Article

Temperature-dependent development and parasitism rates of four species of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) parasitoids of house fly (Musca domestica) pupae

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Abstract

Parasitoid development, parasitoid-induced host mortality and parasitoid progeny emergence were determined at five constant temperatures for Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Spalangia endius Walker using pupae of the house fly, Musca domestica L., as hosts. At temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C the median development times (days from oviposition to adult emergence), respectively, were M. raptor (28.4, 20.7, 14.3, 14.5), M. zaraptor (30.6, 22.8, 14.1, 14.2), S. cameroni (55.6, 35.2, 21.8, 25.0) and S. endius (52.4, 31.5, 16.3, 14.6). All species failed to emerge at 15 degrees C. Using densities of five parasitoids and 100 hosts and a 24 h exposure period, Muscidifurax species oviposited at a greater rate over a wider range of temperatures than Spalangia species. At 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C the mean number of pupae killed per parasitoid were, respectively, M. raptor (1.4, 7.4, 10.5, 13.7, 14.1), M. zaraptor (0.0, 3.3, 8.9, 14.4, 15.0), S.cameroni (0.0, 7.8, 11.0, 11.9, 7.4), S.endius (0.6, 4.0, 7.5, 12.0, 11.7), and means of the number of parasitoid progeny per parasitoid were, respectively, M.raptor (0.2, 5.2, 7.9, 11.8, 11.6), M.zaraptor (1.3, 4.4, 8.2, 13.0, 13.7), S.cameroni (0.0, 2.4, 4.7, 5.1, 1.0), S.endius (0.0, 0.9, 3.4, 7.5, 4.9). Development and ovipositional activity in S.cameroni was strongly inhibited at 35 degrees C. The model by Sharpe & DeMichele (1977) was used to describe temperature-dependent development and the number of parasitoid progeny produced per parasitoid at temperatures of 15-30 degrees C in all species.

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... T opt is the optimum temperature, i.e., the temperature where E max and u max are attained, calculated by means of equation 8. Table 3. Table 3. for successful parasitism was found to be 36.4 C, which is slightly higher than the value found in our study and in the study by Mann et al. (1990), who estimated it to be 35 C but with M. domestica as the host species. Ables and Shepard (1976) did not observe that high temperatures inhibit successful parasitism by S. endius when offered house flies for 24 or 36 h, indicating that this species probably is more tolerant to higher temperatures than S. cameroni. ...
... The fact that S. cameroni attains its maximum rate of successful parasitism in the temperature regime between 27 and 31 C (see also Mann et al. 1990, Geden 1996) might indicate that the species is not an obvious candidate for control of stable flies or house flies, as third stage larvae of the two fly species usually move towards cooler areas (23-26 C) for pupation (Thomsen 1938, McPheron andBroce 1996). In comparison, Muscidifurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) occurs sympatrically with S. cameroni on most European livestock farms, but has a broader temperature range (25-31 C), where it exhibits high activity in attacking fly pupae (Mann et al. 1990). ...
... The fact that S. cameroni attains its maximum rate of successful parasitism in the temperature regime between 27 and 31 C (see also Mann et al. 1990, Geden 1996) might indicate that the species is not an obvious candidate for control of stable flies or house flies, as third stage larvae of the two fly species usually move towards cooler areas (23-26 C) for pupation (Thomsen 1938, McPheron andBroce 1996). In comparison, Muscidifurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) occurs sympatrically with S. cameroni on most European livestock farms, but has a broader temperature range (25-31 C), where it exhibits high activity in attacking fly pupae (Mann et al. 1990). In addition, M. raptor reaches maximum rates of successful parasitism similar to those of S. cameroni (7-13 M. raptor offspring per female and day) and the species needs only approximately 14 d to finish development from egg to adulthood, whereas S. cameroni needs at least $21 d (Gerling and Legner 1968). ...
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The effects of host density, temperature, and burial depths on the functional response of the synovigenic parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) were examined. Five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), six host densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 pupae per 19.64 cm(2)), and three burial depths in whole wheat grains (0, 8, and 16 cm) were used. It was demonstrated that temperature had a profound effect on the functional response, whereas burial depths of the pupae played a minor role. For all temperatures, the functional response was of type 2 with an upper asymptote that depends on the temperature. Data were fitted by a functional response model where only the maximum attack rate is temperature dependent. The model shows that the optimal temperature for S. cameroni for attacking S. calcitrans pupae is 28.6°C, where the maximum attack rate is 20.2 pupae day(-1). The lower and upper temperature thresholds for attacks were found as 8.1 and 36.6°C, respectively. The temperature range for attacks that resulted in successful parasitism was narrower, namely, 15.0 and 35.5°C. Maximum rate of successful parasitism was estimated to be 18.2 progeny day(-1) occurring at 27.9°C. The proportion of attacks resulting in successful parasitism increased steeply with temperatures >15°C and declined steeply at temperatures >30°C. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
... Little is known about the impact that rising temperatures would have on the balance of flies and their natural enemies. Most of the research on responses of house flies (Lysyk and Axtell 1986, Fletcher et al. 1990, Lysyk 1991a and their associated parasitoids (Mann et al. 1990;Geden 1996Geden , 1997Lysyk 2000Lysyk , 2001 in response to temperature has been conducted in temperate zones and has concentrated on temperatures of <35°C. Moreover, these studies were mainly done under constant temperatures. ...
... These results were unsurprising and consistent with published data over the range of temperatures included in our regime (14.4-26.7°C; Ables and Shepard 1976, Mann et al. 1990, Geden 1996. In contrast, progeny production under hot (26.7-41.4°C) ...
... conditions was much lower than either at 25°C or under the cool regime, indicating that all four species experienced high-temperature inhibition. Mann et al. (1990) conducted assays somewhat similar to ours (24-h exposure) using constant temperatures from 15 to 35°C and observed little inhibition in Muscidifurax raptor and M. zaraptor at 35°C, whereas progeny production by S. cameroni and S. endius was much lower at 35 than at 30°C. In another study, 35°C had a substantially negative affect on progeny production by both M. raptor and S. cameroni (Geden 1996). ...
Article
Colonies of house flies (Musca domestica L. [Diptera: Muscidae]) and four species of parasitoids (Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner, Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Spalangia endius Walker) were established by making collections from dairy farms near Bell, FL, Beatrice, NE, Minneapolis, MN, and San Jacinto, CA. Colonies were assessed for heat tolerance by comparing life history parameters at 25-27°C and fluctuating hot (26.7-41.7°C) temperatures. Muscidifurax raptor, S. cameroni, and S. endius produced 24-28% as many progeny under hot conditions as at 25°C. Colonies of M. zaraptor were more heat-tolerant and produced an average 46.9% as many progeny under the hot regime compared with moderate conditions. There was little evidence for higher heat tolerance in parasitoid populations from historically hot locations (CA desert and FL). Colonies of M. raptor and S. endius that had been in culture for 24 yr were the least heat-tolerant with regard to progeny production. House flies collected from the same locations varied little in longevity, fecundity, or egg-to-adult survival under either hot or moderate regimes. Flies reared under hot conditions laid about half as many eggs (89/female) and had about half the egg-adult survival rate (47.3%) under hot compared with moderate conditions, indicating that heat stress had less effect on flies than on all of the parasitoids except M. zaraptor. An attempt to select for heat tolerance in flies by subjecting them to incremental increases in rearing temperatures for 20 generations resulted in little change in tolerance among the selected flies.
... faster than the times reported by Geden (1997) . Although differences existed, our model was in closer agreement with GedenÕs (1997) observations than with those of Mann et al. (1990) . The equation for both sexes combined predicted 16.3 (4.4; range, 4 Ð24.8) and 13.6 (4.3; range, 7.1Ð21.8)% ...
... The equation for both sexes combined predicted 16.3 (4.4; range, 4 Ð24.8) and 13.6 (4.3; range, 7.1Ð21.8)% faster development compared with values reported by) and Mann et al. (1990). Mann et al. (1990 did not observe development of M. raptor at 15C, and both Geden (1997) and Mann et al. (1990) reported development at 35C. ...
... imes reported by Geden (1997) . Although differences existed, our model was in closer agreement with GedenÕs (1997) observations than with those of Mann et al. (1990) . The equation for both sexes combined predicted 16.3 (4.4; range, 4 Ð24.8) and 13.6 (4.3; range, 7.1Ð21.8)% faster development compared with values reported by) and Mann et al. (1990). Mann et al. (1990 did not observe development of M. raptor at 15C, and both Geden (1997) and Mann et al. (1990) reported development at 35C. The median developmental time of U. rufipes was 29 d at 20C (Smith and Rutz 1986), similar to what we observed for M. raptor. However, U. rufipes completes development 3 d faster than M. raptor at temperatures 25C ( ...
