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Antibacterial properties of saliva: Role in maternal periparturient grooming and in licking wounds


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Canine saliva was tested for its bactericidal effects against pathogens relevant to the presumed hygienic functions of maternal grooming of the mammary and anogenital areas and licking of wounds. Both female and male saliva were bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus canis but only slightly, and nonsignificantly, bactericidal against coagulase positive staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli is the cause of highly fatal coliform enteritis of neonatal mammals and E. coli and S. canis are the main pathogens implicated in neonatal septicemia of dogs. The bactericidal effects of saliva would facilitate the hygienic function of maternal licking of the mammary and anogenital areas in protecting newborns from these diseases. E. coli and S. canis along with coagulase positive staphylococcus and P. aeruginosa are among the common wound contaminants of dogs. Wound licking, and the application of saliva, would thus reduce wound contamination by E. coli and S. canis. The resistance of staphylococcus to bactericidal effects of saliva may be a factor in the high frequency (46 percent) with which coagulase positive staphylococcus was isolated from wounds compared with much lower frequency (9-17 percent) with which E. coli and S. canis were isolated.
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Physiology & Behavior. Vol. 48, pp. 383-386. © Pergamon Press plc, 1990. Printed in the U.S.A. 0031-9384/90 $3.00 + .00
Antibacterial Properties of Saliva:
Role in Maternal Periparturient
Grooming and in Licking Wounds
Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine
University of California, Davis, CA 95616
Received 27 March 1990
HART, B. L. AND K. L. POWELL. Antibacterial properties of saliva: Role in maternal periparturient grooming and in licking
wounds. PHYSIOL BEHAV 48(3) 383-386, 1990. --Canine saliva was tested for its bactericidal effects against pathogens relevant to
the presumed hygienic functions of maternal grooming of the mammary and anogenital areas and licking of wounds. Both female and
male saliva were bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus canis but only slightly, and nonsignificantly, bactericidal
against coagulase positive staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. E. coli is the cause of highly fatal coliform enteritis of
neonatal mammals and E. coli and S. canis are the main pathogens implicated in neonatal septicemia of dogs. The bactericidal effects
of saliva would facilitate the hygienic function of maternal licking of the mammary and anogenital areas in protecting newborns from
these diseases. E. coli and S. canis along with coagulase positive staphylococcus and P, aeruginosa are among the common wound
contaminants of dogs. Wound licking, and the application of saliva, would thus reduce wound contamination by E. coli and S. canis.
The resistance of staphylococcus to bactericidal effects of saliva may be a factor in the high frequency (46 percent) with which
coagulase positive staphylococcus was isolated from wounds compared with much lower frequency (9-17 percent) with which E. coli
and S. canis were isolated.
Saliva Maternal behavior Bacteria E. coli Dogs Grooming
SALIVA is a very complex fluid subserving a number of important
functions (20). One of the early known properties of human saliva
was an antibacterial effect which was attributed to the lysozyme
content (8, 10, 18, 37, 38). Subsequent to these earlier studies,
saliva has been found to contain a variety of other antibacterial
substances including lactoferrin, leukocytes, lactoperoxidase, an-
tibodies and cationic proteins (5, 20, 21). The more recent studies
on the bactericidal effects of various constituents of human saliva
have been aimed at understanding the role of saliva in inhibiting
the action of bacteria which cause oral pathology (1, 21, 35, 36).
Among the other substances in human saliva are the histidine-rich
peptides which have direct antifungal properties (29) and sub-
stances that interfere with the ability of bacteria to adhere or attach
to soft tissues (21).
In animals, particularly rodents and carnivores, one can point
to functions other than maintenance of oral hygiene for the
putative antibacterial properties of saliva. One of these functions is
postcopulatory genital grooming. In a previous study, we found
that saliva of male and female rats had bactericidal effects against
two genital pathogens, PasteureUa pneumotropica and Myco-
plasma pulmonis (14). This bactericidal effect of rat saliva
presumably enhances the physical washing effect of genital
grooming in preventing the transmission of genital pathogens from
females to males during copulation.
