poor services in them. The study recommends enhanced community knowledge, better practices for identification and mitigation of danger signs to improve diarrheal management in children.
... The UNICEF/WHO study found that only 40% of caregivers sought treatment within 24 hours after the on-set of a diarrhea episode [5]. However, the finding from the present study is close to the findings of other studies carried out in rural Niger (70%), Ethiopia (54%) and 67% in rural China [14,15,16]. The timely health seeking behaviors in the study areas are attributed to the World Vision program interventions, hygiene and sanitation campaigns and parent support group engagements. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Healthcare-seeking interventions can potentially reduce child mortality; however, many children die in developing countries without reaching a health facility. The World Health Organization reported that 70% of child deaths are related to delay care-seeking. So, this review is aimed at identifying mothers' care-seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses and predictors in Ethiopia. Methods: Systematic search of studies was done on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, institutional repositories, Academic Search Premier, and manually from reference lists of identified studies in the English language up to August 2021. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality appraisal tool for prevalence study. This meta-analysis used the random-effect method using the STATA™ Version 14 software. Result: Fourteen studies involving 8,031 participants were included in this meta-analysis. After correcting Duval and Tweedie's trim and fill analysis, the overall pooled prevalence of mothers' care-seeking behavior is 60.73% (95% CI: 43.49-77.97), whereas the highest prevalence, 74.80% (95% CI: 62.60, 87.00) and 67.77%(95% CI: 55.66, 79.87), was seen in Amhara region and urban residents, respectively, while the lowest, 36.49% (95% CI: -27.21, 100.18) and 47.80% (95% CI:-15.31, 110.9), was seen in South Nation Nationality Peoples' Regions and among rural residents, respectively. Mothers' educational status (P ≤ 0.001) and mothers' marital status (P ≤ 0.001) were significantly associated with mothers' care-seeking behavior. Conclusion: Even though children are a vulnerable group, mothers' care-seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses is significantly low. Educational status and marital status were determinants of mothers' care-seeking behavior. So, all responsible bodies should work on the improvement of mothers' care-seeking behavior.
Article
Background knowledge of neonatal danger signs is an entry point for healthcare-seeking at health institutions. Thus, this study aimed to assess maternal knowledge, healthcare-seeking behavior, and associated factors about neonatal danger signs. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to 22, 2020 among postpartum mothers in Shashamane town. Systematic random sampling was employed then data was analyzed using SPSS version 26. Variables at p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results 135 (33.2%, 95% CI: 28.8, 37.9) of the respondents had good knowledge of neonatal danger signs. Of 276 respondents who have recognized at least one neonatal danger sign on their neonate, 159 (57.6%, 95% CI; 51.74, 63.47) of them had good healthcare-seeking behavior. Marital status AOR (adjusted odds ratio) = 4.96, 95% CI: (1.99, 12.36), having less than five family members AOR = 2.09, 95% CI, (1.27, 3.44) receiving counseling during antenatal care follow-up AOR = 2.04, 95% CI, (1.17, 3.57), having postnatal care follow-up AOR = 2.37, 95% CI (1.35, 4.17), practiced feeding colostrum AOR = 3.01 (1.39, 6.50) were predictors of good knowledge of neonatal danger signs. Conclusions Maternal knowledge of neonatal danger signs was poor. Receiving counseling during antenatal care follow-up, less than five family members and having postnatal care follow-up, marital status, feeding colostrum, and giving pre-lacteal fluid for their baby were factors significantly associated with having good knowledge of neonatal danger signs. Giving health education about neonatal danger signs and early care seeking at health institutions is recommended.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stunting affects a quarter of children under five, yet little is known about the accuracy of caregivers' perceptions regarding their child's linear growth. Most existing quantitative research on this topic has been conducted in high income countries and has examined perceptions of children's weight rather than height. Objectives: In rural Ethiopia where linear growth faltering is highly prevalent, this study aimed to better understand how caregivers perceive their child's growth. The objectives of this analysis were: 1) assess caregivers' perceptions of their child's height; 2) investigate whether there is a discrepancy between a child's actual height and caregivers' perceptions of their child's height; and 3) examine the factors that influence discrepancies in estimating a child's height (secondary outcomes), including the role of the average height in the community (primary outcome). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from 808 woman caregivers of children ages 6-35 months in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. We assessed caregivers' rankings (from 1-10) of their child's height relative to other children their age in their village. We then converted these rankings to z-scores based on an age- and region-specific distribution in order to calculate their difference with the child's actual height-for-age z-score and to determine the degree of overestimation. Lastly, we used multivariate log Poisson regressions to determine factors associated with overestimating a child's height. Results: Forty-three % of caregivers scored their child's height as the median; forty-one % overestimated their child's height relative to other children. Regression results showed caregivers who were poorer, and had children who were female, older, and stunted were more likely to overestimate. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that caregivers of young children in Oromia systematically overestimated their children's height, which could adversely affect child health if these misperceptions translate to insufficient care-seeking behavior or feeding choices for children.