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The effect of temperature on the life history of Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders was determined to develop relationships that could be used to improve simulation models of biological control. Immature developmental rates were influenced by temperature and sex. Males developed faster than females, and the developmental rate increased with temperature to 30°C, then declined. Immature survival was lowest at 15 and 33°C, and highest in the range 20-25°C. Sex ratio of emerging parasitoids averaged 72 and 55% from house fly, Musca domestica (L.), and stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), pupae and increased with temperature. Female longevity, time to median oviposition, and lifetime progeny production declined as temperature increased. The net reproductive rate was lowest at 15 and 33°C, and greatest at 25°C. Mean generation time decreased with increasing temperature. The intrinsic rate of increase was highest at 30°C. M. raptor has a broad thermal preference which may account for its greater relative abundance and wider seasonal abundance in Alberta compared with other species of naturally occurring parasitoids.
... Thus, Skovgård and Nachman (2015a) found that both low and high temperatures reduce the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism of S. cameroni. Other studies have also shown that temperature influenced immature development and offspring production (Mann et al. 1990, Geden 1997. Although studies have addressed age-dependent effects on survival and fecundity of Spalangia species (Legner 1979;Moon et al. 1982;Smith and Rutz 1987;Morgan et al. 1989Morgan et al. , 1991La Rossa et al. 2002;Cheng-Jie et al. 2014), they were conducted on species other than S. cameroni, using a single temperature only or using a dipteran host species other than M. domestica. ...
... At 30 C, developmental time took only 18.2 d for males and 19.4 d for females. This is in accordance with earlier findings (Mann et al. 1990, Geden 1997, Birkemoe et al. 2012. Increasing the temperature further caused a steep decline in survival and a concurrent prolongation of developmental time (Fig. 5). ...
... Daily attack rates and rates of successful parasitism of house fly pupae tended to increase with temperature up to 30 C ( Fig. 2 and Table 2). Similar results were found by Moon et al. (1982) and Skovgå rd and Nachman (2015a), using stable flies, and by Mann et al. (1990) and Geden (1996), using house flies. The proportion of successful attacks resulting in a viable offspring was highest at 25 C (u ¼ 0.66) and lowest at 35 C (u ¼ 0.37). ...
Article
The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d−1), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies.
... This has not been thoroughly examined for S. cameroni populations sampled in northern Europe. A few papers exist from North America (Geden 1997;Gerling and Legner 1968;Mann et al. 1990;Morgan et al. 1989), but because of inconsistencies in the methodologies, direct comparisons are difficult. ...
... Consequently, the Danish population of S. cameroni could have been better 123 adapted to a wider temperature range than the Norwegian population. Few studies have investigated low temperature regimens and the immature development of S. cameroni, probably because this parasitoid has been regarded as thermophilic with optimum developmental temperatures of 30-32°C (Geden 1997;Mann et al. 1990). In the same studies, however, immature development at 15°C was associated with 100% mortality (Table 5). ...
... In the same studies, however, immature development at 15°C was associated with 100% mortality (Table 5). The origin of the two S. cameroni populations used by Geden (1997) and Mann et al. (1990) was from the southern United States and therefore likely adapted to warmer climatic conditions than the Norwegian and Danish populations. Thus, at lower temperatures, this fits well into the suggestion of adaptations to thermal environments. ...
Article
Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is used as a biological control agent against house flies and stable flies in livestock farms in Northern Europe. In the present study, the juvenile development, survival, and sex ratio of one Danish and one Norwegian population of S. cameroni were investigated at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C to determine the best adapted strain for release programs. The Danish population developed 50 days faster at 15°C, whereas the Norwegian developed 3–4 days faster at 25°C. The difference was smaller at 20°C and 30°C. Only a few Danish female parasitoids emerged at 35°C. Both populations required 381 degree days to complete development and exhibited optimal juvenile survival at 23.7°C. The Norwegian population produced more females than the Danish population at all temperatures (average of 67.5% vs. 55.5%, respectively). The overall differences between the populations were small, but might still be important for inundative release programs.
... Temperature imposes a significant effect on survival and development of immature stages in an insect (Gilbert & Raworth 1996). Many studies suggested that temperature can significantly affect parasitism rate, development and fecundity of the parasitoids (Mann et al. 1990;Qiu et al. 2012;C arcamo et al. 2013). In general, the parasitism, development, survival and fecundity of the parasitoids are often better within an optimum temperature range than those within other temperature ranges (Flinn 1991;Oliveira et al. 1998;Malina & Prasli cka 2008;Qiu et al. 2012;C arcamo et al. 2013). ...
... Therefore, survival rates of insects are often affected by different temperatures (Gilbert & Raworth 1996;Nechols et al. 1999;Huffaker et al. 1999;Zhou et al. 2010). Previous studies demonstrated that parasitism rate, development, survival and sex ratio of parasitoids vary with changing temperatures (Mann et al. 1990;Qiu et al. 2012;C arcamo et al. 2013). Our results suggested that although A. arizonensis can develop at 19-37 C, parasitism rate, emergence rate, female ratio and the developmental durations of progeny females and males differed significantly among different temperature treatments. ...
Article
Ophmella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a biological control agent of Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asterales: Asteraceae). To reveal its climate adaptation, the effect of temperature on life traits of Aenasius arizonensis, a parasitoid of Phenacoccus solenopsis was studied. The results showed that both the highest parasitism and emergence rates of A. arizonensis were observed at 31 C. The parasitism and emergence rates of the parasitoid significantly increased with the increasing temperature from 19 C to 31 C, but dropped when the temperature exceeded 31 C. Female ratio reached a higher value at 19, 22, 31, 34 or 37 C. The minimum threshold temperatures for female and male parasitoids were 11.5 and 11.2 C, respectively. The effective accumulative temperatures for the parasitoid to develop from eggs to both female and male adults were 222.2 day-degrees. Since the highest parasitism rate, the highest emergence rate and a higher female ratio were observed at 31 C, we conclude that the optimum temperature for mass rearing of A. arizonensis is 31 C in the insectary based on the results of our study.
... Temperature-dependent rates of host attacks and progeny production observed here for a Florida isolate of S. cameroni were similar to those reported for North Carolina (Mann et al., 1990) and Nebraska (Moon et al., 1982) isolates of the same species. In contrast, the M. raptor studied by Mann et al. (1990) and Ables and Shepard (1976) were far more tolerant of high temperatures than the Florida M. raptor tested here, although the Florida colony had higher overall rates of host attack and parasitism. ...
... Temperature-dependent rates of host attacks and progeny production observed here for a Florida isolate of S. cameroni were similar to those reported for North Carolina (Mann et al., 1990) and Nebraska (Moon et al., 1982) isolates of the same species. In contrast, the M. raptor studied by Mann et al. (1990) and Ables and Shepard (1976) were far more tolerant of high temperatures than the Florida M. raptor tested here, although the Florida colony had higher overall rates of host attack and parasitism. These results indicate that authentic differences among strains of fly parasitoids occur with regard to heat and cold tolerance. ...
Article
In assays at constant temperatures,Spalangia geminaBoucek,Spalangia cameroniPerkins, andMuscidifurax raptorGirault and Sanders females killed more house fly (Musca domesticaL.) pupae at 30°C than at 15, 20, 25, or 35°C, with attack rates for the three species of 11.2, 12.6, and 21.1 pupae killed per parasitoid per day, respectively. Progeny production followed a similar pattern, with maximum rates of 6.8, 7.5, and 9.2 progeny per day at 30°C forS. gemina, S. cameroni,andM. raptor,respectively. BothSpalangiaspecies produced proportionally fewer males at higher temperatures than at lower temperatures; sex allocation byM. raptorwas relatively unaffected by temperature except for a trend to produce fewer females at 15°C (29.6% females) than at higher temperatures (43–47%). The four-parameter thermodynamic model of Sharpe and DeMichele with high temperature inhibition fit the attack rate and progeny production rate data well. These models were very effective at predicting host attacks and parasitism at high, variable temperatures typical of outdoor mid summer conditions in many regions, provided that 1-h time steps were used in rate summation algorithms. Assays for long-term net rates of fly destruction revealed thatS. geminaandS. cameroniwould be most effective for fly control at 25°C and substantially less effective at either low (15°C) or high (35°C) temperatures.M. raptorwas equally effective at killing house fly pupae over the 15–30°C range, but was significantly less effective at 35°C.
