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For adults, skill at comprehending written language correlates highly with skill at comprehending spoken language. Does this general comprehension skill extend beyond language-based modalities? And if it does, what cognitive processes and mechanisms differentiate individuals who are more versus less proficient in general comprehension skill? In our first experiment, we found that skill in comprehending written and auditory stories correlates highly with skill in comprehending nonverbal, picture stories. This finding supports the hypothesis that general comprehension skill extends beyond language. We also found support for the hypotheses that poorer access to recently comprehended information marks less proficient general comprehension skill (Experiment 2) because less skilled comprehenders develop too many mental substructures during comprehension (Experiment 3), perhaps because they inefficiently suppress irrelevant information (Experiment 4). Thus, the cognitive processes and mechanisms involved in capturing and representing the structure of comprehensible information provide one source of individual differences in general comprehension skill.
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... Story comprehension refers to the understanding of narratives, regardless of modality (e.g., visual, listening, written). The Structure Building Framework (SBF) purports that comprehension across modalities is supported by general cognitive abilities, or a general comprehension factor, across oral, written, and visual modalities (Gernsbacher et al., 1990). Poor suppression, or inhibition, of contextually irrelevant information, and inefficient suppression promotes the development of too many substructures (Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991;Gernsbacher et al., 1990). ...
... The Structure Building Framework (SBF) purports that comprehension across modalities is supported by general cognitive abilities, or a general comprehension factor, across oral, written, and visual modalities (Gernsbacher et al., 1990). Poor suppression, or inhibition, of contextually irrelevant information, and inefficient suppression promotes the development of too many substructures (Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991;Gernsbacher et al., 1990). Therefore, poor comprehenders shift too often (Gernsbacher, 1993;Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991;Gernsbacher et al., 1990). ...
... Poor suppression, or inhibition, of contextually irrelevant information, and inefficient suppression promotes the development of too many substructures (Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991;Gernsbacher et al., 1990). Therefore, poor comprehenders shift too often (Gernsbacher, 1993;Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991;Gernsbacher et al., 1990). Empirical support for the SBF primarily comes from studies in adults (Gernsbacher, 1993(Gernsbacher, , 1997Gernsbacher & Faust, 1991;Gernsbacher & St. John, 2000;Gernsbacher et al., 1990); although, there is some support for comprehension across modalities in TD children as well (Kendeou et al., 2008(Kendeou et al., , 2020. ...
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Visual, as compared to verbal, tasks are often assumed to be easier for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but is this true for story comprehension? This study evaluated story comprehension monitoring across visual, listening, and written modalities and assessed predictors in two closely matched groups (age, socioeconomic status, language, nonverbal cognition, and word reading) of children and adolescents (8–14 years) with ASD (n = 20) and typical development (typically developing [TD]; n = 20). The results of mixed-effects models indicated that story comprehension monitoring was low overall, and performance was comparable across visual, listening, and written modalities for participants with ASD. Age, vocabulary, nonverbal working memory, response and distractor inhibition, and social communication significantly predicted comprehension monitoring.
... Reading skill refers to a number of specific cognitive skills that are associated with successful reading processes, ranging from the decoding of individual words (Perfetti, 1985) to syntactic knowledge and the skills necessary for making connections with prior knowledge (Gernsbacher, Varner & Faust, 1990;Hannon & Daneman, 2001). This ability to generate connections amongst items contained in the text, as well as with prior knowledge is critical for deep comprehension (Oakhill & Yuill, 1986;Hannon & Daneman, 2001). ...
... The Reading Systems Frameworks (Perfetti & Stafura, 2014) is a step in this direction but was proposed to provide a heuristic for formulating research questions rather than a formal model. Gernbacher's structure building model provides an exception as it was proposed to describe the basic processes of coherencebuilding and how some individual difference factors (e.g., knowledge suppression) support comprehension (Gernsbacher, 1997;Gernsbacher et al., 1990). The present study underscores the need for further development of a comprehensive model of reading and comprehension (e.g., McNamara & Magliano, 2009). ...