Two other behavioral patterns involving licking, and where
antibacterial effects of bacteria may be important, are periparturi-
ent licking by females of their mammary and anogenital areas and
licking wounds. Licking of the mammary and anogenital areas just
prior to parturition is evident in rodents (30), cats (32) and dogs (4)
and the shift of grooming from other parts of the body to the
mammary and anogenital areas during late pregnancy has been
quantitatively documented for rats (31). Newborn mammals,
which are born with a sterile gut, do not have the intestinal
bacterial flora which is protective against opportunistic pathogens
(11). Newborns are, therefore, at risk to some of the more virulent
strains of Escherichia coli commonly found in feces (6, 27, 39) if
exposed to this microorganism prior to ingestion of colostrum, as
they would be during the birth process or in attaching to nipples
prior to suckling. Severe enteritis with high mortality, caused by
E. coli (colibacillosis), is reported for young rats (12,22) and dogs
and cats (11, 17, 39). The intestinal epithelium of neonates is
permeable to bacteria for the first 48-72 hours after birth (11), and
in neonatal dogs E. coli and Streptococcus canis can be involved
in septicemia (1 I, 17). If saliva were bactericidal against E. coli,
and other potential pathogens, periparturient licking of the mam-
mary and anogenital areas would be particularly adaptive since
these are the body areas of the mother which could be contami-
nated by fecal-borne bacteria and which the newborns' mouths
come in intimate contact with during birth and suckling.
Finally, a common observation among carnivores and rodents
that have sustained cutaneous injuries is licking their wounds
immediately after the injury and rather frequently during the
healing process. One rather obvious function is to physically
cleanse the wound of foreign material, tissue debris and bacterial
contaminants through the use of the tongue. If the saliva of
animals has antibacterial agents that are effective against potential
wound-tissue pathogens, then the licking of wounds would be
particularly adaptive in reducing bacterial contamination.
The purpose of this study was to examine saliva for its
bactericidal effects against pathogens relevant to the hygienic
functions of maternal periparturient grooming and wound licking.
Dogs were chosen as saliva donors because a large quantity of
saliva could be obtained for testing against several pathogens.
Additionally, we had access to a repository of bacteria isolated
from dog wounds.
The saliva donors were 46 gonadally intact male dogs and 42
female dogs that were in anestrus or ovariohysterectomized at the
time of saliva collection. The donors were of mixed breeding,
weighing a mean of 21.4 kg.
Saliva Collection
The procedures used for collecting saliva for dogs were
modified from those previously utilized in collecting saliva from
rats (2, 14, 15, 24). The subjects were anesthetized with sodium
thiamylal. At the time of anesthetization subjects were injected
with pilocarpine (0.02 mg/kg, SC) for cholinergic stimulation of
saliva. Saliva was collected by means of a funnel suspended below
the oral cavity and, after 5-10 rain, 20-25 ml of saliva was
collected. Atropine (0.1 ml/kg SC) was given after the specified
amount of saliva was obtained to counteract the effect of the
pilocarpine. Immediately after each collection procedure the saliva
from 6-8 dogs of the same sex was pooled and frozen. At a later
date this saliva was thawed, centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min,
sterilized by passage through a 0.45 tx millipore filter, frozen at
and then lyophilized and stored at 5°C until reconstituted
and used in the tests. Given that the saliva collected by use of
pilocarpine was dilute, the sterilized saliva used for the bacterio-
logical tests was reconstituted to only 5 percent of the original
Selection of Bacteria
One pathogen chosen for testing was E. coli because of its role
in coliform enteritis of newborn animals. Another organism
chosen was the 13-hemolytic S. canis because in neonatal puppies,
B-hemolytic streptococcus, along with E. coli, is a predominant
organism involved in septicemia (11,17). To address the question
of whether saliva is bactericidal for some common wound con-
taminants, we conducted a survey of bacterial isolates from dog
wounds as cataloged in a bacterial repository. The repository
consisted of stored and cataloged bacteria which had been isolated
and identified over a period of years from open wounds of 87 dogs
(Table 1). The two most frequently isolated aerobic wound
contaminants, coagulase positive staphylococcus (either Staphylo-
coccus intermedius or S. aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
were chosen as the other test bacteria. The choice of E. coli, S.
canis, coagulase positive staphylococcus and P. aeruginosa re-
sulted in 2 Gram positive and 2 Gram negative bacteria (E. coli, P.
aeruginosa representing Gram negative and staphylococcus, S.
canis representing Gram positive). The particular test bacterium
chosen was one of the wound isolates for each of the different
species of bacteria.