... The latitudinal decrease in parasitism could also be associated with a latitudinal trend in weather conditions as temperature affects insect-parasitoid interactions (Thomas and Blanford 2003). While in some systems parasitoid activity can increase with temperature (Mann et al. 1990), which could lead to a higher activity period and oviposition rate in the parasitoids at lower and warmer latitude, the literature does not provide consistent evidence of such a pattern (Hawkins 2005). Further, the recorded differences in microclimatic conditions across sites do not align with the latitudinal pattern observed for parasitism (Supplementary material Appendix 1 in Audusseau et al. 2020). ...
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Climate and land use change can alter the incidence and strength of biotic interactions, with important effects on the distribution, abundance and function of species. To assess the importance of these effects and their dynamics, studies quantifying how biotic interactions change in space and time are needed. We studied interactions between nettle‐feeding butterflies and their shared natural enemies (parasitoids) locally and across 500 km latitudinal gradient in Sweden. We also examined the potential impact of the range‐expansion of the butterfly Araschnia levana on resident butterflies via shared parasitoids, by studying how parasitism in resident butterflies covaries with the presence or absence of the newly‐established species. We collected 6777 larvae of four nettle‐feeding butterfly species (Aglais urticae, Aglais io, Ar. levana and Vanessa atalanta), over two years, at 19 sites distributed along the gradient. We documented the parasitoid complex for each butterfly species and measured their overlap, and analysed how parasitism rates were affected by butterfly species assemblage, variations in abundance, time, and the arrival of Ar. levana. Parasitoids caused high mortality, with substantial overlap in the complex of parasitoids associated with the four host butterflies. Levels of parasitism differed significantly among butterflies and were influenced by the local butterfly species assemblage. Our results also suggest that parasitism in resident butterflies is elevated at sites where Ar. levana has been established for a longer period. In our study system, variations in butterfly species assemblages were associated in a predictable way with substantial variations in rates of parasitism. This relationship is likely to affect the dynamics of the butterfly host species, and potentially cascade to the larger number of species with which they interact. These results highlight the importance of indirect interactions and their potential to reorganise ecological communities, especially in the context of shifts in species distributions in a warmer world.
... Como puede observarse, el total de pupas parasitadas en S. endius es mayor que en M. raptorellus, esto puede deberse a las características biológicas de S. endius de poder parasitar hasta a una profundidad de 20 cm y de "marcar" pupas ya parasitadas, capacidad de la que carece la otra especie. Mann et al. (1990b) encontraron a 25°C y a 1 día de exposición para M. raptor, M. zaraptor, S. cameroni y S. endius una capacidad de oviposición de 11; 8,9; 11 y 3,4 pupas parasitadas, respectivamente. ...
Article
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El empleo de microavispas como parasitoides del estado pupal de Musca domestica L. surge como una alternativa importante de control biológico que podría resultar efectiva. En el presente trabajo, se realizó un estudio comparativo de la actividad parasitaria de Spalangia endius Walker y Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner sobre pupas de M. domestica en bioensayos de laboratorio en condiciones controladas de temperatura (según ensayo), humedad relativa (75 ± 3%) y oscuridad. Se observó la influencia de la temperatura en el ciclo biológico y en la longevidad de ambos parasitoides para lo cual se trabajó a 4 temperaturas diferentes (15 °C, 20 °C, 25° C y 28° C) resultando 25 °C la temperatura óptima para la crianza. A esta temperatura, se observó que la duración del ciclo biológico fue mayor en S. endius (22,6 días) que en M. raptorellus (14,8 días) y que está inversamente relacionada con la temperatura. La longevidad fue estadísticamente similar para ambas especies (20,70 días en S. endius y 18,60 días en M. raptorellus). Se determinó la capacidad de oviposición de las microavispas a 25°C con 20 pupas como población constante de hospedero, obteniéndose para S. endius 15 días de oviposición con un promedio de 175 pupas parasitadas, promedio mayor que el de M. raptorellus que parasitó 140 pupas en 16 días. Para ambas especies la mayor oviposición ocurrió al tercer día. Se determinó el estado fenológico de maduración de las pupas de M. domestica susceptibles de ser parasitadas, a 25°C en grupos de 50 pupas con edades de 1, 2, 3 y 4 días, siendo las pupas de dos días de maduración, las más parasitadas, obteniéndose 66,4 % de parasitismo efectivo por S. endius y 60,2 % por M. raptorellus Se determinó el número óptimo de pupas de M. domestica para ser expuestas a ambos parasitoides; de las nueve relaciones de parasitación con que se trabajó el número óptimo de pupas fue 10 (relación 1:10). En condiciones de laboratorio, S. endius resultó más efectivo en comparación con M. raptorellus por lo que pue
... Although these studies provided considerable data regarding aspects of T. zealandicus biology, the temperaturedependent development of T. zealandicus has yet to be elucidated in populations of both parasitoids and hosts derived from the Australasian region. As development rates, thermal requirements and temperature thresholds of insects can vary between geographic populations (Chabora, 1970a;Harvey & Gols, 1988;Mann et al., 1990;Stenseng et al., 2003) developmental data generated using species from the same geographic region as the forensic case will produce more precise estimates of time since death (Greenburg, 1991). As such, the data currently available are geographically specific to the region in which the experimental specimens were obtained and are restricted to a narrow range of host species (Chabora, 1970b;Grassberger & Reiter, 2002;Donovan et al., 2006). ...
Article
The influences of temperature and host species on the development of the forensically important parasitoid Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) were studied at six constant temperatures in the range of 15-30 degrees C. T. zealandicus completed development successfully between 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C on five species of Calliphoridae, Calliphora albifrontalis Malloch, Calliphora dubia Macquart, Lucilia sericata Meigen, Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart and Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius. No adult parasitoids emerged from any of the host species reared at 30 degrees C. Temperature and host species significantly influenced development time, emergence success and progeny size. Development was significantly longer on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies at 18-24 degrees C and significantly longer on Ch. rufifacies and C. albifrontalis at 15 degrees C and 27 degrees C. Parasitoid emergence success was greatest at 21 degrees C, declined at the temperature extremes (15 degrees C and 27 degrees C) and was significantly lower on Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than on the three other host species. Progeny numbers per host pupa were highest at 21-24 degrees C, declined on either side of this temperature range and were significantly lower on L. sericata, Ch. rufifacies and Ch. megacephala than on either C. dubia or C. albifrontalis. An effect of host species on sex ratio was only observed at 27 degrees C, at which a higher proportion of T. zealandicus females emerged from Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies than from the other host species. The thermal requirements for development (developmental thresholds, thermal constant, optimum temperature) of T. zealandicus in each host species were estimated using linear and non-linear models. Upper and lower developmental thresholds ranged between 29.90 degrees C and 31.73 degrees C, and 9.73 degrees C and 10.08 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperature for development was estimated at between 25.81 degrees C and 27.05 degrees C. Given the significant effect of host species on development time, the use of parasitoid-host-specific developmental data in forensic application is recommended.
... The rates of development of M. raptor and S. endius observed by Ables et al. (1976) showed that M. raptor undergoes limited development at 12.8ЊC and after 7 mo, when transferred to 26.7ЊC produced adult parasitoids within 10 d. The upper threshold for this species appears to be between 32.2 and 35ЊC (Ables et al. 1976, Geden, 1997, Mann et al. 1990). These authors reported that S. endius cannot survive prolonged exposure to low temperatures. ...
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Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead is a gregarious endoparasitoid that attacks third instars of muscoid flies in the Southern Hemisphere. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the influence of six constant temperatures (16, 18, 20, 22, 25, and 27 degrees C) on development time, the influence of emergence order on longevity, and the effects of temperature and food treatment on longevity. Emergence success was greatest at 22 degrees C for both males and females; significantly fewer (24.1-30.4%) parasitoids emerged at 16 and 25 degrees C compared with 22 degrees C. Development time ranged from 24.0 to 56.9 d for both sexes. No emergence was observed at 27 degrees C. Early-emerging parasitoids had greater longevity than parasitoids that emerged later from the same cohorts. The longevity of females given honey and water decreased with increasing temperature, and those reared at 16 degrees C lived about three times longer than those kept at 27 degrees C. Females given honey and water had similar longevities at 16-20 degrees C, and females that were given only water lived for only 4.8-7.6 d at all temperatures. Females lived significantly longer overall than males at all temperatures except 16 degrees C, but differences due to sex were small compared with the effects of temperature and nutrition. Further investigations will be necessary to determine the climatic zones in which T. zealandicus is most likely to be an effective biological control agent of muscoid flies.