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Successful text comprehension requires readers to engage in a number of coherence-building processes. This study examined how analyzing the cohesion of students’ constructed responses can be used to evaluate these coherence-building processes and the extent to which they vary across readers’ individual differences and across types of texts. We posed two primary research questions: 1) Can we predict individual differences in working memory and reading skill based on the cohesion of students’ constructed responses to text? 2) Do the relations between individual differences and cohesion vary as a function of genre? Participants (n = 119) generated constructed responses while reading history and science texts and completed reading skill and working memory assessments. The current study leveraged natural language processing (NLP) techniques to analyze the cohesion of readers’ constructed responses, using cohesion as a proxy for assessing the coherence of their mental representations of the texts. Cohesion was measured at the sentence, paragraph, and synonym levels. Machine learning models showed that linguistic indices related to cohesion were significant predictors of both working memory and reading skill. Additional quantitative and qualitative inspection revealed that the relations between individual differences and coherence-building processes varied depending on the text’s genre. These findings indicate that the interaction between genre and individual differences may be used to model coherence-building processes during reading. This study has important implications for the realm of educational technology such as in the implementation of stealth assessments to predict students’ cognitive abilities.
... However, as its name implies, reading comprehension research is basically limited to written text. Even though auditory and written text comprehension skills appear to be highly interrelated (Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) and similar as to the cognitive skills that predict them (Kim, 2015;Verhoeven & van Leeuwe, 2008), this research area has not provided much evidence about how verbal and pictorial elements of text each contribute to children's comprehension of multimedia text. ...
... Most research on the development of text comprehension has been dedicated to reading comprehension, and many studies have focused primarily on individual differences regarding comprehension-related abilities or skills (e.g., Johnston, Barnes, & Desrochers, 2008;Oakhill et al., 2003;Tilstra, McMaster, van den Broek, Kendeou, & Rapp, 2009;Verhoeven & van Leeuwe, 2008). However, there is evidence that reading and listening comprehension skills are closely intertwined in the course of development (e.g., Gernsbacher et al., 1990;Kim, 2015;Perfetti, Landi, & Oakhill, 2005;Verhoeven & van Leeuwe, 2008); therefore, it is reasonable to investigate the development of text comprehension as a complete construct across different text presentation formats. One motivation for the research outlined here is to contribute to a deeper understanding of the cognitive processes underlying text comprehension during childhood. ...
Thesis
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This doctoral thesis is part of a research project on the development of the cognitive compre-hension of film at Würzburg University that was funded by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) between 2013 and 2019 and awarded to Gerhild Nied-ing. That project examined children’s comprehension of narrative text and its development in illustrated versus non-illustrated formats. For this purpose, van Dijk and Kintsch’s (1983) tri-partite model was used, according to which text recipients form text surface and textbase rep-resentations and construct a situation model. In particular, predictions referring to the influ-ence of illustrations on these three levels of text representation were derived from the inte-grated model of text and picture comprehension (ITPC; Schnotz, 2014), which holds that text-picture units are processed on both text-based (descriptive) and picture-based (depictive) paths. Accordingly, illustrations support the construction of a situation model. Moreover, in line with the embodied cognition account (e.g., Barsalou, 1999), it was assumed that the situa-tion model is grounded in perception and action; text recipients mentally simulate the situation addressed in the text through their neural systems related to perception (perceptual simulation) and action (motor resonance). Therefore, the thesis also examines whether perceptual simula-tion takes place during story reception, whether it improves the comprehension of illustrated stories, and whether motor resonance is related to the comprehension of text accompanied by dynamic illustrations. Finally, predictions concerning the development of comprehending illus-trated text were made in line with Springer’s (2001) hypotheses according to which younger children, compared with older children and adults, focus more on illustrations during text comprehension (perceptual boundedness) and use illustrations for the development of cogni-tive skills (perceptual support). The first research question sought to validate the tripartite model in the context of children’s comprehension of narrative text, so Hypothesis 1 predicted