Testing for Bactericidal Effects of Saliva
Each of the organisms selected for study was inoculated into
Organism Percent of
Genus Species Wounds
Acinetobacter calcoaceticus 2.3
Actinomyces viscosus 3.5
Aeromonas species 1.2
Aeromonas hydrophilia 1.2
Bacillus species 2.3
Corynebacterium species 4.6
Eikenella corrodens 1.2
Enterobacter species 1.2
Enterobacter aerogenes 2.3
Enterobacter agglomerans 1.2
Enterobacter cloacae
Enterobacter sakazakii 1.2
Escherichia coli 17.2
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Microeoccus species 1.2
Moraxella species 1.2
Mycobacterium phlei 1.2
Pasteurella species 3.5
Pasteurella multocida
Pasteurella pneumotropica 1.2
Proteus species 2.3
Proteus mirabilis 3.5
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18. 4
Serratia marcescens 1.2
Staphylococcus coagul, pos. species
Staphylococcus species 4.7
Streptococcus species 1.2
Streptococcus canis 9.2
Streptococcus faecalis 2.3
Streptococcus faecium 2.3
Streptococcus agglactiae 5.8
Streptococcus viridans 1.2
Streptococcus zymogenes 1.2
brain-heart infusion broth and incubated for 18-24 hr to achieve
maximum growth in the broth solution. Aliquots of this stock
broth were then frozen for future tests. The procedure for
quantitatively estimating the bactericidal effect of saliva was
similar to that used previously (14). This involved serial dilution
of the stock nutrient broth of each organism from 10 - 1 to 10-9 in
brain-heart infusion broth. At this time 0.1 ml aliquots of each
dilution were uniformly applied to washed bovine blood agar
plates to determine organism concentrations in the stock culture.
Colonies were counted after 18-24 hr of incubation. At the same
time, aliquots of 0.1 ml were taken from each of the bacterial
serial dilutions and 0.06 ml of 5 percent reconstituted saliva in
sterile water was added. The mixture was incubated at 37°C for
hours. An equal amount of sterile isotonic saline was added
to 0.1 ml aliquots of each bacterial serial dilution to serve as
control. Following incubation with saliva, 0.01 ml from each
serial dilution tube was uniformly applied to washed bovine blood
agar plates, and the plates incubated for 18-24 hr. The number of
bacteria killed was estimated by comparing number of colonies
with the number expected at that dilution from counts on stock
cultures. A plate with less than 10 colonies was counted as having
no growth. Two replications for each of 5 trials with each species
of bacteria were conducted separately for male and for female
g~ 40
Psaudomonas Escharichia Staphylococcus
aeruginosa coil cans
I I t
I r~z,;~l I
i I ~_////~i i
z I ~//Az i I P'/J~
i I ~'///At i I
Saline Male Female Saline Male Female Saline Male Female Saline Male Female
FIG. 1. Estimated mean number of bacteria killed ( ___ SEM) by 0.6 ml of
5 percent reconstituted saliva. Saline control killed no bacteria of any of
the bacterial species.
In pilot studies phenylephrine (0.3 mg/kg, SC) was given to
anesthetized dogs for adrenergic stimulation of saliva. Saliva was
produced much more slowly and less dependably after the admin-
istration of this stimulant than with the cholinergic stimulant. In
duplicate trials, adrenergic saliva was compared with cholinergic
saliva against each of the four bacteria. Since no difference in
bacteria killed was noted between adrenergic and cholinergic
saliva, the present experiment analyzed only cholinergic saliva
from pilocarpine administration.
In all instances, the saline control supported growth or survival
of all four species of bacteria to a level in which a calculated serial
dilution would have yielded 10 or fewer bacteria. In other words,
saline killed no bacteria (Fig. 1). In contrast, the saliva added to
broth dilutions of E. coli and S. canis was estimated to have killed
a mean of about 40,000-75,000 bacteria (Fig. 1). The number of
bacteria killed in replications ranged from 3,000 to 230,000 for E.