... The findings on farms A and B in 1998 and farm B in the release year 2000, showing that M. raptor was the dominant species, were unexpected, especially as the parasitoid sometimes occurred during periods of intensive releases of S. cameroni. However, it is well known that M. raptor is often superior to S. cameroni with respect to competition because of a shorter development time (Mann et al., 1990;Geden, 1997) and in cases where multiparasitism occurs (Wylie, 1972;Ables & Shepard, 1974). Further, as M. raptor is known to preferentially search in the upper part of the manure and because the mesh bags, in most cases, were placed just beneath the surface of the manure, this could well explain the relatively high occurrence of this species. ...
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The efficacy of the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni Perkins as a biological control agent was tested against house flies Musca domestica Linnaeus and stable flies Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus) in one dairy cattle and two pig installations in Denmark. Weekly releases of S. cameroni from April through to September-October 1999 and 2000 resulted in significant suppressions of house fly populations to below nuisance level, whereas no effect on stable flies was found. Parasitism was significantly higher in the release years compared to the control years, but was below 25% averaged over the fly season for each farm. A statistical model based on a functional relationship between the innate capacity of increase of the two fly species and three explanatory variables (air temperature, fly density and parasitism) provided a fairly good fit to data with the abundances of house flies and stable flies explained mostly by temperature, but intra- and interspecific competition, and parasitism had a significant effect as well. Overall, the model was capable of explaining 14% and 6.6% of the total variation in data for house fly and stable fly, respectively. Spalangia cameroni was the predominant parasitoid to emerge from exposed house fly pupae, but from mid summer onwards Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) was also quite common. The study indicated that biological control of house flies can be an efficient alternative to chemical control.
... How then, might this result be explained? Temperature increase oviposition frequency in S. cameroni (Geden 1996;Mann et al. 1990), and host destruction through feeding and probing is known to be strongly correlated with reproduction in Pteromalidae (Legner 1979). Thus, competition for hosts will be more intense when temperatures rise. ...
Article
Mass release of parasitoids (Hymentoptera: Pteromalidae) is one possible control method of house flies (Musca domestica L.) on livestock farms. To improve the success of this method, however, there is a need for more detailed recommendations. In the present study, parasitism was evaluated in and around pens following release of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni Perkins by hand and from containers. The study was conducted at conventional Norwegian pig farms with scattered breeding grounds for house flies. The experiment was carried out twice, with a total of seven trials of each release method followed by fourweeks of monitoring parasitism by house fly sentinel pupae. No significant difference was found between the two release methods. Parasitism decreased with temperature (range 18–23°C) and was low on farms with few sites for the parasitoids to hide. KeywordsBiological control-Release method- Spalangia cameroni - Musca domestica
... Many authors have studied how temperature affects stable flies (Berry and Kunz 1977, Lysyk 1998, Taylor et al. 2017 and Sp. cameroni (Mann et al. 1990, Geden 1997, Skovgård and Nachman 2016a. We used the experimental data obtained by Skovgård and Nachman (2016a;2017) to construct TPCs for S. calcitrans and Sp. ...
Article
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A simulation model was used to predict how temperature influences biological control of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) by the pupal parasitoid Spalangia cameroni. Temperature, which was either constant or fluctuated due to seasonal variation and/or environmental stochasticity, was modeled as a first order autocorrelation process. The simulations showed that stable flies could tolerate a wider temperature interval than expected from their thermal performance curve (TPC). This was attributed to the fact that immature flies develop in manure, which protects them against low air temperatures. In contrast, the parasitoids were found to have a narrower thermal tolerance range than expected from their TPC. This was attributed to the temperature-dependent functional response of S. cameroni, which was a limiting factor for the parasitoid's development and survival when host densities were low at suboptimal temperatures. The effects of seasonal variation on critical thermal limits were studied by means of thermal performance diagrams (TPDs). Fluctuating temperatures narrowed the thermal tolerance range of both species. At constant temperatures, the simulations showed that the optimal temperature for using S. cameroni in control of stable flies is ~20°C and that the parasitoid can persist in environments with yearly average temperatures between 18 and 29°C. However, if temperature variation was taken into consideration, it changed both the optimal temperature and the temperature interval at which biological control will be possible. This indicates that climate change causing increasing temperatures compounded with greater fluctuations may have serious consequences for biological control of pests.
... As expected, we found that the development time of Nasonia vitripennis was inversely proportional to temperature, the (mean AE SD) duration from oviposition to adult emergence ranging from 11.3 AE 0.9 days at 15 C to 43.5 AE 2.4 days at 30 C. This agrees with 14 days at 25 C observed by Schneiderman & Horwitz (1958), whereas reported only 12.5 days at 26-30 C for N. vitripennis using host pupae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoride). For other Pteromalidae, Mann et al. (1990) investigated temperature-dependent development of Muscidifurax raptor, M. zaraptor, Spalangia cameroni and S. endius in housefly pupae over the range 15-35 C: metamorphosis occurred at 35 C but emergence failed at 15 C. Abraham & Konig (1977) studied the influence of temperature on N. vitripennis drilling (for oviposition) and found the activity threshold to be about 12.5 C, close to the estimated lower developmental threshold of 10 C for total immature development in our study. Apparently, N. vitripennis is relatively psychrophilic (cold-adapted) among Pteromalidae. ...
Article
Development times of the forensically significant parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from oviposition to pupation, and from oviposition to adult emergence, were studied in the laboratory at temperatures of 15-35 degrees C using host pupae of the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Total developmental time of N. vitripennis from oviposition to adult emergence (mean+/-SD) was 43.5+/-2.4, 22.5+/-1.1, 14.8+/-1.7 and 11.3+/-0.9 days when reared at 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C, respectively. At 35 degrees C, N. vitripennis did not develop successfully. The rate of total immature development (1/days) increased with temperature. From linear regression of development rates, it was determined that the minimum threshold (tL) for total immature development was 9.8 degrees C (approximately 10 degrees C). Above this threshold, the overall thermal constant (K) for N. vitripennis was found to be 224.3+/-1.7 degree-days.
... An additional advantage that these species have is their more rapid development compared with other filth fly parasitoids such as Spalangia spp. (Mann et al. 1990b, Geden 1997. Wylie (1972) noted that M. zaraptor outcompeted S. cameroni Perkins under a variety of test conditions, and similar results were noted in competitions between M. raptor and S. endius Walker (Ables andShepard 1974, Propp andMorgan 1983). ...
Article
Competition bioassays were conducted with the filth fly pupal parasitoids Muscidurax raptor (Girault & Sanders) and M. raptorellus (Kogan & Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) using house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) hosts at different host densities. Muscidifurax raptor had a significant impact on M. raptorellus when hosts were limiting in sequential parasitism tests. Fewer than six M. raptorellus adult progeny emerged from groups of 50 fly pupae that were parasitized by M. raptor at the same time or when M. raptor parasitism preceded M. raptorellus by 48 h, respectively, compared with 42-55 M. raptorellus progeny produced when this species was tested alone. Production of M. raptor was significantly lower when parasitism by this species was preceded by M. raptorellus (25) than when M. raptor was tested alone (43). When the two species parasitized hosts at the same time in different proportions at low host:parasitoid densities (5:1), M. raptorellus produced 13 progeny per parent female when it was the sole species present and fewer than two when M. raptor was present. No negative impact of M. raptorellus on M. raptor was observed. Neither species had a substantial effect on the success of the other at higher host:parasitoid densities. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.
... Finally, we suggest a common model that combines mutual interference with a temperature-dependent functional response model, allowing us to predict the rates of attack and successful parasitism for arbitrary combinations of temperature, host density, and parasitoid density. The importance of temperature on development and parasitism has been considered by, for example, Mann et al. (1990b), Geden (1997), and Birkemoe et al. (2012). ...
Article
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We investigated the effect of mutual interference on the attack efficiency and the rate of successful parasitism on the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) attacking pupae of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female parasitoids (2, 4, 8, 16, or 32) were exposed to 100 fly pupae during 24 h. The number of pupae that were attacked and the number successfully parasitized increased with the parasitoid density and reached a maximum of ∼70 and 50, respectively. Parasitoid-induced mortality (PIM) was about 20 pupae, irrespective of parasitoid density. The per capita rates of attack, successful parasitism and parasitoid-induced mortality declined monotonously with parasitoid density. Progeny sex ratio was female biased for all parasitoid densities, but declined significantly with increasing parasitoid density from ∼70% females at the lowest density to ∼60% at the highest. Mutual interference was incorporated into a functional response model to predict the attack rate and the rate of successful parasitism at different temperatures, host densities and parasitoid densities. The model explained 93.5% of the variation in the observed number of attacked pupae and 91.5% of the variation in the number of successfully parasitized pupae. The model predicts that increasing parasitoid densities will increase the percentage of killed hosts, but only up to a certain density. Above this density, a further increase in parasitoid abundance will actually lead to a decline in the percentage parasitism. These findings may have some implications for using S. cameroni in biological control against flies using inundative releases. © Crown copyright 2015.