that children yield representations of the text surface, the textbase, and the situation model during text reception. The second research question comprised the assumptions regarding the impact of illustrations on text comprehension. Accordingly, it was expected that illustrations improve the situation model (Hypothesis 2a), especially when they are processed before their corresponding text passages (Hypothesis 2b). Both hypotheses were derived from the ITPC and the assumption that per-ceptual simulation supports the situation model. It was further predicted that dynamic illustra-tions evoke more accurate situation models than static ones (Hypothesis 2c); this followed from the assumption that motor resonance supports the situation model. In line with the ITPC, it was assumed that illustrations impair the textbase (Hypothesis 2d), especially when they are presented after their corresponding text passages (Hypothesis 2e). In accordance with earlier results, it was posited that illustrations have a beneficial effect for the text surface (Hypothesis 2f). The third research question addressed the embodied approach to the situation model. Here, it was assumed that perceptual simulation takes place during text reception (Hypothesis 3a) and that it is more pronounced in illustrated than in non-illustrated text (Hypothesis 3b); the latter hypothesis was related to a necessary premise of the assumption that perceptual sim-ulation improves the comprehension of illustrated text. The fourth research question was relat-ed to perceptual boundedness and perceptual support and predicted age-related differences; younger children were expected to benefit more from illustrations regarding the situation model (Hypothesis 4a) and to simulate vertical object movements in a more pronounced fash-ion (Hypothesis 4b) than older children. In addition, Hypothesis 4c held that perceptual simu-lation is more pronounced in younger children particularly when illustrations are present. Three experiments were conducted to investigate these hypotheses. Experiment 1 (Seger, Wannagat, & Nieding, submitted).compared the tripartite representations of written text without illustrations, with illustrations presented first, and with illustrations presented after their corresponding sentences. Students between 7 and 13 years old (N = 146) took part. Ex-periment 2 (Seger, Wannagat, & Nieding, 2019) investigated the tripartite representations of auditory text, audiovisual text with static illustrations, and audiovisual text with dynamic il-lustrations among children in the same age range (N = 108). In both experiments, a sentence recognition method similar to that introduced by Schmalhofer and Glavanov (1986) was em-ployed. This method enables the simultaneous measurement of all three text representations. Experiment 3 (Seger, Hauf, & Nieding, 2020) determined the perceptual simulation of vertical object movements during the reception of auditory and audiovisual narrative text among chil-dren between 5 and 11 years old and among adults (N = 190). For this experiment, a picture verification task based on Stanfield and Zwaan’s (2001) paradigm and adapted from Hauf (2016) was used. The first two experiments confirmed Hypothesis 1, indicating that the tripartite model is appli-cable to the comprehension of auditory and written narrative text among children. A benefi-cial effect of illustrations to the situation model was observed when they were presented syn-chronously with auditory text (Hypotheses 2a), but not when presented asynchronously with written text (Hypothesis 2b), so the ITPC is partly supported on this point. Hypothesis 2c was rejected, indicating that motor resonance does not make an additional contribution to the comprehension of narrative text with dynamic illustrations. Regarding the textbase, a general negative effect of illustrations was not observed (Hypothesis 2d), but a specific negative effect of illustrations that follow their corresponding text passages was seen (Hypothesis 2e); the latter result is also in line with the ITPC. The text surface (Hypothesis 2f) appears to benefit from illustrations in auditory but not written text. The results obtained in Experiment 3 sug-gest that children and adults perceptually simulate vertical object movements (Hypothesis 3a), but there appears to be no difference between auditory and audiovisual text (Hypothesis 3b), so there is no support for a functional relationship between perceptual simulation and the situ-ation model in illustrated text. Hypotheses 4a–4c were investigated in all three experiments and did not receive support in any of them, which indicates that representations of illustrated and non-illustrated narrative text remain stable within the age range examined here.
... Richards, & Burin, 2009). Así, el resultado de la comprensión de un texto deviene en la construcción de un modelo mental interno coherente y organizado de la información contenida en el mismo(Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990).De esta manera, la comprensión de textos requiere de la par�cipación de múl�ples habilidades cogni�vas. Entre ellas se pueden citar: la atención, la memoria (de largo y corto plazo, y memoria de trabajo), el control inhibitorio, las habilidades metacogni�vas, la flexibilidad, el monitoreo y un nivel mo�vacional adecuado(Abusamra et al., 2009;Juric et al., 2009). ...