coli and from 4,000 to 70,000 for S. canis. Saliva appeared to be
only slightly, and nonsignificantly, bactericidal towards staphylo-
coccus and P. aeruginosa in that an estimated mean of 500-700
bacteria were killed by the same saliva treatment (Fig. 1). The
number of bacteria killed in replications ranged from 0 to 2,200 for
staphylococcus and from 0 to 2,300 for P. aeruginosa. A sign test
on the replications confirmed a difference between the saliva and
saline treatment for E. coil and S. canis for both male and female
saliva (p<0.05), but no difference between male and female
The finding of bactericidal effects of saliva against E. coli and
S. canis is supportive of the concept that maternal periparturient
licking of the mammary and anogenital areas is adaptive in
protecting the newborn from excessive exposure to these potential
pathogens. As mentioned, some strains of E. coil found in feces
cause severe enteritis with high mortality in newborn rats, cats and
dogs, and E. coli and S. canis are the most frequent pathogens
involved in septicemia in neonatal dogs and cats. When a mother
licks the nipples she is able to physically clean and apply to the
nipples saliva which is bactericidal to E. coli, S. canis and
possibly other (untested) pathogens. It would appear that the most
critical time for a mother to lick the anogenital and mammary areas
is just prior to parturition and immediately after birth since that is
when the newborn gut is most vulnerable and newborns have not
received any protective colostrum. Interestingly, in rats it is in the
periparturient phase that anogenital and mammary area licking
peaks (31). Rat pups will not attach to nipples that have been
experimentally washed, but attachment can be induced when
mother saliva is applied to the nipples (3). The reluctance of
newborn rats, and possibly also carnivores (13), to attach to
nipples to which maternal saliva has not been applied may be
thought of as a fail-safe mechanism to assure that infants do not
place their mouths on contaminated nipples.
In terms of wound licking the potential for 0.06 ml of 5 percent
reconstituted saliva to kill 40,0(O-75,000 bacteria may be quite
beneficial especially if most of the bacteria have been physically
removed by licking. In wild carnivores resting in dens or nest
areas, in which the wounds would be subjected to E. coli
contamination, the bactericidal effect of saliva against this poten-
tial pathogen may be particularly important.
The bactericidal effect of saliva on staphylococcus and P.
aeruginosa is probably biologically insignificant and this may be
one reason that staphylococcus is cultured from wounds so
frequently (from 46 percent of wounds compared with 9 and 17
percent, respectively, for S. canis and E. coil in the present study).
The ineffectiveness of saliva on staphylococcus is also reflected in
the fact that it is the most common pathogen isolated from canine
skin lesions such as superficial or deep pyoderma (25). Staphylo-
coccus was found in the previous study on rat saliva to be resistant
to the same saliva treatment that was effective in killing P.
pneumotropica and M. pulmonis (14).
Constituents of saliva that would help the wound repair process
are epithelial growth factor and nerve growth factor which are
found in saliva of rodents (23,28). Epidermal growth factor is
found in human saliva although in lower concentrations than in
rodents (9,34). Presumably, the growth factors would also be
found in carnivore saliva. Evidence that these growth factors play
a role in wound healing comes from findings that removal of
salivary glands in mice retards wound healing (16), and topical
application of epithelial growth factor (26) and nerve growth factor
(I 9) to wounds of mice, in which the salivary glands have been
removed, facilitates the closure of wounds.
The predisposition of dogs to lick their skin is carried to an
extreme in the syndrome known as acral lick dermatitis in which
they persistently and excessively lick the carpal or metacarpal area
to the point where the epidermis is damaged (25). Typically, the
epidermis on the periphery of the ulcerated lesion is hyperplastic,
possibly revealing the growth-promoting effect of epithelial growth
factor (7).
As an interesting historical note, it has been reported that in the
Middle Ages people sometimes encouraged dogs to lick their
wounds (33), perhaps in recognition of the value of the licking in
reducing bacterial contamination and accelerating healing.
This work was supported in part by Grant BRS 2 S07 RR05457 from
the National Institutes of Health. Dwight Hirsh and Lori Hansen of the
Department of Veterinary Microbiology kindly provided guidance for the
microbiological procedures and access to the bacterial repository.
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... This exemplifies the diverse ecological niches associated with living systems, which are innately equipped with deterrents and mechanisms for effective reduction and/or control of different pathogens. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the saliva of several animals was found to be highly antiseptic [18,19]. ...