... In insects, metabolic rate increases with increasing ambient temperature (Baffoe, Dalin, Nordlander, & Stenberg, 2012;Mann, Axtell, & Stinner, 1990). depended on their physiological condition (age, egg-load, prior host-feeding experience in G. agilis). ...
Thesis
Plants play a central role in mediating species interactions within and between trophic levels. Plants quality and quantity can affect the behavior and development of insect herbivores. Furthermore, these effects may cascade up to higher trophic levels, such as parasitoids and hyperparasitoids, through bottom-up processes. However, in nature, these biotic interactions are inevitably influenced by their complex abiotic environment. Understanding abiotic-biotic interactions is becoming increasingly important in a rapidly changing world. The aim of my thesis was to explore how these climate-related factors impact interactions involving plants, insect herbivores, predators, parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. I first investigated effects of simulated wind and rain on the performance of insect herbivores feeding on their host plants. Secondly, I examined the impact of simulated heatwaves on interactions between parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. In a greenhouse experiment (chapter 2), I studied direct and plant-mediated effects of simulated wind on the performance of two insect herbivores, Plutella xylostella and Pieris brassicae, feeding on black mustard plants, Brassica nigra. Plants were exposed to four different wind treatments that allowed me to separate direct and indirect effects of wind exposure on herbivores. Morphological and chemical traits of plants and developmental parameters of insect herbivores were measured. The results showed that adults of P. brassicae grew larger under conditions of direct wind-exposure, but adults of P. xylostella did not. Development time of both herbivores was longer. I further conducted a choice experiment to study effects of wind exposure on the preference of an avian predator (Parus major) for caterpillars of P. brassicae in an observation room. I found that caterpillars on plants without wind exposure had a higher predation risk than caterpillars on plants with wind exposure. I conclude that P. brassicae can perceive lower predation risk under windy condition, and extends its developmental program by prolonging its larval development to achieve a lager adult body size. Using the same model plant and insect species, I tested the effects of simulated heavy rain on the performance of the two herbivores on plants (chapter 3). Rainfall regimes were set either as a single long or as three short rain showers per day. I found that rain exposure extended the development time of both herbivores and had a strong negative effect on the survival of P. xylostella, but not on that of P. brassicae. Effects of rain exposure on adult body mass depended on species and rainfall frequency. Overall, plant-mediated effects of rain exposure on the herbivores were generally small. The results suggest that changes in the duration and frequency of rainfall may alter the population dynamics of insects and insect community structure. In a lab experiment (chapter 4), I examined the effects of different temperature regimes on reproduction and functional responses of two hyperparasitoid species, Gelis agilis and Acrolyta nens. Host cocoons of two different ages were exposed to three different temperature regimes that represent cool, normal and warm conditions in the Netherlands. I found that temperature had stronger negative effects on the reproduction of G. agilis (a less fecund species) than on A. nens (a more fecund species). Host cocoons of C. glomerata developed faster under warmer conditions. Therefore, I conclude that exposure to simulated heatwaves may change community structure at higher trophic levels. Using the same temperature regimes, I further tested the effects of simulated heatwaves on intrinsic competition between two hyperparasitoids, Lysibia nana and A. nens (chapter 5). I showed that L. nana benefited in competition under warmer conditions. Higher temperature enhanced the competitive advantage of the superior competitor. The results indicate that heatwaves associated with global warming may have the potential to reduce species coexistence in the fourth trophic level. In conclusion, abiotic factors (wind, rainfall, temperature) had important impacts on the plant-herbivore and parasitoid-hyperparasitoid multitrophic interactions that I tested in this thesis. Wind and rainfall exposure clearly affected the performance of insect herbivores. An extended developmental program was observed in P. brassicae as a result of a reduction in predation risk under windy condition. Overall, plant-mediated effects of wind and rainfall exposure were generally small. Exposure to simulated heatwaves differentially influenced reproduction and functional responses of two hyperparasitoid species. Moreover, simulated heatwaves negatively affected fitness of species and species coexistence at the terminal end of food chain. Future studies integrating various climate-related abiotic factors into multitrophic interactions at global scale are urgently needed to mitigate the ecological effects of climate change.
... This area is relevant in light of the predictions that higher temperatures will become more commonplace in the future due to global climate changes ( Hance et al. 2007, Jeffs and Lewis 2013, Lann et al. 2013). Extensive data are available on temperature effects on the fitness of house flies (Lysyk and Axtell 1987;Lysyk 1991a, b;Kjaersgaard et al. 2015) and parasitoids ( Mann et al. 1990;Geden 1996Geden , 1997Lysyk 2000Lysyk , 2001Birkemoe et al. 2012;Skovgård and Nachman 2015); however, most of these studies used constant temperatures with maxima of 30-35°C. Already at these temperatures, there was often evidence for high-temperature inhibition of essential life processes, but almost nothing is known about intensity effect on fly and parasitoid survival, development, and fecundity at temperatures above 35°C. ...
Article
Insects are ectothermic organisms; hence, all aspects of their biology are strongly influenced by ambient temperatures. Different insect species respond differently with phenotypic plasticity and/or genetic adaptation to changing temperatures. Here, we tested the thermal adaptation of the house fly and three of its parasitoids species by comparing life-history parameters in populations from a hot climate region (Jordan Valley) and from a moderate-climate region (Galilee). No significant differences were found between the two house fly populations, both under hot and moderate experimental conditions. Life-history parameters of the parasitoids (Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, Spalangia endius Walker, and Spalangia cameroni Perkins [Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae]) varied markedly between origins, species, sexes, and experimental conditions. Of the three species tested, only M. raptor collected in the Jordan Valley proved better adapted to experimental heat conditions, compared to its counterpart population that was collected in the Galilee. Additionally, we tested the effect of elevating temperatures on a house fly lab population for 17 consecutive generations and found no evidence for heat adaptation. We discuss our results in the context of house fly control and global warming.
... In insects, metabolic rate increases with increasing ambient temperature (Baffoe, Dalin, Nordlander, & Stenberg, 2012;Mann, Axtell, & Stinner, 1990). Pupal mortality in cocoons of C. glomerata was not significantly affected by temperature, whereas the duration of pupal The effect of temperature on parasitism success, however, differed markedly between the two hyperparasitoids and depended on their physiological condition (age, egg load, prior host-feeding experience in TA B L E 1 Results of the statistical analyses (generalized linear mixed model) for the effects of temperature regime, host cocoon age, hyperparasitoid condition and their interactions on the proportion of host cocoons (Cotesia glomerata) developing into adult hyperparasitoids, Acrolyta nens and Gelis agilis F I G U R E 4 Mean proportion (± SE) of host cocoons (Cotesia glomerata) developing into adult Acrolyta nens under three different daynight temperature regimes (low, medium and high represent 20-12, 25-17 and 30-22°C, respectively). ...
Article
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1.Understanding effects of Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) on species interactions is essential for predicting community responses to climate change. However, while effects of AGW on resource‐consumer interactions at the first‐ and second trophic level have been well studied, little is known about effects on interactions at higher trophic levels at the terminal end of food chains (e.g. in the third and fourth trophic levels). 2. Here, we examined the effects of temperature variability by simulating heatwaves on functional responses of two species at the fourth trophic level (hyperparasitoids) that parasitize host species at the third trophic level (parasitoid cocoons). 3. We found that host cocoons developed faster under simulated heatwave conditions, decreasing the temporal window of susceptibility of the host cocoons to parasitism by the two hyperparasitoids, and consequently parasitism declined with temperature. However the effects of a simulated heatwave markedly differed among the two hyperparasitoid species; temperature and host quality had a much stronger effect on early reproduction in the less fecund hyperparasitoid Gelis agilis, than in the more fecund species Acrolyta nens. 4. Our results suggest that exposure to heatwaves, that are expected to increase in frequency, will affect the ability of species at higher trophic levels to exploit transient resources whose suitability is temperature‐dependent. In turn, the observed effects of AGW on the functional responses of the hyperparasitoids may disrupt trophic interactions and have profound impact on population dynamics and ecological processes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Legner and Greathead 1969;Skovgård and Jespersen 1999). Biological parameters related to these parasitoids, such as development time, parasitism rates and superparasitism have shown a positive correlation to temperature up to 35 °C (Mann et al. 1990) suggesting that, in tropical climates, parasitoids have the potential to cause concern in HF production systems. ...