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Majority of this world is concerned by malnutrition. Ethiopia is one of the Sub Saharan African countries known by poverty, childhood diseases, high mortality and poor infrastructures and technology. The study aimed to examine differences within individuals and between clusters in nutritional status of under-five children and to identify socioeconomic factors using adequate nutrition of children in Ethiopia. Method Data was obtained from Ethiopian 2019 Mini Demographic and Health Survey surveyed by Ethiopian Public Health Institute. A weighted sub- sample of 8768 under-five children was drawn from the dataset. Spatial statistics was used to analysis spatial variations of malnutrition of children in clusters of regional areas of Ethiopia. Multilevel modeling was used to look at demographic, socioeconomic factors at individuals and clusters levels. Result At national level the proportion of stunting, underweight and wasting among under-five children were 39.5 percent, 29.8 percent and 15.4 percent respectively. The Global Moran Index’s value for children malnutrition result in Ethiopia was (for stunting I = 0.204, P-value = < 0.0001, for underweight I = 0.195, P-value = < 0.0001 and for wasting I = 0.152, P-value = < 0.0001). Spatial variability of malnutrition of under-five children across the clusters of Ethiopia observed. Result of heterogeneity between clusters obtained was {X}^{2}=147.25, {X}^{2}=211.43 and {X}^{2}=201.43 respectively for stunting, underweight and wasting with P = < 0.0001 providing evidences of variation among regional clusters with respect to the status of nutrition of under-five children. Multilevel model result revealed that high differences of malnutrition in individual households and regional clusters in the under-five children in Ethiopia. Conclusion The model showed that there were spatial variations in malnutrition among clusters in Ethiopia. Child age in month, breast feeding, family educational level, wealth index, place of residence, media access and region were highly significantly associated with childhood malnutrition. Inclusion of explanatory variables in multilevel model has shown that a significant impact on variation in malnutrition among individual households and regional clusters. Accessible resources, promoting education, use media to expand activities regarding nutritional and health services and through health workers and health institutions in Ethiopia is significant.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: Pneumonia is among the top causes of morbidity and mortality among the under-fives worldwide. Objectives: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess health-seeking behaviour and first medical management of pneumonia among children aged under 5 years in Alexandria, Egypt from the mothers’ perspectives. Methods: Using a pre-designed questionnaire, we interviewed 507 mothers of pneumonic children aged under 5 years who had been admitted at 4 governmental children’s hospitals. The study was conducted during August–November 2017. Results: We found that 57.2% of children received home treatment before seeking medical advice. Around 26% of mothers waited ≥ 2 days before seeking medical advice; insufficient knowledge about the disease was their main contention (89%). Factors significantly associated with the delay were: rural residence (P = 0.006); low income (P = 0.002); home treatment given before seeking medical advice (P < 0.001) and previous episodes of pneumonia (P = 0.002). Diagnosis of pneumonia had not been made by more than half of the first consulted sources (52.7%). Conclusion: There is an urgent need to improve mothers’ knowledge and train physicians for appropriate management of pneumonia in children under 5 years. Keywords: pneumonia, management, under-fives, Egypt
Article
Full-text available
Background: The practice of appropriate health care-seeking is important to reduce severe and life-threatening childhood illnesses. In Shire town, little is known about the mother’s health care-seeking behaviour on childhood illness. Aim: To assess modern health-seeking behaviour and associated factors of mothers having under 5-years old children in Shire town. Setting: The study setting was Shire town, northwest Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted to interview 504 mother-child pairs by systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected through interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires. Data were coded, entered, cleaned and edited using EPIDATA version 3.1 and export to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 22.0 for analysis. To identify the significant variables, binary logistic regression was employed. Variables with p-value 0.05 at 95% CI (confidence interval) in multivariate logistic regression were considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, around 76.2% (72.1, 80) of mothers sought modern health care. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis at a p-value of 0.05, caregivers with age of ≥ 28 years (AOR [adjusted odds ratios]: 1.65; 95% CI [1.02, 2.68]), educational level of secondary school and above (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI [0.23, 0.86]), child feeding per day 8 times (AOR: 2.77; 95% CI [1.75, 4.38]) and perceived severity of illness (AOR: 2; 95% CI [1.07, 3.82]) were statistically associated with modern health care-seeking behaviour. Conclusion: Strengthen healthcare services is recommended at the community level through information, education and communication/behavioural change strategies to improve the mother’s health care-seeking behaviour.
Article
Full-text available
Health care seeking behavior is any action undertaken by individuals who perceive to have a health problem or to be ill for finding an appropriate remedy. It involves recognition of symptoms, perceived nature of the illness, followed initially by appropriate home care and monitoring. In Ethiopia, little is known about the mother's health care seeking behavior on neonatal danger signs. Therefore, this study assessed the health care seeking behavior on neonatal danger signs among mothers in Tenta district, Northeast Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 23 to November 17, 2015. The study district was stratified into urban and rural kebeles. From each stratum, 1 out of 3 urban and 7 out of 25 rural kebeles were selected by simple random sampling technique. A total of 527 mothers were interviewed using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. The data were checked for missing values and outliers and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Logistic regression analyses were employed to see the association between dependent and independent variables. Mothers who sought medical care for neonatal danger signs were 167 (41.3%). Mothers' secondary educational level (AOR=4.64, 95% CI=1.1-19.81), has given birth in health center (AOR=3.35, 95% CI=1.31-8.56), practicing optimal thermal care (AOR=2.52, 95% CI=1.08-5.85), and having higher decision-making abilities in seeking neonatal health care (AOR=11.28, 95% CI=4.36-29.22) were significant predictors of mother's health-seeking behaviour towards neonatal danger signs. Long distance of the residence from a health facility, experiencing less serious neonatal danger signs, and beliefs that some danger signs were caused by evil spirits were the most common reasons cited by mothers who did not seek neonatal medical care. In this study, more than half of the mother's did not seek medical care for neonatal danger signs. Maternal education and improving their decision-making abilities, and promoting institutional delivery are the recommended interventions to improve mother's health care seeking for neonatal illness. Health facilities should integrate essential neonatal care service during ANC and PNC follow up to improve the quality of health information about neonatal danger signs. At the community level, health extension workers should educate mothers about newborn care practices and neonatal danger signs.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.