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This study aimed to select beneficial strains from the oral cavity of healthy volunteers and to evaluate these as potential oral probiotic candidates. The selection process was based on the isolation, differentiation, identification, and safety assessment of LAB strains, followed by a series of experiments for the selection of appropriate candidates with beneficial properties. In the screening procedure, 8 isolates from the oral cavity of a Caucasian volunteers were identified as Streptococcus (Str.) salivarius ST48HK, ST59HK, ST61HK, and ST62HK; Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (Lb.) (Lactobacillus plantarum) ST63HK and ST66HK; Latilactobacillus sakei (Lb.) (Lactobacillus sakei) ST69HK; and Lactobacillus (Lb.) gasseri ST16HK based on 16S rRNA sequencing. Physiological and phenotypic tests did not show hemolytic, proteinase, or gelatinase activities, as well as production of biogenic amines. In addition, screening for the presence of efaA, cyt, IS16, esp, asa1, and hyl virulence genes and vancomycin-resistant genes confirmed safety of the studied strains. Moreover, cell-to-cell antagonism indicated that the strains were able to inhibit the growth of tested representatives from the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus in a strain-specific manner. Various beneficial genes were detected including gad gene, which codes for GABA production. Furthermore, cell surface hydrophobicity levels ranging between 1.58% and 85% were determined. The studied strains have also demonstrated high survivability in a broad range of pH (4.0–8.0). The interaction of the 8 putative probiotic candidates with drugs from different groups and oral hygiene products were evaluated for their MICs. This is to determine if the application of these drugs and hygiene products can negatively affect the oral probiotic candidates. Overall, antagonistic properties, safety assessment, and high rates of survival in the presence of these commonly used drugs and oral hygiene products indicate Str. salivarius ST48HK, ST59HK, ST61HK, and ST62HK; Lb. plantarum ST63HK and ST66HK; Lb. sakei ST69HK; and Lb. gasseri ST16HK as promising oral cavity probiotic candidates.
... Samples of the saliva inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans in vitro, even when concentrations were low [28]. Another study discovered that the saliva of male and female dogs acted bactericidally against the bacteria E. coli (which is a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family) and Streptococcus canis [29]. This could explain why there were fewer and often zero CFUs recovered from dog paws, in comparison to shoe soles. ...
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(1) Background: People with disabilities may benefit from an assistance dog (AD). Despite regulations that prohibit the denial of ADs to public places, this still occurs on a regular basis. The main argument for denial of access is that dogs compromise hygiene with their presence, which could cause a health hazard. Meanwhile, people are allowed to walk into and out of public places freely. (2) Objective: As a pilot study, to investigate the number of Enterobacteriaceae and the presence of Clostridium difficile bacteria on the paws of ADs and pet dogs (PDs) as well as the shoe soles of their users and owners. With the results, an assessment can be made as to whether measures are required to reduce environmental contamination (e.g., in hospitals). (3) Methods: In total, 25 ADs, 25 PDs, and their 50 users/owners participated in the study. Each participant walked their dog for 15–30 min prior to the sampling of the front paws. Each PD owner or AD user filled out a general questionnaire about the care of their dogs, and AD users were asked to fill out an additional questionnaire on their experiences regarding the admittance of their ADs to public places (in particular, hospitals). Dutch hospitals were questioned on their protocols regarding the admittance of ADs and their visitor numbers, including the percentage of AD users, to put these numbers into perspective. (4) Results: Dog paws were more often negative for Enterobacteriaceae compared to shoe soles (72% and 42%, respectively) and also had significantly lower bacterial counts (mean of 3.54log10 and 5.03log10 colony-forming units (CFUs), respectively; p < 0.05). This was most distinct in the comparison between PDs and their owners (3.75log10 and 5.25log10 CFUs; p < 0.05); the numbers were similar between ADs and their users (3.09log10 and 4.58log10 CFUs; p = 0.2). C. difficile was found on one (4%) AD user’s shoe soles. Moreover, 81% of AD users had been denied access with their current AD once or several times, the main reason being hygiene. The results of the visibly and invisibly disabled were significantly different. The number of AD users as opposed to the total number of hospital visitors was 0.03% in one hospital and is estimated to be 0.02% in the Netherlands. (5) Conclusions: The general hygiene of dogs’ paws is far better than that of shoe soles, mostly demonstrated by the better general hygiene of PD paws compared with their owners’ shoe soles; ADs and their users had comparable levels of general hygiene. In addition, the number of AD users amongst the total number of hospital visitors in the Netherlands is very limited. Thus, hygiene measures to reduce any contamination due to dog paws do not seem necessary.
... The bactericidal effects of male and female dog saliva facilitate the hygienic function of maternal licking of the mammary and anogenital areas by protecting newborns from fatal coliform enteritis caused by E. coli and neonatal septicemia caused by Streptococcus canis. However, the saliva is only slightly, and non-significantly, bactericidal against wound bacteria such as coagulase positive staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [157]. ...