Chapter
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Two fly species, the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, and the house fly, Musca domestica, are presently being promoted and used as feed for monogastric animals. Various production systems are being developed in different contexts and regions, from very small-scale used by smallholder farmers to industrial scale production factories. This chapter reviews the information available on production methods for the two fly species, with a focus on small-scale production systems. Larvae of both fly species can be produced either by exposing substrates to attract naturally occurring flies, or by breeding adults to obtain eggs that will be placed on the larval rearing substrates. The two fly species are compared with respect to performance, user-friendliness, safety and sustainability. The advantages and disadvantages associated with rearing these species in different situations and perspectives are highlighted. This chapter also discusses knowledge gaps and provides recommendations for production and suggestions for further research.
... Temperature is a key factor environmental, which regulates the dynamics of the insect population, and growth rates. Our findings have the partial agreements with those of [13] determined the development, induced host mortality and emergence of parasitoid at temperatures of 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC. In this experiment five parasitoids with 100 hosts were used at 24 h exposure period, the oviposition rate of Muscidifurax species higher over on highest temperature ranges followed by Spalangia species. ...
Article
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The present study was conducted on effect of different temperatures on storage of pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii of Bacterocera zonata (Sanuders) in the Bio-control research laboratory, Department of Entomology, SAU, Tando jam during 2014-2015 investigation were carried out to determine the adult longevity, sex ratio and best storage period in four weeks in different hours at 4ºC, 6ºC 8ºC, 10ºC and 12ºC. The result indicated that adults of the parasitoid were not emerged in prescribed storage time at 4ºC, and 6ºC. The sex ratio of pupal parasitoid after emergence male parasites was greatest as compare to female parasites in the W 1 and W 2 storage periods at 6ºC, 8ºC, 10ºC and 12ºC, respectively. The result further depicted that the average mean longest adult longevity was recorded 59.0% days followed by 49.81% and 26.85% days at 12ºC emerged from stored pupae of first week, respectively, The analysis of variance of results revealed that there was significant difference in, sex ratio and adult longevity and best storage temperature in four weeks at different times between temperatures and storage periods (P<0.05).
... Temperature and rainfall have been important factors influencing dispersal, development areas, and adult fly prevalence (Larsen & Thomsen 1940, Elvin & Krafsur 1984, Krafsur et al 1985, Hogsette & Farkas 2000. Additionally, development and oviposition of parasitoids have been determined at various optimal temperatures which are species dependent (Mann et al 1990, Geden 1999. This is the first study to our knowledge to use site-specific weather stations at each equine farm in North and Central Florida. ...
Article
House flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The successful use of pupal parasitoids for management of these pests requires knowledge of seasonal fluctuations and biology of the flies as well as natural parasitism levels. However, these dynamics have not been investigated on small equine farms. A 1-year field study began in July 2010, in north central Florida, to determine adult fly population levels and breeding areas on four small equine farms. Weekly surveillance showed that pest flies were present year-round, though there were differences in adult population levels among farms and seasons. Fly development was not confirmed on two of the four small farms, suggesting that subtle differences in husbandry may adversely affect the development of immature flies. In six substrates previously identified as the most common among the farms, stable fly puparia were found overwhelmingly in hay mixed with equine manure and house fly puparia were found in fresh pine shavings mixed with equine manure. Natural parasitism was minimal as expected, but greatest numbers of natural parasitoids collected were of the genus Spalangia. Differences in adult and immature fly numbers recovered emphasizes the need for farm owners to confirm on-site fly development prior to purchase and release of biological control agents. Additionally, due to the low natural parasitism levels and domination of parasitism by Spalangia cameroni, augmentative releases using this species may be the most effective.
... Sustained high temperatures have been shown many times to increase the mortality of developing insects (ex. Mann et al. 1990;Miller and Gerth 1994), and it appears that 30°C is unsuitable for the development of the swede midge and S. myles. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is an invasive pest of crucifer (Brassica oleracea L.) crops in North America. In order to identify potential classical biological control agents for the swede midge, this study aimed to ascertain which natural enemies attack the pest in its native European range and to investigate their basic biology and phenological relationships with their host. Two species of parasitoids, Synopeas myles Walker (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) and Macroglenes chalybeus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were found throughout Europe and attacked every generation of the swede midge. Neither species consistently parasitized large proportions of host populations and neither is host-specific, according to existing literature. For these reasons, neither parasitoid species currently appears to be a promising candidate for classical biological control of the swede midge in North America.
Article
Urolepis rufipes (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a newly recorded species in Denmark. It occurs in connection with livestock facilities, is a parasitoid on houseflies, and may therefore have potential as a biological fly control agent. The effects of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) on sex ratio, development time, survivorship, age-specific fecundity, net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ) and generation time of U. rufipes were investigated. Sex ratio was female-biased at all temperatures. Successful development occurred at all temperatures, with a minimum development time near 34°C. Development time of males was significantly shorter than that of females. Immature survivorship was highest at 25°C and 30°C and lowest at 35°C. An inverse relationship was found between longevity of adult females and temperature. The net reproductive rate (R 0 ) was highest at 25°C and 30°C and lowest at 35°C. The maximum r m -value was 0.346 d−1 at 30°C, and the minimum was 0.038 d−1 at 15°C. r m -values of the Danish strain were higher than those previously reported in a New York strain of U. rufipes. Generally, r m was higher than in most other fly pupal pteromalid parasitoids investigated, and hence U. rufipes appears to be a promising control agent for houseflies.
Article
The effect of temperature on the life history of the pteromalid parasitoid Trichomalopsis sarcophagae Gahan was determined to develop relationships that could be used for construction of simulation models of biological control. Immature developmental rates were not influenced by parasitoid sex or host species, and increased in a linear fashion with temperatures in the range of 15 to 30°C. Development was limited at 33°C. Immature development required 197 degree-days above 12.4°C. Immature survival was lowest at 15 and 33°C, and highest in the range of 22 to 26°C. Host species did not influence the relationship between temperature and immature survival, although fewer progeny were produced in pupae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), compared with the house fly, Musca domestica (L.). Sex ratio of emerging parasitoids was 79% female at 15°C, and 62-69% female at 20-30°C. Stable fly pupae yielded 64% females compared with 73% females from house fly pupae. House fly pupae yielded 8.2 progeny per pupa compared with 4.6 progeny per stable fly pupa. Median female longevity declined from 15-18 d at 15°C to 4-5 d at 33°C. Time to 50% oviposition ranged from 8-11 d at 15°C to <2 d at 33°C. Lifetime progeny production was lowest at 15 and 33°C, and >70 progeny per female at 25°C. The net reproductive rate was <1 female per female at 15 and 33°C and >38 female per female at 25°C. Mean generation time decreased from 89 d at 15°C to <12 d at 33°C. The intrinsic rate of increase was ≤0 female per female per day at 15 and 33°C, but >0.22 female per female per day at 25°C. T. sarcophagae appears better adapted to cooler temperatures than many other pteromalids, and may prove to be a useful biological control agent for filth flies in northern areas.
Article
The effect of temperature on life history parameters of Muscidifurax raptorellus Kogan & Legner was determined and compared with species currently attacking fly pupae in feedlots and dairies in Alberta. Immature developmental times declined from 72 d at 15°C to 13 d at 30°C for females. Male developmental time averaged 96% of female developmental time. Immature survival ranged from 0.23 at 15°C to 0.93 at 25°C, then declined to 0.42 at 33°C. Emerging wasps averaged 0.60 female, with an average of 8.6 and 6.2 progeny produced per parasitized pupa in Musca domestica L. and Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Female longevity declined from 11 to 5 d as temperatures increased from 15-33°C. Time to 50% progeny production followed a similar pattern. Lifetime progeny production increased from 28-37 progeny per female at 15°C to 85-120 at 20-25°C, then declined to 48-50 progeny per female at 33°C. The net reproductive rate increased from 1.8-2.3 females at 15°C to 39-48 females/female at 25°C, then declined to 13-15 females per female at 33°C. Mean generation time declined with temperature. The intrinsic rate of increase increased from 0.007-0.010 females/female/d at 15°C to 0.203-0.206 females/female/d at 30°C, then declined to 0.173-0.186 females/female/d at 33°C. M. raptorellus had lower lifetime progeny production, net reproductive rate, and intrinsic rate of increase at all temperatures compared with Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders. Life history parameters of M. raptorellus compared favorably to those of Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner at all but the highest temperatures, and also with those of Trichomalopsis sarcophagae Gahan at all temperatures. It does not appear that there is any climatic barrier to the use of M. raptorellus for inundative releases for fly control in Alberta.
