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Endsley, M.R.: Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Human Factors Journal 37(1), 32-64

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  • SA Technologies

Abstract

This paper presents a theoretical model of situation awareness based on its role in dynamic human decision making in a variety of domains. Situation awareness is presented as a predominant concern in system operation, based on a descriptive view of decision making. The relationship between situation awareness and numerous individual and environmental factors is explored. Among these factors, attention and working memory are presented as critical factors limiting operators from acquiring and interpreting information from the environment to form situation awareness, and mental models and goal-directed behavior are hypothesized as important mechanisms for overcoming these limits. The impact of design features, workload, stress, system complexity, and automation on operator situation awareness is addressed, and a taxonomy of errors in situation awareness is introduced, based on the model presented. The model is used to generate design implications for enhancing operator situation awareness and future directions for situation awareness research.
... However, it depends on how often information is spread. Situational awareness has been defined in literature as the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their future status [99]. Therefore, situational awareness is embedded within a cognitive model of human activity in a dynamic system and is influenced by task factors and individual factors [100]. ...
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... Since these operators perform a multi-tasking activity, they do not focus their attention on all these dynamic elements at all times. However, it seems that the operators manage to maintain a global coherence of the situation in what is commonly called Situation Awareness (SA) (Endsley, 1995). This model is described with three levels, from perception to projection (i.e., anticipation). ...
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... Firstly, this entails an ex-ante focus on understanding and structuring the business environment and specific decision-making context. This draws on extant streams of literature including situational awareness (Endsley, 1995) and contextual intelligence (Khanna, 2014). The business environment can be evaluated on various dimensions. ...
Thesis
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