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En Colombia existe un gran interés por realizar estudios sobre características morfo métricas en poblaciones equinas perteneciente a razas como la francesa debido a su gran potencial genético y en buscando evaluar y realizar mejoramiento genético con miras a participar en concursos relevantes a nivel suramericano, por esta razón y con el objetivo de estimar parámetros genéticos para características del salto mediante méto-dos bayesianos para una población de la raza silla francés ubicada en el Oriente Antioqueño. La base de datos utilizada recopiló datos del criadero Harás San Isidro. Se estimaron parámetros para 63 individuos en un rango etario entre 0 a 36 meses para características tales como: conformación de cabeza y cuello (CACU), conformación de pecho, hombro y espalda (PHE), conformación ce dorso, riñones y cruz (DRC), perfil trasero o grupa (PTG), articulaciones (ART), aplomos anteriores (APANT), aplomos posteriores (APOS), locomoción (LOC), impresión del conjunto y elegancia (IMCO). Se abordó mediante estadística bayesiano obteniendo como resultados heredabilidades entre 0,124 y 0,493 y correlaciones genéticas entre 0,53 y 0,96. Los resulta-dos obtenidos presentan estimativas fundamentales para aplicación de selección genética en los criaderos buscando ofrecer instrumentos para la toma de decisiones en los criaderos colombianos.
... Selon la théorie de double codage de Paivio (Paivio, 1971) Les images peuvent donc faciliter le processus de construction du modèle mental (Glenberg & Langston, 1992) qui est crucial dans la compréhension des textes (Fang, 1996;Glenberg, Meyer, & Lindem, 1987;Trabasso & Suh, 1993). Les lecteurs s'appuient sur des indices contextuels pour déterminer quelles informations doivent être ajoutées ou supprimées du modèle au fur et à mesure de la lecture (Ackerman, 1988;Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990). Les illustrations font partie de ces indices, en particulier pour les jeunes lecteurs (Glenberg & Langston, 1992;Gyselinck & Tardieu, 1999) qui dépendent davantage du contexte pour traiter des informations du texte (Ackerman, 1988;Cain, Oakhill, Barnes, & Bryant, 2001). ...
Thesis
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From an early age, illustrated books play a role in the development of written awareness (Yaden, Rowe, MacGillivray, 19991999). However, children with visual impairments do not have access to illustrated books like sighted children do. Some children may enter school without ever having access to any book (Claudet, 20142014). In addition, there is no guarantee that tactile images can be easily recognized.In this thesis, we studied the influence of different illustration techniques on the recognition of tactile pictures. Based on the state of the art, we proposed to simplify the shape of tactile pictures. Indeed, simplification can facilitate the process of creating images. Moreover, it can limit the amount of exploration movements and the work of mental integration required in order to make the pictures more accessible to touch. In blind children we have observed that patches of textures are recognized as well and learned faster than pictures with textures frequently used in tactile books (recognition rate: 87.8%, 95% CI [81.3, .92.2] ). We also assessed the relevance of using new technologies such as retractable pin tablets (Zarate, Gu dozhnik, Ruch, Shea, 20172017) to display dotted pictograms. While the use of line pictograms seems to be a good illustration technique (recognition rate in blind children: 89.7, 95% CI [78.4, 94.8]), recognizing dotted pictograms can be more difficult. We have therefore proposed recommendations for the design of dotted pictograms that can be displayed on retractable pin tablets. Our studies focus on sighted and blind adults and children. We were able to provide additional data to better understand the factors involved in haptic perception such as visual status, haptic expertise, age (children or adults) or the size of the finger. In general, the studies carried out in this thesis provide a better understanding of the processes involved
... We measured engagement during two narrative stimuli that were used in previous fMRI research: 1) a 20-min audio-narrated story, Paranoia (fMRI dataset n = 22) (18), which was intentionally created to induce suspicion surrounding the characters and situations and 2) a 50-min episode of BBC's television series Sherlock (fMRI dataset n = 17) (13), in which Sherlock and Dr. Watson meet and solve a mysterious crime together. We chose these stimuli because they were both long narratives with complex plots and relationships among characters, and they involved different sensory modalities (one audio only and one audiovisual), which enabled us to investigate high-level cognitive states of engagement that are not specific to sensory modality (47). ...