Article
Stable fly, Stomoxys ealcitrans (L.), and house fly, Musca domestiea L., puparia were collected at cattle feedlots in southcentral and northwestern Illinois from May through August 1991-1993 to determine the prevalence and species composition of pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Additional samples of puparia were collected in September 1991 and October 1993. Parasitoids emerged from 10.6% of nearly 13,000 stable fly puparia and 13% of >17,000 house fly puparia. Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis was the most common parasitoid of the stable fly and of the house fly, comprising ≍60% of the parasitoids that emerged from the puparia of each species. Spalangia endius Walker was the 2nd-most prevalent parasitoid overall, comprising 14.2 and 18.4% of the parasitoids recovered from stable fly ~U1dhouse fly pllparia, respectively. Parasitism by S. endius varied greatly from year to year and between regions. Spalangia nigra Latrielle represented a much greater portion of the parasitoids recovered from stable fly puparia than house fly puparia (16.1 versus 3.8%). S. nigra also was more common in northwestern than southcentral Illinois. Spalangia eameroni Perkins was recovered every year, but represented only 3.1 and 2.8%, respectively, of the parasitoids recovered from stable fly and house fly puparia. Muscidifurax spp. (M. raptor Girault & Sanders and M. zaraptor Kogan & Legner) comprised 6.8 and 14.8% of the parasitoids recovered from stable fly and house fly puparia, respectively. Seasonal patterns of parasitism varied from year to year and between regions, probably in part because of substantial differences in weather each season.
Article
Threshold temperatures and relative humidities, growth rates, and physiological development times were calculated for egg laying, larval development, progeny production, and sex ratio of the endoparasitoid Pediobius furvus (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a key pupal parasitoid of several graminaceos stem borers, among which is Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). These studies were conducted within a temperature range of 15-35°C, with a relative humidity of 30-80% at each temperature, and have shown that neither oviposition nor development is possible under extremes of temperature conditions such as 15 and 35°C. Optimum conditions for oviposition and development lie between 25 and 30°C and 60-80% RH. Low temperatures resulted in longer developmental period(s) and a preponderance of male progeny. However, parasitization activity increased with temperatures up to 30 ± 1.5°C under relative humidity levels of 60-80%. Thus, the criteria for optimum parasitoid production may not only be associated with unfavorable temperatures and relative humidity regimens during oviposition, but more importantly, with temperatures at which parasitoid development takes place.
Article
Two pig farms, two dairies, and a combined pig and dairy farm in Denmark were sampled weekly from April to December 1997 to determine the distribution and relative abundance of Musca domestica L. pupal parasitoids. Nine parasitoid species were collected in the study, including Spalangia cameroni Perkins, S. nigripes Curtis, S. subpunctata Förster, S. nigra Latrielle, Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders, Nasonia vitripennis (Walker), Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), Urolepis rufipes (Ashmead), and Phygadeuon fumator Gravenhorst. S. nigra had not previously been recorded as a parasitoid on M. domestica pupae in Denmark. Among the five farms, S. cameroni was the most abundant species collected indoors, whereas M. raptor dominated outdoors in the manure heaps. Maximum activity of parasitoids was observed in late summer, which corresponded well with peaks in temperature and fly density. S. cameroni and M. raptor were active from spring to fall, whereas the other species occurred more sporadic and in lower numbers. The overall rate of parasitism was low, ranging from 5.1 to 13.1% among the farms. Spatial distribution of the three most abundant species at indoor sites revealed that M. raptor primarily searches for fly pupae in the illuminated areas of the stable environment, whereas S. cameroni and S. nigripes were randomly distributed.
Article
Modern commercial poultry production under large companies is expanding worldwide with similar methods and housing, and the accompanying arthropod and rodent pest problems. The pests increase the cost of production and are factors in the spread of avian diseases. The biology, behavior and control of ectoparasites and premise pests are described in relation to the different housing and production practices for broiler breeders, turkey breeders, growout (broilers and turkeys), caged-layers, and pullets. Ectoparasites include Ornithonyssus fowl mites, Dermanyssus chicken mites, lice, bedbugs, fleas, and argasid fowl ticks. Premise pests include Alphitobius darkling beetles, Dermestes hide beetles, the house fly and several related filth fly species, calliphorid blow flies, moths, cockroaches, and rodents. Populations of these pests are largely determined by the housing, waste, and flock management practices. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach, tailored to the different production systems, is required for satisfactory poultry pest control. Biosecurity, preventing the introduction of pests and diseases into a facility, is critical. Poultry IPM, based on pest identification, pest population monitoring, and methods of cultural, biological, and chemical control, is elucidated. The structure of the sophisticated, highly integrated poultry industry provides a situation conducive to refinement and wider implementation of IPM.
Article
Development rates were determined for three pteromalid parasitoids of houseflies under constant and varying temperatures from 15 to 35°C.Muscidifurax raptorGirault and Sanders was the fastest developing species, with females completing development in 13.8 days at 32.5°C and 66.5 days at 15°C.Spalangia geminaBoucek females completed development in 20.8 days at 30.0°C and 161 days at 15.0°C, whereasS. cameroniPerkins females completed development in 20.6 days at 30.0°C and 155.5 days at 15.0°C. Male development times were 90.3% of those for femaleS. geminaand 92.7 and 88.6% of those for femaleS. cameroniandM. raptor,respectively. Parasitoid survival was very low at 35°C for all species and noSpalangiasurvived constant exposure to 15.0°C. Exposure to these lethal temperatures for shorter periods indicated that the parasitoids can tolerate them well under conditions more typical of the field. Development rates were modeled using biophysical and degree-day models and the models were tested for their ability to predict development under fluctuating conditions (24–36°C). Neither model was superior for all three species because of interspecific differences in the parasitoids' responses to high temperatures. Agreement between predicted and observed development times for all three species was achieved by small empirical adjustments of a key parameter in the biophysical model.
Chapter
House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests in livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of these 'filth flies' with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. The principal filth fly parasitoids include members of the genera Muscidifurax and Spalangia in the hymenopteran family Pteromalidae, as well as others in the family Encyrtidae. Many of these parasitoids are native globally and have been introduced in many areas worldwide. Filth fly parasitoids are generally present in all habitats where suitable hosts can be found, including those associated with poultry, cattle, equine, swine, and other animal operations. They are also commonly occurring in refuse and forensic situations. Naturally occurring populations of parasitoids are typically insufficient to manage fly populations because of the flies' shorter development time and higher fecundity. Augmentation of natural parasitoid populations by releasing commercially-produced parasitoids can increase fly control. Here we review the biology of these biological control agents, and discuss the prospects for their successful use in managing filth fly populations in a variety of animal facilities.
Article
We present the first report on in vitro rearing of Muscidifurax zaraptor Kogan and Legner, a pupal parasitoid of Musca domestica L. and other muscoid flies. We first tested seven artificial diets composed of different amounts (0, 25, and 50%) of a Mu. domestica pupal extract, 25% fresh chicken egg yolk, and 25% powdered milk solution. Then we compared one of the previously tested diets (25% of pupal extract) with three other diets in which either the egg yolk or milk or both were removed. We tested these four diets using insect material either from Mu. domestica or a nonhost insect source, which was Heliothis virescens (F.). We observed no significant differences in the rates of development to adult in the diets with 50 or 25% pupal extract. Almost no adults emerged from two diets without insect material, but in a third one about 8% of parasitoids completed development. Egg yolk significantly improved the yield of adults, while the addition of milk was not beneficial. Using the H. virescens pupal extract similar results were observed, indicating that insect material from a nonhost source is suitable for the development of M. zaraptor. The emerged adults mated and parasitized house fly pupae, producing viable offspring. The developmental time in vitro from egg to adult was slightly longer than that reported in vivo. The results we observed suggest that the highest yields of parasitoid adults from diets with insect material can be explained in terms of a better nutritional balance rather than advocating “host factors.”
Article
Releases of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were conducted every second week from mid-April and up to October 2001, on four organic dairy cattle farms in Denmark to test the efficacy of this wasp as a biological control agent against house flies and stable flies. Season-long parasitism of sentinel house fly pupae averaged 32.7 and 35.8%, in two release farms versus 8.4 and 9.8%, in two control farms. Compared with the controls, the mean density of house flies and stable flies per animal was distinctly suppressed due to S. cameroni releases in the period August–September of normal peak abundance of flies. A positive correlation between temperature and parasitism was found; suggesting that temperature partially explains the discrepancy observed between an apparent suppression of flies and a relatively low overall percentage of parasitism. Expressed as a percentage of the total number of adult parasitoids recovered from the four dairies, S. cameroni was most abundant (80.5–93.1%). From early summer and onwards Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders (4.0–6.0%) occurred frequently along with Spalangia nigripes Curtis (0.8–8.5%), Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (
Article
The simulation of variability in temperature-dependent development is discussed. An algorithm for simulation of this variability is developed and validated under constant and variable temperature regimes for Anthonomus grandis, Trichoplusia ni, and Heliothis zea.