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Over time the human-animal bond has been changed. For instance, the role of pets has changed from work animals (protecting houses, catching mice) to animals with a social function, giving companionship. Pets can be important for the physical and mental health of their owners but may also transmit zoonotic infections. The One Health initiative is a worldwide strategy for expanding collaborations in all aspects of health care for humans, animals, and the environment. However, in One Health communications the role of particularly dogs and cats is often underestimated. Objective: Evaluation of positive and negative One Health issues of the human-companion animal relationship with a focus on zoonotic aspects of cats and dogs in industrialized countries. Method: Literature review. Results: Pets undoubtedly have a positive effect on human health, while owners are increasing aware of pet's health and welfare. The changing attitude of humans with regard to pets and their environment can also lead to negative effects such as changes in feeding practices, extreme breeding, and behavioral problems, and anthropozoonoses. For the human, there may be a higher risk of the transmission of zoonotic infections due to trends such as sleeping with pets, allowing pets to lick the face or wounds, bite accidents, keeping exotic animals, the importation of rescue dogs, and soil contact. Conclusions: One Health issues need frequently re-evaluated as the close human-animal relationship with pet animals can totally differ compared to decennia ago. Because of the changed human-companion animal bond, recommendations regarding responsible pet-ownership, including normal hygienic practices, responsible breeding, feeding, housing, and mental and physical challenges conforming the biology of the animal are required. Education can be performed by vets and physicians as part of the One Health concept.
... Another example of parasite diversity and adaptability is Escherichia Coli, a bacterium found in the environment, food, and intestines of animals, including humans. Some virulent strains found in feces are transmitted to newborn mammals during the birth process or while attaching to nipples before the ingestion of colostrum, and can cause neonatal septicemia in dogs (Hart and Powell, 1990). In humans, pathogenic strains can cause urinary tract infection, sepsis/meningitis, and enteric/diarrheal diseases (Nataro and Kaper, 1998). ...
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Threats from parasites are ubiquitous. Infectious agents come in myriad forms and often use transmission pathways that exploit host trophic interactions. Because they can have serious fitness impacts on those they infect, host organisms have evolved a behavioral immune system to facilitate contamination-risk assessment and avoidance of sources of infection. Here, I investigated mechanisms and potential consequences of avoidance using food-choice experiments and foraging observations in non-human primates. Parasite avoidance strategies have been studied only rarely and mostly anecdotally in this taxonomic group. Three main questions guided my research: (1) which biological contaminants elicit avoidance in a foraging context? (2) which sensory cues are employed to assess contamination-risk? and, (3) what are the consequences of parasite avoidance? To address these questions, I conducted a series of field experiments, behavioral observations and parasitological investigations on 5 species of Papionini and Hominini: Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Japan, Gabon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo between January 2014 and July 2016. I first tested whether biological contaminants such as bodily fluids and rotten food, which are known to be universal disgust elicitors in humans, would trigger aversion in these primates in feeding experiments. Food items were presented to subjects uncontaminated (control condition) versus in association with feces (real or replica), blood, semen or rotten food through visual, olfactory or tactile stimuli, or multiple sensory modalities simultaneously. Individuals demonstrated risk-sensitivity when confronted with ‘contaminated’ food items, manifest as increased latencies to consuming food rewards, maintenance of greater distances from contaminants, increased olfactory investigations and food manipulation behaviors, reduced engagement during certain experiments, and/or outright refusals to consume food in test versus control conditions. In addition, as observed in bonobos, risk-sensitivity seemed to increase along a contamination probability gradient. Across experiments, all species appeared to use multiple sensory modalities (i.e. visual, olfactory, tactile, gustatory) to inform their feeding decisions. Studies on the sensory ecology of parasite avoidance are now needed to link the proximate and ultimate mechanisms of parasite avoidance behavior and relate them further to the epidemiology of infectious disease. In parallel to behavioral experiments and observations, I also collected fecal samples from Japanese macaques to test whether behavioral tendencies toward contaminant avoidance correlated with levels of gastrointestinal parasite infection. I showed that such ‘hygienic tendencies’ are good predictors of geohelminth infection intensity, as measured via fecal egg output. Future work must determine whether these results are generalizable, i.e. the extent to which risk-proneness in the face of contaminant exposure increases parasite acquisition and the progression of infectious disease across individuals and species. Taken together, this research allows us a better understanding of how non-human primates might avoid the acquisition of parasites. My results are consistent with other recent findings in the blossoming field of parasite avoidance behaviors in animals. My results are also consistent with what we would expect if the behaviors observed were governed by an adaptive system of disgust, which has been proposed as an evolutionary mechanism that protects organisms from infectious disease threats. Finally, I propose new avenues of research that may move us closer toward determining whether disgust mediates animal behavior as it does for human behavior. Future studies are also needed to explore the health and fitness benefits that a stronger behavioral immune system might confer.