Article
As we comprehend narratives, our attentional engagement fluctuates over time. Despite theoretical conceptions of narrative engagement as emotion-laden attention, little empirical work has characterized the cognitive and neural processes that comprise subjective engagement in naturalistic contexts or its consequences for memory. Here, we relate fluctuations in narrative engagement to patterns of brain coactivation and test whether neural signatures of engagement predict subsequent memory. In behavioral studies, participants continuously rated how engaged they were as they watched a television episode or listened to a story. Self-reported engagement was synchronized across individuals and driven by the emotional content of the narratives. In functional MRI datasets collected as different individuals watched the same show or listened to the same story, engagement drove neural synchrony, such that default mode network activity was more synchronized across individuals during more engaging moments of the narratives. Furthermore, models based on time-varying functional brain connectivity predicted evolving states of engagement across participants and independent datasets. The functional connections that predicted engagement overlapped with a validated neuromarker of sustained attention and predicted recall of narrative events. Together, our findings characterize the neural signatures of attentional engagement in naturalistic contexts and elucidate relationships among narrative engagement, sustained attention, and event memory.
... Story psychologists frame the narration as instructions that guide story understanding (Gernsbacher et al., 1990). The fabula in the audience's mind is termed the situation model-a mental representation of the virtual world and the events that have transpired within it, formed from information both explicitly-narrated and inferable-from a narration (Zwaan and Radvansky, 1998). ...
Article
Various knowledge sources have been hypothesized to relate to individual differences in reading comprehension skill in developing readers. We present results from two studies using explanatory item-response models to examine the unique role of knowledge in predicting reading and listening comprehension in 5th grade students (mean age of 10.77 years). In study 1, we investigated the importance of different knowledge sources for comprehending grade-level passages. Participants were 254 students with a range of reading abilities. We found that passage-specific topic familiarity, general academic knowledge, and vocabulary knowledge were all significantly associated with the probability of correctly answering questions about a passage. In study 2, we examined the possible transfer mechanisms that allow knowledge in one area to influence comprehension in a related but unfamiliar area. Participants were 26 students embedded in an Interactive Humanities course focusing on the Renaissance period. Students listened to parallel passages on Guttenberg and the printing press and Twitter use in the Arab Spring and answered comprehension questions. The probability of answering a question about the novel Twitter passage was significantly predicted by the ability to answer the corresponding question on the familiar printing press passage. Results point to the importance of knowledge sources in accounting for variance in comprehension performance.
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This study employed cognitive diagnostic modeling to examine whether learners' performance on the common subskills of listening and reading varied across modalities and performance levels, aiming to provide a better understanding of the similarities and differences between listening and reading in the Chinese EFL context. Specifically, we retrofitted a large-scale EFL test taken by 797 non-English-major undergraduates. We utilized the G-DINA package in R to obtain test takers’ mastery patterns of global and local subskills in the listening and reading tests and further compared them through a mixed-design ANOVA. The results showed that the comprehension subskills were manifested similarly in listening and reading, but a modality effect did exist. Learners generally performed worse in listening and their mastery status of local and global skills was significantly different across modalities in that learners fulfilled global tasks better in listening and local tasks better in reading. The high-performing group mastered global skills better in listening and local skills better in reading while the low-performing group mastered global skills better in both listening and reading. The findings of the study provide backing for a modality effect in L2 comprehension, encouraging comprehension theorists and language teachers to reconsider the value of the modality-specific characteristics.
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Cette etude examine les differences individuelles dans la maniere dont les lecteurs integrent des mots successifs dans leur representation d'un texte. Elle met l'accent sur le role du travail mnemonique et sur son interaction avec les caracteristiques du texte a lire, etudiee par l'introduction de contradictions dans les elements du texte
Chapter
This chapter presents a collection of theoretical and empirical arguments against the separation of testing from a theory of cognition. It describes a general model of cognition and presents some of its implications for individual differences. The chapter presents a number of experiments, which relate the model to the present tests of intelligence and considers the implications of these results for both psychometrics and cognitive psychology, indicating some directions for future research. The theoretical model used is the Distributed Memory model, which is representative of a class of models acceptable to the majority of experimental psychologists interested in cognition. The theoretical approach underlying the distributed memory model is that the brain can be thought of as a computing system, and that as such it has a physical and implied logical construction which is called its system architecture. The physical structures comprising the system architecture are exercised by control processes analogous to programs in an actual computer.