Article
Comparisons of the reproductive potentials of cohorts of long-cultured domestic, inbred and wild stocks of 2 arrhenotokous pteromalids, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and M. zaraptor Kogan and Legner, suggested the possible loss of some genotypes for high reproductive capacity in the long-cultured stock. Inbred clones derived from single ♀ mated to their ♂ offspring performed differently, suggesting separate genotypes. Some mechanism other than the single locus, multiple allele system for sex-determination was operative. The results indicate the importance of the founder effect in selection of stocks of parasitic insects imported for biological control, although various degrees of inbreeding did not apparently cause any genetic decay after 18-110 generations.
Article
Mated females of the parasites, Spalangia endius Walker and Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, were exposed to house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae at 8 different constant temperatures for 12, 24 and 36-h time periods. While oviposition rates of both species increased with an increase in temperature and time of exposure, these species displayed different tolerances to temperature. Lower temperature levels generally favored oviposition by M. raptor, while S. endius oviposited most successfully at higher temperatures.
Article
Attack rates and progeny production of several strains of 4 fly parasite species were observed under single-confined (forced) and multiple free-choice densities of Musca domestica L. puparia. Progeny production always increased with an increased host density limited by specific reproductive capacity. Female:male sex ratio increased with higher host densities when forced on single parasite females, but decreased when 10 competing ovipositing parasites were allowed free choice of densities in test cages. A parasite “contamination“ principal was suspected. Two behavioral changes in Spalangia endius Walker might account for its increased rate of attack at higher densities. First, parasites spent less time examining puparia before ovipositing; and second, they laid more eggs in the same time period at a high host density than at a low. Superparasitism and probable differential sex mortality were also greater at the low density. Spalangia species demonstrated a greater searching capacity than Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders or Nasonia vitripennis (Walker), and would be favored candidates for use as biological control agents. Experimental results indicated that small-number releases might be best at any immediate release site for maximum female F1 progeny production.
Article
A comprehensive 12-mo. survey of indigenous house fly parasites was conducted in the 3 geographic regions of North Carolina. Eight parasite species, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, Spalangia cameroni Perkins, S. endius Walker, S. nigra Latreille, S. nigroaenea Curtis, S. n. sp. near drosophilae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani), and Nasonia vitripennis Walker were found. M. raptor was the most abundant parasite collected and the only species active throughout the year. S. cameroni, S. endius and S. nigroaenea, active from June through Nov., were the prevalent Spalangia species. A discussion of collection techniques is included.
Article
When parasitized house fly pupae were placed at 8 different constant temperatures in the laboratory, the parasitoid Spalangia endius Walker, failed to develop completely at 12.8 and 15.6°C. The length of successful development ranged from 66 days at 18° to 17 days at 35°C. Another fly parasitoid, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders, failed to complete its development at 12.8 and 35°C, but generally developed faster than S. endius. Under field conditions, parasitoid developmental rates varied on a seasonal basis and ranged between 21 and 183 days for S. endius and from 19–126 days for M. raptor. Developmental rates of both species were similar during summer, but M. raptor developed at a significantly faster rate during cooler months. An algorithm was used to predict development of parasitoids by providing simulation of responses to constant and variable temperatures. High correlation coefficients between predicted and observed developmental rates were obtained with both parasitoid species.
Article
Comparisons of various strains of hymenopterous parasites,Muscidifurax raptor Girault & Sanders,M. uniraptor Kogan & Legner,M. zaraptor K. & L.,Spalangia cameroni Perkins,S. endius Walker,S. longepetiolata Boucek,S. nigra Latreille andSphegigaster sp. attackingMusca domestica L., showed that theSpalangia species consistently penetrated to the greatest depth, 4 cm, in an experimental wheat flakes habitat. Moisture influenced penetration behaviour of some species. Host destruction wrought by host-feeding and parasitization was often proportionally greater than progeny production at the lower depth, indicating that parasites searched there without finding conditions suitable for oviposition. Progeny production by all species was greater at the higher of 2 temperatures, 29 vs 21°C., but RH influenced parasitization and ♀♀ production, apparently according to strain preferences. Superiorily competitiveMuscidifurax species may be favored by comparatively cooler temperatures; this characteristic would account for their predominace in nature during cooler seasons. However, the problem of characterizing different species as to preference for certain strata of the host habitat and temperature is confounded with strain type, RH, habitat moisture and behavioral and developmental elements.
Article
We describe a stochastic approach for modeling insect development based on a single, temperature-independent distribution of normalized development times. We review other stochastic approaches, as well as problems encountered in modeling distributions of development time. A computer program, assembled from the Statistical Analysis System library, constructs cumulative probability distributions from frequency data on insect development times. These data are obtained from constant temperature experiments. The computer program normalizes the times of these distributions on their median time, identifies a single empirical distribution representative of all normalized distributions, and fits a cumulative Weibull function to this standard curve. The program determines the starting values of the three Weibull parameters and computes least-square estimates of these parameters using Marquardt techniques. This normalized probability function was tested against 23 data sets with good results, and can be used in population models to distribute cohort development through time under variable temperature conditions.
Article
A stochastic thermodynamic model of poikilotherm development has been derived from the Eyring equation assuming multiple activity states of the underlying developmental control enzymes. This analysis brings together into a general model the day-degrees concept and the Arrhenius hypothesis as interpreted by Eyring. The compensating effect of enzyme inactivation at high and low temperatures incorporated into the model has the following consequences. 1.(i) It demonstrates the validity of the linear approximation (day-degree concept) in the mid-temperature region for some organisms.2.(ii) It effectively establishes a low-temperature threshold for development.3.(iii) It reduces the rate of development at higher temperatures, thereby establishing both an optimum and upper threshold for development. The resulting equation has been found applicable to a wide range of organisms.
Article
Populations of hymenopterous pupal parasites of house flies were charted on Fannia femoralis Stein and Ophyra leucostoma (Wiedemann) in 2 coastal southern California poultry ranches with weekly random samples made over a period of 18 months. Although 6 parasite species were active in the area, Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders and Spalangia endius Walker accounted for more than 95% of the observed parasitism on both hosts. Maximum parasite activity (more than 60% parasitism) was correlated with weather, M. raptor being prominent in the cooler, more humid, summer months (June–August), and S. endius in the hotter and drier months (September–November). Activity was sharply reduced with the advent of winter and remained low until the following spring, although host populations were highest during this colder period. The mass release of 4 imported West Indian and Midwestern parasite strains produced a higher host parasitism 2 months earlier in the year than occurred under natural conditions, being effected again by M. raptor and S. endius, with their periods of maximum activity coinciding with that of the native strains. Results are compared with other areas in southern California. Possible ways to improve biological control of house flies in southern California are discussed.
Article
The longevity and fecundity of 3 pteromalid species in response to 3 host-availability treatments were charted. In Treatment 1, 20 hosts were supplied daily after mating; in Treatment 2, 1 host was supplied initially for 24 hours followed by no hosts for 48 hours, with 20 hosts being supplied thereafter; and in Treatment 3, no hosts for 72 hours after mating followed by 20 supplied daily. The adults of Spalangia cameroni Perkins and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) required hosts when very young for maximum longevity and oviposition; Muscidifurax raptor Girault and Sanders performed best when deprived of hosts for a minimum of 4 days after emergence. Responses were proportional to the intensity of host-feeding and oviposition. Host availability of young adult females apparently influences their reproductivity and behavior during their entire life span. The extent and direction that behavior is affected depends on the species involved. Results are compared with those of other workers.
Article
Biological temperature-dependent rate models based on Arrhenius' and Eyring's equations have been formulated by Johnson & Lewin (1946), Hultin (1955), and Sharpe & DeMichele (1977). The original formulation of Sharpe and DeMichele is poorly suited for non-linear regression. Very high correlations of parameter estimators occassionally make regression with their equation impossible using Marquardt's algorithm (1963).This analysis describes a new formulation of Sharpe and DeMichele's model that greatly alleviates the non-linear regression problem. It is partly based on Hultin's formulation (1955). Biological and graphical interpretation of the model parameters is discussed. Regression suitability is illustrated with a typical data set. Similar modifications to the equations of Hultin (1955) and Johnson & Lewin (1946) are described.
Biological control of muscoid flies
  • R S Patterson
  • D A Rutz
Patterson, R.S. & Rutz, D.A. (eds) (1986) Biological control of muscoid flies. Entomological Society of America, Miscellaneous Publications, 61,1-174.
A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticideHymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in the laboratory
  • W S Abbott
Abbott, w.s. (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) on stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in the laboratory. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 55, 77-85.