... Another component of grooming is wound-cleaning, which may include removing debris and licking wounds, behavior which manually washes debris out of a wound and applies saliva to it (Hart, 2011). Saliva has antibacterial properties which may promote healing (Hart and Powell, 1990;Hart and Hart, 2018). For example, termite-hunting ants (Megaponera analis), which incur high levels of injuries when hunting, carry wounded nestmates back to the nest and provide care to the injuries (Frank et al., 2018). ...
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One of the striking features of human social complexity is that we provide care to sick and contagious individuals, rather than avoiding them. Care-giving is a powerful strategy of disease control in human populations today; however, we are not the only species which provides care for the sick. Widespread reports occurring in distantly related species like cetaceans and insects suggest that the building blocks of care for the sick are older than the human lineage itself. This raises the question of what evolutionary processes drive the evolution of such care in animals, including humans. I synthesize data from the literature to evaluate the diversity of care-giving behaviors and conclude that across the animal kingdom there appear to be two distinct types of care-behaviors, both with separate evolutionary histories: (1) social care behaviors benefitting a sick individual by promoting healing and recovery and (2) community health behaviors that control pathogens in the environment and reduce transmission within the population. By synthesizing literature from psychology, anthropology, and biology, I develop a novel hypothesis (Hominin Pathogen Control Hypothesis) to explain how these two distinct sets of behaviors evolved independently then merged in the human lineage. The hypothesis suggests that social care evolved in association with offspring care systems whereas community health behaviors evolved as a type of niche construction. These two types of behaviors merged in humans to produce complex, multi-level healthcare networks in humans. Moreover, each type of care increases selection for the other, generating feedback loops that selected for increasing healthcare behaviors over time. Interestingly, domestication processes may have contributed to both social care and community health aspects of this process.
... However, the presence of alcohol can cause dryness, initial burning sensation, and unpleasant taste. Dry mouth will lead to more complications such as additional dental cavities and infection of the salivary glands since the saliva is a natural antibacterial agent (Hart and Powell, 1990). Consequently, the use of alcohol over a relatively long period will disturb the health of the oral cavity (Vlachojannis et al., 2012). ...
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Kaffir lime peels contain polyphenols as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. The aims of this study were to (1) extract phenolics compounds from kaffir lime peels using water, ethanol 70% and ethanol 96% as the solvent, and (2) assess the antibacterial activity of the extract against Streptococcus mutans which is the main cause of dental caries. Research methodology includes preparation and extraction of polyphenols from kaffir lime peels, preparation of mouthwash based-kaffir lime peels extracts and evaluation the mouthwash ability to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The results show water exhibited the best solvent to extract polyphenols among the three solvents. The total phenolics content in the water extract was observed at 11.42±0.48 mg GAE/g, whilst in the two ethanolic extracts were 10.91±0.87 and 8.87±0.53 mg GAE/g for ethanol 70 and 96%, respectively. Consequently, the water-based extract performed the highest antimicrobial activity. The highest inhibition zone was demonstrated by 100% extract of concentration extract variation. Although the inhibition zone of the mouthwash was smaller than the commercial product, the extract has the potential to be developed as a safe mouthwash for long-term usage. Keywords: dental caries; kaffir lime; mouthwash; peel; phenolic; Streptococcus mutans
... In addition, the antimicrobial properties of saliva were reported [58][59][60][61], and the interaction networks of some proteins obtained from shotgun proteomics and anti-bacterial agents including doxycycline, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were analyzed by STITCH Version 5.0 ( The salivary proteins in the dog were found to be more associated with antimicrobial drugs than human as shown in Fig 8. ...
