Article

[The study on salivary clearance in children. 3. The volume of saliva in the mouth before and after swallowing]

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Abstract

Several kinds of substances such as acids and bacterial toxins diffuse from dental plaque into the salivary film which moves slowly between the plaque on the teeth and oral mucosa. The volume of saliva retained in the mouth before and after swallowing seem to be very important with respect to clearance of such substances from plaque. In 30 subjects, five-year-old children of each gender, the volume of saliva in the mouth after swallowing (X) could be computed by measuring the potassium concentration in unstimulated saliva and in the expectorate after a five-second rinse with 3 ml of water immediately following a swallow. The volume of saliva normally swallowed was calculated from the unstimulated salivary flow rate and the normal swallowing frequency. The volume of saliva before swallowing (Y) was calculated as the total of (X) plus the volume normally swallowed. The unstimulated salivary flow-rate was 0.22 +/- 0.14 ml/min, the mean values of (X) and (Y) were 0.38 +/- 0.11 ml and 0.50 +/- 0.15 ml, respectively, and there were no significant differences in these values based on gender. These values were about half the values of those parameters in adults (Lagerlöf and Dawes, 1985), and insertion in the computer program (Dawes, 1983) of these values suggested that sugar clearance in the five-year-old children would be slightly faster than in adults.

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Article
Background: Individual lifestyle factors are associated with dental caries in children. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate the associations between dental caries in elementary school children and the lifestyle factors in them and their parents. Methods: From five elementary schools in Takaoka city, Toyama prefecture, Japan, 1,699 children (848 boys and 851 girls) aged 6-12 years participated in the questionnaire survey conducted in March 2016. Questions on the socioeconomic status and the lifestyle factors in children and their parents were included. Children who received treatment for three or more dental caries were defined as having many caries. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether these factors were associated with many caries. Results: The percentage of children with many caries was 38.4%. In univariate analysis, being 5-6 graders, frequent snacking, short sleep durations, long hours of media use, paternal smoking, and parental skipping of breakfast were significantly associated with many caries. Lack of affluence was marginally significant. In multivariate analysis, the associations of short sleep hours and long hours of media use remained significant. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for media use of 1-2 hours and more than 2 hours were 1.79 (95% CI, 1.30-2.46) and 2.24 (95% CI, 1.61-3.11), respectively. The adjusted OR for less than 8 hours of sleep was 1.49 (1.07-2.06). Conclusions: Long durations of media use and short durations of sleep were associated with dental caries. Establishing desirable lifestyle is necessary for preventing dental caries in children.
Article
There are significant differences of glucose retention in site-specificity and individuals. Sixty-two 5-year-old nursery schoolchildren participated in this study on the relation between the viscosity of saliva and flow rate and glucose retention. Each child was instructed to rinse his/her mouth with a glucose solution (0.5 M, 5 ml) and then to spit out. Three minutes after rinsing, glucose retention was determined. Resting saliva was collected by a natural outflow method, then the flow rate was determined. A rotational viscometer was used to determine the viscosity. Glucose retention and flow rate were correlated at the left maxillary primary molars, and glucose retention and viscosity were correlated at the maxillary central primary incisors. It was concluded that glucose retention after glucose mouth rinsing was site-specific, and that glucose retention and the index of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) were slightly correlated with the salivary viscosity and flow rate.
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