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Saliva contains many proteins that have an important role in biological process of the oral cavity and is closely associated with many diseases. Although the dog is a common companion animal, the composition of salivary proteome and its relationship with that of human are unclear. In this study, shotgun proteomics was used to compare the salivary proteomes of 7 Thai village dogs and 7 human subjects. Salivary proteomes revealed 2,532 differentially expressed proteins in dogs and humans, representing various functions including cellular component organization or biogenesis, cellular process, localization, biological regulation, response to stimulus, developmental process, multicellular organismal process, metabolic process, immune system process, apoptosis and biological adhesion. The oral proteomes of dogs and humans were appreciably different. Proteins related to apoptosis processes and biological adhesion were predominated in dog saliva. Drug-target network predictions by STITCH Version 5.0 showed that dog salivary proteins were found to have potential roles in tumorigenesis, anti-inflammation and antimicrobial processes. In addition, proteins related to regeneration and healing processes such as fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor were also up-regulated in dogs. These findings provide new information on dog saliva composition and will be beneficial for the study of dog saliva in diseased and health conditions in the future.
Narben sind eine geniale Erfindung der Evolution: Sie schließen die Verletzungen unseres Körpers und stellen seine Funktionsfähigkeit wieder her. Allerdings können Narben auch Beschwerden verursachen, die zunächst nicht mit ihnen in Verbindung gebracht werden. Können wir hier die Signale unserer Patienten richtig verstehen? Wer selbst Narben hat, kennt vielleicht den Satz: „Da kann man nichts mehr machen, damit müssen Sie jetzt leben“. Doch das stimmt zum Glück nicht, denn eine Narbentherapie führt zum Teil bereits nach kurzer Zeit zum Erfolg, auch bei jahrzehntealten Narben. Wie schön wäre es, unsere vierbeinigen Patienten von ihrem stillen Leiden ihrer zumeist unter dem Fell verschwundenen und in Vergessenheit geratenen Blessuren zu befreien.
Caring for others is a key feature of human behavior. Mothers, fathers, siblings, grandparents, and other group members provide care in the form of provisioning, protection, and first aid. To what extent is other-regarding behavior present in our primate relatives? Here we describe an unusual incident of other-regarding behavior toward an injured juvenile female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda. After the juvenile received a mild head wound from an adult female, several adolescent and juvenile chimpanzees gathered to touch, lick, and peer at the wound. One adolescent male wiped a leaf across the cut. Another adolescent male later groomed the injured female and briefly carried her. Across a 5-year period, we observed only three other instances of other-directed wound care in chimpanzees, occurring in 4% (4/100) of cases in which we observed individuals with fresh wounds, and 57 other instances of allomaternal carrying. Despite the infrequency of such behaviors, our study adds another chimpanzee field site to the list of those where other-directed wound care has been observed. Observations from wild chimpanzees provide insight into empathy and may inform our understanding of the evolution of other-regarding behavior in humans.
Nature's demands on salivary glands are extensive and diverse and range from the reptilian need for a venomous drop to incapacitate its prey to the 100 quarts that ruminants require to digest a day's grazing. Other species depend on saliva not for survival, but for improving the quality of life, using the fluid for functions varying from grooming and cleansing to nest-building. Humans can manage without saliva; its loss is not life-threatening in any immediate sense, but it results in a variety of difficulties and miseries. Oral digestion per se is only of marginal importance in humans, but saliva is important in preparing food for mastication, for swallowing, and far normal taste perception. Without saliva, mealtimes are difficult, uncomfortable, and embarrassing. The complex mix of salivary constituents provides an effective set of systems for lubricating and protecting the soft and hard tissues. Protection of soft tissues is afforded against desiccation, penetration, ulceration, and potential carcinogens by mucin and anti-proteases. Saliva can encourage soft tissue repair by reducing clotting time and accelerating wound contraction. A major protective function results from the salivary role in maintenance of the ecological balance in the oral cavity via: (1) debridement/lavage; (2) aggregation and reduced adherence by both immunological and non-immunological means; and (3) direct antibacterial activity. Saliva also possesses antifungal and anti-viral systems. Saliva is effective in maintaining pH in the oral cavity, contributes to the regulation of plaque pH, and helps neutralize reflux acids in the esophagus. Salivary maintenance of tooth integrity is dependent on: (I) mechanical cleansing and carbohydrate clearance; (2) post-eruptive maturation of enamel; (3) regulation of the ionic environment to provide a remineralizing potential without spontaneous precipitation; and (4) pellicle deposition and limitation of acid diffusion. Saliva also plays a role in water balance, can serve in a limited way in excretion, and has possible hormonal function in the gastro-intestinal tract.